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919 Spence (Lewis) AN ENCYCLO- 
PAEDIA OF OCCULTISM— a Compendium 
of Information on the Occult Sciences, 
Occult Personalities, Psychic Science, 
Magic, Demonology, Spiritism and Mystic- 
ism, small 4to, cloth, 1920 16/6 

Sept la^- 



AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF OCCULTISM 



An Encyclopaedia of Occultism 



A Compendium of Information on 
THE OCCULT SCIENCES, OCCULT PERSONALITIES, PSYCHIC 
SCIENCE, MAGIC, DEMONOLOGY, SPIRITISM AND MYSTICISM 



BY 

LEWIS SPENCE 

Author of The Myths of Mexico and Pent, A Dictionary of Meditsval Romance, The Myths of Ancient Egypt. 

Legends of Brittany, etc. etc. 



LONDON : 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LTD., 

BROADWAY HOUSE, 68-74. CARTER LANE, E.C. 
1920 



TO MY WIFE, 

WHO BELIEVES IN ME RATHER THAN IN MY BELIEFS. 



PREFACE 

In attempting to compile a volume which might serve as a handbook or work of reference 
to the several occult sciences, I have not lost sight of the extensive character ot the subject, 
which, now that I have completed my task, is more than ever painfully perceptible. Excur- 
sions into the literature of the occult, of a somewhat extensive kind, led me to the belief 
that popular misconceptions concerning its several branches were many and varied. Regard- 
ing definitions there did not appear to be any substantial agreement, and application to 
encyclopaedias and ordinary works of reference generally resulted in disappointment. That 
a department of human thought so pregnant with interest and so abounding in vitality should 
not hitherto have been reduced to presentation in reference form struck me as singular ; 
and I resolved to do what I could to supply what seemed to me a very real literary and scientific 
necessity. That I have been entirely successful is too much to hope. But I have made a 
beginning, and this volume may inspire a more worthy hand to the compilation of a more 
perfect handbook of the subject. 

The science of Anthropology has of late years done much to elucidate questions relating 
to the origins of magic, and in writing this volume I have freely applied its principles. I have 
not, however, permitted scientific considerations to blind me to the marvellous and romantic 
character of the material in which I have laboured. Indeed, I am convinced that had I in any 
way attempted to subvert this innate quality of the occult to purely scientific considera- 
tions — however worthy of statement — the romance inherent in it would, by reason of its very 
native force have defeated such an intention, and, even if arrayed in the poorest of verbiage, 
would still retain its marvellous powers of attraction, no estimate of which can be too high. 

I have relegated the subject of methods and theories to the introduction. It remains 
to thank the many kind friends who have assisted me actively and by advice in the compilation 
of this volume. My assistants, Miss Mavie Jack and Miss K. Nixey, have placed me under a 
deep debt of obligation by their careful collection, arrangement and independent work upon 
the extensive literature relative to psychic science. To Mr. David MacRitchie, F.S.A. (Scot.), 
F. R.A.I. , late President of the Gypsy Lore Society, I owe thanks for the article " Gypsies." 
The late Lieut. ■ William Begg collected much Theosophical matter ; and Mr. W. G. Blaikie 
Murdoch has rendered me the greatest assistance with difficult biographical material. My 
lamented friend, the late Mr. A. J. B. Graham, greatly smoothed my path by throwing light 
on legal questions. 

I have not burdened the articles with references, but have supplied a bibliographical 

appendix. 

L. S. 

66, Arden Street, 

EDINBURGH. 

(ix) 



INTRODUCTION 

The sciences known as " occult " may with every reason be regarded as the culture-grounds 
of the science of to-day. As everyone knows, alchemy was the forerunner of chemistry, 
astrology the direct ancestor of astronomy, and magnetism of hypnotism. But these sub- 
jects and their kindred arts have another claim upon our attention and interest, for in their 
evolution we can trace many of the beginnings of philosophic and ethical processes, the 
recovery of which renders their examination and study as important to the whole under- 
standing of the history of man as that of theology or the new mythology. 

A generation ago it was the fashion to sneer at the occult sciences. But to-day, men 
of science in the foremost files of thought have placed them on the dissecting slab as fit subjects 
for careful examination. The result of their analysis during the past twenty years, if it 
has not permitted us to pierce the veil which divides man and the " supernatural," has, at 
all events, served to purge our sight sufficiently to enable us to see things on this side of 
it with a clearer vision, and to regard such researches with a more tolerant eye than hitherto. 
For example the fact of ghostly appearances is proven, whatever may be their nature, hallu- 
cinatory or otherwise, gold has been manufactured, if in small quantities, the theory of thought 
transference is justified, and hypnotism is utilised in ordinary medical practice. 

It is perhaps necessary that in introducing such a work as this, the author should express 
his own beliefs regarding the subject. Concerning psychical science I firmly believe that 
there are " more things in heaven and earth " than our philosophy dreams of, but the vast 
mass of evidential matter I have perused leads me to the conclusion that as yet we have 
merely touched the fringes of the extra-terrestrial, and that we must rely upon psychology 
rather than so-called material proof to bring us further enlightenment. 

As regards magic, it will be seen that I have paid considerable attention to the scientific 
or anthropological theories concerning it. -But let not the lover of that wondrous mani- 
festation of the human imagination dread that he has been robbed of the mystery which 
clings to it as darkness cleaves to night. I have amply provided for him in a hundred places, 
and if I have attempted to summarise current scientific hypotheses concerning magic, I have 
done so principally for the sake of completeness. 

I may perhaps be pardoned if at this juncture I touch briefly upon a suspicion which 
I have refrained from including in the article on Magic, for the reason that it has not as yet 

(xi) 



xii INTRODUCTION 

blossomed into a theory. I have for some time been of the opinion that what is known as 
" sympathetic " and " mimetic " magic is not of the magical species — that in short it does not 
partake of the nature of magic at all. When the savage performs an act of sympathetic 
" magic," " rain-making " for instance, he does not regard it as magical — that is, it does not 
contain any element of wonder to his way of thinking. He regards it as a cause which is certain 
to bring about an effect. Now the true magic of wonder argues from effect to cause, so it 
would appear as if sympathetic magic were merely a species of proto-science, due to mental 
processes entirely similar to those by which scientific laws are produced, and scientific acts 
are performed — that there is an odour of certainty about it which is not found, for example, 
in the magic of evocation. 

Although in every way in sympathy with the spirit of the esoteric societies, I have ven- 
tured to express my disbelief in the occult knowledge of the generality of their members. 
I am afraid, too, that I fail to grasp the arguments advanced by students of the secret tradition 
which plead for a belief in the "church existing before the foundations of the world," and the 
" inner sanctuaries " of Christianity. I fancy most readers will agree with me that it would be 
extremely difficult to raise anything like a respectable membership for such an institution, 
and as for its prehistoric existence, that is obviously a matter for the student of mythology. 
That both are the product of mystical foppery and vanity is only too painfully apparent. 
A church which is alien to the bulk of humanity can possess little of the true spirit of Christi- 
anity. But I must not be conceived as deriding genuine mysticism and in this connection I 
would advise all interested in the Grand Quest, advanced as well as neophyte, to peruse a 
recent admirable article by Mr. A. E. Waite, which appeared in " The Occult Review" for 
September, 1919, which seems to me to define the aims of the mystic once and for all. 

In closing my task I feel deeply^impressed by the vastness of the themes which I have 
so unworthily and inadequately handled during the compilation of this volume. My attempt 
has been to present to the generaUreader a conspectus of the Occult Sciences as a whole ; 
and if experts in any one of those sciences observe any inaccuracy which calls for correction, 
I will be deeply obliged to them if they will bring it to my notice. 

L.S. 

66, Arden Street, 

EDINBURGH. 



SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The works comprised in the following Bibliography have been selected on account of their suitability to supply the 
reader with a general view of the several branches of occult science. Modern works in English have, for the most part, 
been preferred to ancient or to foreign authorities, in an endeavour to render the list of service to those approaching 
the subject for the first time. In many cases Bibliographies have already been appended to the more exhaustive articles, 
and where this has been done, reference has been made to the article in question. 

ALCHEMY. See article " Alchemy." 

ASTROLOGY. W. Lilly [1602-81], Introduction to Astrology, edited by ' Zadkiel ' (Lt, R. J. Morrison]. Bohn's Library, 
1852 ; new edition, 1893. 
Alan Leo, Practical Astrology. New edition. Wooderson, 191 1. 

H. T. Waite, Compendium of Natal Astrology and Universal Ephemeris. Kegan Paul, 1917. {See also article " Astro- 
logy-") 

DEMONOLOGY. A. E. Waite, Devil Worship in France. Kegan Paul, 1896. 

Sir Walter Scott, Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft [1830]. Routledge, n. d. 

J. Beaumont, Treatise on Spirits, Apparitions, and Witchcraft, 1705. 

A. Calmet, The Phantom World [1751], translated with notes by H. Christmas, 2 vols., Bentley, 1850. 

Becker, Le Monde Enchante. 

MAGIC. ' Eliphas Levi ' [L. A. Constant], History of Magic [i860], translated by A. E. Waite. Rider, 1913. 
' Eliphas Levi ' The Mysteries of Magic [1861], translated by A. E. Waite. Kegan Paul, 1886. 

,, ,, Transcendental Magic, translated by A. E. Waite. 

A. E. Waite, Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. Kegan Paul, 1898. 

W. H. Davenport Adams, Witch, Warlock, and Magician ; historical sketches. Chatto, 1889. 
W. Godwin, Lives of the Necromancers (1834]. New edition. Chatto, 1876. 

E. Salverte, The Philosophy of Magic, Prodigies, and Apparent Miracles, [translation of his Des Sciences Occultes] 

2 vols. Bentley, 1846. 

F. Hartmann, Magic, Black and White [Madras, n. d.] New edition. Kegan Paul, 1893. 

Francis Barrett, The Magus, or Celestial Intelligencer [1801]. New edition. Theosophical Pub. Soc, 1896. 
F. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic; translated [by W. R. Cooper]. Bagster, n. d. [1877].- 
Lewis Spence, Myths of Ancient Egypt. Harrap, 1915. 

„ ,, Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. Harrap, 1916. 

(Both the above include chapters on Magic.) 
D. L. Macgregor Mathers, The Key of Solomon the King (Clavicula Solomonis) [1888}. New edition Kegan Paul 1909 
J. A. S. Collin de Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernel. 6th edition. Paris, 1863. 

J. P. Migne [ed.], Dictionnaire des Sciences Occultes, forming vols, xlviii-ix. of the First Series of the Encyclopedic 
Theologique. 

MYSTICISM ; MYSTERIES. A. E. Waite, New Light of Mysteries : Azoth, or the Star in the East. Theosophical Pub 
Soc, 1893. c 

A. E. Waite, The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail, its Legends and Symbolism. Rebman 1909 
Studies in Mysticism and Certain Aspects of the Secret Tradition. Hodder, 1906 
„ ,, The Real History of the Rosicrucians. Kegan Paul, 1887. 

,, ,, The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah. 1902. 

F. Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithra ; translated by T. J. McCormack. Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago 1903 

G. R. S. Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten [Gnosticism]. Theosophical Pub. Soc. 1900. 

„ ,, Thrice-Greatest Hermes : Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis. 3' vols. 1906 
„ ,, Introduction to Plotinus. Theosophical Pub. Soc, 1899. 
,, „ Echoes from the Gnosis. 
Evelyn Underhill [Mrs. Stuart-Moore], Mysticism : a study in the nature and development of man's spiritual con- 
sciousness. Methuen, n. d. [1911]. 
Evelyn Underhill, The Mystic Way : a psychological study in Christian Origins. Dent 1913 
Iamblichus (4th cent., A.D.], Theurgia, or the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians ; translated by 

T. Taylor. 2nd edition. Dobell, 1895. 
Hargrave Jennings, The Rosicrucians, their Rites and Mysteries [1870]. 4th edition. Routledge 1907 
Jacob Boehme [1575-1624], Works ; translated. Glasgow, 1886. ' 

I. de Steiger, On a Gold Basis : a Treatise on Mysticism. Wellby, 1907. 

Carl Du Prel, The Philosophy of Mysticism ; translated by C. C. Massey, 2 vols. Kegan Paul 1889. 
Em. Swedenborg, Treatise concerning Heaven and Hell (De Coelo et de Inferno] ; translated by J. W. Hancock. 
Swedenborg Society, 1850. 



SPIRITUALISM. E. Gurnay, F. W. H. Myers, and F. Podmore, Phantasms of the Living [1886]. Edited and abridged 
by Mrs. Henry Sidgwick. Kegan Paul (Dutton, New York), 1918. 
F. Podmore, Modern Spiritualism : a history and a criticism, 2 vols. Methuen, 1902. 

„ ,, The Newer Spiritualism. Unwin, 1910. 

Allan Kardec, The Book of Spirits. Kegan Paul, 1898. 
J. Arthur Hill, New Evidences in Psychical Research. Rider, 191 1. 

,, „ Spiritualism : its History, Phenomena, and Doctrine. Cassell, 1918. 

Man is a Spirit : a collection of spontaneous cases of dream, vision, and ecstasy. Cassell, 1918. 
Sir W. Barrett, The Threshold of the Unseen [1917]. Kegan Paul, 1919 
F. Myers, Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death, 2 vols., Longman, 1903. Abridged by L. H. Myers 

[his son], 1907. 
Sir O. Lodge, Raymond, or Life and Death. Methuen, 191 6. 
J. W. Frings, Life Everlasting and Psychic Evolution. 
J. H. Hyslop, Life after Death. Dutton, New York (Kegan Paul), 1919. 
Society of Psychical Research. Proceedings ; and journal. 1882 sqq. 

THEOSOPHY. Lilian Edge, Elements of Theosophy. Theosophical Pub. Soc. 1903. 
Annie Besant, Popular Lectures on Theosophy. Theosophical Pub. Soc, 1910. 

,, „ Evolution of Life and Form. Theosophical Pub. Soc. 

Ethel Mallet, First Steps in Theosophy. Lotus Journal Office, 1905. 
H. P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled : the Master Key to Ancient and Modern Mysteries, 2 vols. [1877]. New York, 1891. 

,, „ The Key to Theosophy [1889]. 3rd edition. Theosophical Pub. Soc, 1893. 

A. P. Sinnett, The Occult World [1881]. 4th edition. Theosophical Pub. Soc, 1885. 
„ ,, Expanded Theosophical Knowledge. Theosophical Book Shop. 1918. 

WITCHCRAFT. Thos. Wright, Narratives of Sorcery and Magic. 2 vols. Bentley, 1851. 
C. G. Leland, Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches of Italy. Scribner, New York, 1899. 

,, ,, Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune-Telling. Unwin, 1891. 

F. T. El worthy, The Evil Eye. Murray, 1895. 

R. C. Thompson, Semitic Magic, its Origins and Development. Luzac, 1908. 
J. Glanvil, Saducismus Triumphatus : Evidences concerning Witches, Apparitions, and Witchcraft [1681], 4th edition, 

1726. 
C. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Historical Account of Belief in Witchcraft in Scotland [1819] Morison, Glasgow, 1884. 
W. G. Sold an, Geschichte der Hexenprocesse [1843], herausgegeben von H. Heppe. 2 vols. Gotta, Stuttgart, 1880. 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF OCCULTISM 



Ab : (Semitic magical month). Crossing a river on the 20th 
of that month was supposed to bring sickness. In ancient 
texts it states that if a man should eat the flesh of swine 
on the 30th of Ab, he will be plagued with boils. 

Abaddon : (The Destroyer). Chief of the demons of the 
seventh hierarchy. Abaddon is the name given by St. 
John in the Apocalypse to the king of the grasshoppers. 
He is sometimes regarded as the destroying angel. 

Abadie (Jeannette) : A young sorceress of the village of 
Sibourre, in Gascony. She was sleeping one day in her 
father's house while high mass was being said. A demon, 
profiting by the opportunity, carried her off to the Devil's 
Sabbath, where she soon awoke to find herself in the midst 
of a large company. She observed that the principal 
demon had on his head two faces, like Janus. She did not 
participate in the revelry, and was transported to her home 
by the same means as she had been conveyed thence. On 
the threshold she found her amulet, which, the demon had 
taken the precaution to remove from her bosom before 
carrying her off. She made a confession of all that had 
happened, renounced her sorcery, and thus saved herself 
from the common fate of witches and sorcerers — the stake. 

Abaiis : A Scythian, high priest of Apollo, and renowned 
magician. In so flattering a manner did he chant the 
praises of Apollo, his master, that the god gave him a 
golden arrow, on which he could ride through the air like 
a bird, so that the Greeks called him the Aerobate. Pytha- 
goras, his pupil, stole this arrow from him, and accom- 
plished many wonderful feats by its aid. Abaris foretold 
the future, pacified storms, banished disease, and lived 
without eating or drinking. He made with the bones of 
Pelops, a statue of Minerva, which he sold to the Trojans 
as a talisman descended from heaven. This was the 
famous Palladium, which, protected and rendered im- 
pregnable the town wherein it was lodged. 

Abdelazys : An Arabian astrologer of the tenth century, 
generally known in Europe by his Latin name of Alchabi- 
tius. His treatise on astrology was so much prized that 
it was translated into Latin and printed in 1473. Other 
editions have since appeared, the best being that of Venice 
(1503) entitled Alchabitius cum commento. Translated by 
John of Seville. (Hispalensis.) 

Aben-Ragel : An Arabian astrologer, born at Cordova, at 
the beginning of the fifth century. He was the author of 
a book of horoscopes according to the inspection of the 
stars, a Latin translation of which was published at Venice, 
1485, under the title of De Judiciis seu fatis stellarum. It 
was said that his predictions were fulfilled in a remarkable 
manner. 

Abigor : According to Wierius (q.v.), Grand Duke of Hades. 
He is shown in the form of a handsome knight, bearing 
lance, standard, or sceptre. He is a demon of the superior 
order, and responds readily to questions concerning war. 
He can foretell the future, and instructs the leaders how 
to make themselves respected by the soldiers. Sixty of 
the infernal regions are at his command. 

Abishai : (See Devil.) 

Abou-Ryhan : An Arabian astrologer whose real name was 
Mohammed-ben-Ahmed, to whom is ascribed the intro- 
duction of Judicial Astrology (q.v.) Many stories were told 



of him in the East, to show that he possessed in an extra- 
ordinary degree the power to read the future. 

Abra Melin : (See Abraham the Jew.) 

Abracadabra : A magical word said to be formed from the 
letters of the abraxas, and written thus : 
A 
A B 
A B R 
ABRA 
A B R A C 
A B R A C A 
A B R A C A D 
ABRACADA 
ABRACADAB 
ABRACADABR 
ABRACADABRA 
or the reverse way. The pronunciation of this word, 
according to Julius Africanus, was equally efficacious 
either way. By Serenus Sammonicus it was used as a 
spell to cure asthma. Abracalan or aracalan is another 
form of the word, and is said to have been regarded as 
the name of a god in Syria and as a magical symbol by the 
Jews. But it seems doubtful whether the abracadabra, 
or its synonyms, was really the name of a deity or not. 
(See Abraxas.) 

Abraham, The Jew : (Alchemist and magician, circa, 1400). 
Comparatively few biographical facts are forthcoming 
concerning this German Jew, who was at once alchemist, 
magician and philosopher ; and these few facts are mostly 
derived from a very curious manuscript, now domiciled in 
the Archives of the Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal, Paris, an 
institution rich in occult documents. This manuscript is 
couched throughout in French, but purports to be literally 
translated from Hebrew, and the style of the handwriting 
indicates that the scribe lived at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, or possibly somewhat earlier. A 
distinct illiteracy characterises the French script, the 
punctuation being inaccurate, indeed frequently conspicuous 
by its absence, but an actual description of the document 
must be waived till later. A braham was probably a narive 
of Mayence, and appears to have been born in 1362. We find 
that his father, Simon by name, was something of a seer and 
magician, and that the boy accordingly commenced 
his occult studies under the parental guidance, while at 
a later date he studied under one, Moses, whom he him- 
self describes as " indeed a good man, but entirely ignorant 
of The True Mystery, and of The Veritable Magic." Leav- 
ing this preceptor, Abraham decided to glean knowledge 
by travelling, and along with a friend called Samuel, 
a Bohemian by birth, he wandered through Austria and 
Hungary into Greece, and thence penetrated to Con- 
stantinople, where he remained fully two years. He is 
found next in Arabia, in those days a veritable centre of 
mystic learning ; and from Arabia he went to Palestine, 
whence betimes he proceeded to Egypt. Here he had 
the good fortune to make the acquaintance of Abra- 
Melin, the famous Egyptian philosopher, who, besides 
entrusting to him certain documents, confided in him by 
word of mouth a number of invaluable secrets ; and 
armed thus, Abraham left Egypt for Europe, where eventu- 



Abraham 



Adam 



ally he settled at Wurzburg in Germany. Soon he was 
deep in alchemistic researches, but these did not prevent 
him from espousing a wife, who appears to have been his 
cousin ; and by her he had three daughters and also two 
sons, the elder named Joseph and the younger Lamech. 
He took great pains to instruct both of them in occult 
affairs, while, on each of his three daughters, he settled a 
dowry of a hundred thousand golden florins. This con- 
siderable sum, together with other vast wealth, he claims 
to have gained by travelling as an alchemist ; and whatever 
the truth of this statement, he certainly won great fame, 
being summoned to perform acts of magic before many 
rich and influential people, notably the Emperor Sigismund 
of Germany, the Bishop of Wurzburg, King Henry VI. of 
England, the Duke of Bavaria, and Pope John XXIII. 
The remainder of Abraham's career is shrouded in mystery, 
while even the date of his death is uncertain, but it is 
commonly supposed to have occurred about 1460. 

The curious manuscript cited above, and from which the 
foregoing facts have been culled, is entitled The Book of 
the Sacred Magic of Abra.-Melin, as delivered by Abraham 
the Jew unto his son Lamech. This title, however, is rather 
misleading, and not strictly accurate, for Abra-Melin had 
absolutely no hand in the opening part of the work, 
this consisting of some account of Abraham's own 
youth and early travels in search of wisdom, along with 
advice to the young man aspiring to become skilled in 
occult arts. The second part, on the other hand, is based 
on the documents which the Egyptian sage handed to 
the Jew, or at least on the confidences wherewith the former 
favoured the latter ; and it may be fairly accurately 
defined as dealing with the first principles of magic in 
general, the titles of some of the more important chapters 
being as follows : " How Many, and what are the Classes 
of Veritable Magic ? " " What we Ought to Take into 
Consideration before the Undertaking of the Operation," 
" Concerning the Convocation of the Spirits," and " In 
what Manner we ought to Carry out the Operations." 
Passing to the third and last part, this likewise is mostly 
derived straight from Abra-Melia ; and here the author, 
eschewing theoretical matter as far as possible, gives 
information about the actual practice of magic. In the 
first place he tells how " To procure divers Visions," 
" How one may retain the Familiar Spirits, bound or free, 
in whatsoever form," and how " To excite Tempests," 
while in one chapter he Ireats of raising the dead, another 
he devotes to the topic of transforming oneself into " divers 
shapes and forms," and in further pages he descants on 
flying in the air, on demolishing buildings, on discovering 
thefts, and on walking under the water. Then he dilates on 
the Thaumaturgic healing of leprosy, dropsy, paralysis, 
and various more common ailments such as fever and sea- 
sickness, while he offers intelligence on " How to be be- 
loved by a Woman," and this he supplements by directions 
for commanding the favour of popes, emperors, and other 
influential people. Finally, he reverts to the question of 
summoning visions, and his penultimate chapter is en- 
titled, " How to cause Armed Men to Appear," while his 
concluding pages treat of evoking " Comedies, Operas, 
and all kinds of Music and Dances." 

It is by employing Kabalistic squares of letters that all 
these things are to be achieved, or at least, almost all of 
them, and lack of space makes it impossible to deal with 
the many different signs of this sort, whose use the seer 
counsels. But it behoves to ask what manner of personal- 
ity exhales from these curious pages ? What kind of 
temp.erament ? And the answer is that Abraham is shown 
as a man of singularly narrow mind, heaping scorn 
on most other magicians, and speaking with great derision 
of nearly all mystical writings save his own and those of his 



hero, Abra-Melin Moreover, he inveighs fiercely against 
all those who recant the religion in which they were bred, 
and contends that no one guilty of this will ever attain 
skill in magic ; yet it should be said, in justice to the seer, 
that he manifests little selfishness, and seems to have 
striven after success in his craft with a view to using it 
for the benefit of mankind in general. His writings reflect 
besides, a firm belief in that higher self existing in every 
man, and a keen desire to develop it. {See Flamel.) 
Abraxas : (or Abracax). The Basilidian (q.v.,) sect of 
Gnostics, of the second century, claimed Abraxas as their 
supreme god, and said that Jesus Christ was only a phantom 
sent to earth by him. They believed that his name con- 
tained great mysteries, as it was composed of the seven 
Greek letters which form the number 365, which is also the 
number of days in a year. Abraxas, they thought, had 
under his command 365 gods, to whom they attributed 
365 virtues, one for each day. The older Mythologists 
placed him among the number of Egyptian gods, and 
demonologists have described him as a demon, with the 
head of a king and with serpents forming his feet. He is 
represented on ancient amulets, with a whip in his hand. 
It is from his name that the mystic word, Abracadabra 
(q.v.) is taken. Many stones and gems cut in various 
symbolic forms, such as the head of a fowl, a serpent, and 
so forth, were worn by the Basilidians as amulets. 
Abred : The innermost of three concentric circles represent- 
ing the totality of being in the British Celtic cosmogony. 
(See Celts.) The stage of struggle and evolution against 
Cythrawl, the power of evil. (See also BardJas.) 
Absolute (Theosophist) : Of the Absolute, the Logos, the Word 
of God, Theosophists profess to know nothing further 
than that it exists. The universes with their solar systems 
are but the manifestations of this Being, which man is 
capable of perceiving, and all of them are instinct with him, 
but what man can perceive is not the loftier manifestations 
but the lower. Man himself is an emanation from the 
Absolute with which he will ultimately be re-united. 
Abyssum : A herb used in the ceremony of exorcising a 
haunted house. It is signed with the sign of the cross, 
and hung up at the four corners of the house. 
Aeherat : (See Cagliostro.) 

Achmet : An Arabian soothsayer of the ninth century. He 
wrote a book on The Interpretation of Dreams, following 
the doctrines of the East. The original is lost, but the 
Greek and Latin translations were printed at Paris, in 1603. 
Aconee (Jacques) : Curate of the diocese of Trent, who 
became a Calvinist in 1557, and came to England, 
While there he dedicated to Queen Elizabeth his famous 
work, on The Stratagems of Satan. This book, however; 
is not, as its title might indicate, a dissertation on demono- 
logy, but a spirited attack on intolerance. 
Adalbert : A French pseudo-mystic of the eighth century. 
He boasted that an angel had brought him reMcs of extra- 
ordinary sanctity from all parts of the earth. He claimed 
to be able to foretell the future, and to read thoughts. " I 
know what you have done," he would say to the people, 
" there is no need for confession. Go in peace, your sins 
are forgiven." His so-called " miracles " gained for him 
the awe of the multitude, and he was in the habit of giving 
away parings of his nails and locks of his hair as powerful 
amulets. He is even said to have set up an altar in his own 
name. In his history of his life, of which only a fragment 
remains, he tells us of miraculous powers bestowed by an 
angel at his birth. He showed to his disciples a letter 
which he declared had been brought to him from Jesus 
Christ by the hand of St. Michael. These, and similar 
blasphemies were put an end to by his being cast 
into prison, where he died. 
Adam, Book of the Penitence of : A manuscript in the Library 



Adam 



Adonai 



of the Arsenal at Paris, which deals with Kabalistic 
tradition. It recounts how the sons of Adam, Cain and 
Abel, typifying brute force and intelligence, slew each 
other, and that Adam's inheritance passed to his third son, 
Seth. Seth, it is stated, was permitted to advance as far 
as the gate of the Earthly Paradise without being threat- 
ened by the guardian angel with his naming sword, which 
is to say that he was an initiate of occult science. He 
beheld the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge, which 
had become grafted upon each other so that they formed 
one tree. This is supposed by some to have symbolised 
the harmony of science and religion in the Kabala. The 
guardian angel presented Seth with three seeds from this 
tree, directing him to place them within the mouth of his 
father, Adam, when he expired. From this planting arose 
the burning bush out of which God communicated to 
Moses his holy name, and from a part of which Moses made 
his magic wand. This was placed in the Ark of the Coven- 
ant, and was planted by King David on Mount Zion, grew 
into a triple tree and was cut down by Solomon to form 
the pillars, Jachin and Boaz, which were placed at the 
entrance to the Temple. A third portion was inserted 
in the threshold of the great gate, and acted as a talisman, 
permitting no unclean thing to enter the sanctuary. Cer- 
tain wicked priests removed it however for purposes of their 
own, weighted it with stones, and cast it into the Temple 
reservoir, where it was guarded by an angel, who kept it 
from the sight of men. During the lifetime of Christ the 
reservoir was drained and the beam of wood discovered and 
thrown across the brook Kedron, over which our Saviour 
passed after his apprehension in the Garden of Olives. 
It was. taken by his executioners and made into the cross. 
In this legend we can see a marked similarity to those from 
which the conception of the Holy Grail arose. Man is 
restored by the wood through the instrumentality of which 
Adam, the first man, fell. The idea that the Cross was a 
cutting of the Tree of Knowledge was widespread in the 
middle ages, and may be found in the twelfth century 
Quete del St. Graal, ascribed to Walter Map, but probably 
only redacted by him. All the Kabalistic traditions 
are embodied in the allegory contained in the Book of the 
Penitence of Adam, and it undoubtedly supplements and 
throws considerable light on the entire Kabalistic literature. 
Adam, (L'Abbe) : About the time that the Templars were 
being driven from France, the Devil appeared, under various 
guises, to the Abbe Adam, who was journeying, attended 
by one of the servants from his convent, to a certain part 
of his abbacy of the Vaux de Cernay. The evil spriit first 
opposed the progress of the worthy Abbe under the form 
of a tree white with frost, which rushed towards him with 
inconceivable swiftness. The Abbe's horse trembled with 
fear, as did the servant, but the Abbe himself made the 
sign of the Cross, and the tree disappeared. The good man 
concluded that he had seen the Devil, and called upon the 
Virgin to protect him. Nevertheless, the fiend shortly 
reappeared in the shape of a furious black knight. " Be- 
gone," said the Abbe. " Why do you attack me far from 
my brothers ? " The Devil once more left him, only to 
return in the shape of a tall man, with a long, thin neck. 
Adam, to get rid of him, struck him a blow with his fist. 
The evil spirit shrank and took the stature and counten- 
ance of a little cloaked monk, with a glittering weapon 
under his dress. His little eyes could be seen darting 
and glancing under his cowl. He tried hard to strike the 
Abbe with the sword he held, but the latter repulsed the 
strokes with the sign of the Cross. The demon became in 
turn a pig and a long-eared ass. The Abbe, impatient to 
be gone, made a circle on the ground with a cross in the 
centre. The fiend was then obliged to withdraw to a 
little distance. He changed his long ears into horns, which 



did not hinder the AbM from boldly addressing him. 
Offended by his plain-speaking, the Devil changed himself 
into a barrel and rolled into an adjoining field. In a short 
time he returned in the form of a cart-wheel, and, without 
giving the brother time to put himself on the defensive, 
rolled heavily over his body, without, however, doing him 
any injury. After that he left him to pursue his journey 
in peace. (See Gaguin, Regne de Philippe le Bel, and 
Gerinet, Hist, de la Magie en France, p. 82.) 

Adamantius : A Jewish doctor, who became a Catholic 
at Constantinople in the time of Constantine, to whom he 
dedicated his two books on Physiognomy, or, the art of 
judging people by their faces. This book, full of con- 
tradictions and fantasies, was printed in the Scrip- 
tores Physiognomoniae veteres, of Franzius, at Attembourg, 
in 1780. 

Adamnan : (See Scotland.) 

Addanc of the Lake : A monster that figures in the Mabinogi 
legend of Peredur. Peredur obtains a magic stone which 
renders him invisible, and he thus succeeds in slaying this 
monster, which had daily killed the inhabitants of the 
palace of the King of Tortures. 

Adelung, (Jean Christophe) : A German author, born in 1732, 
who has left a work entitled, Histoire des folies humaines, 
on Biographie des plus celebres necromanciens, alchimistes, 
devins, etc. (Leipsic, 1 785-1 789.) A delung died at Dresden 
in 1806. 

Adepts are men who after stern self-denial and by means of 
consistent self-development, have fitted themselves to 
assist in the ruling of the world. The means by which 
this position is attained is said to be long and arduous, but 
in the end the successful one has fulfilled the purpose for 
which he was created and transcends his fellows. The 
activities of Adepts are multifarious, being concerned with 
the direction and guidance of the activities of the rest of 
mankind. Their knowledge, like their powers, say Theoso- 
phists, far exceeds that of man, and they can control forces 
both in the spiritual and the physical realm, and are said 
to be able to prolong their lives for centuries. They are 
also known as the Great White Brotherhood, Rishis, 
Rahats, or Mahatmas. Those who earnestly desire to 
work for the betterment of the world may become appren- 
tices or chelas to Adepts, in which case the latter are known 
as " masters," but the apprentice must first have practised 
self-denial and self-development in order to become suffi- 
ciently worthy. The master imparts teaching and wisdom 
otherwise unattainable, and helps the apprentice by com- 
munion and inspiration. Madame Blavatsky (q.v.) al- 
leged that she was the apprentice of these masters, and 
claimed that they dwelt in the Tibetan Mountains. The 
term Adept was also employed by mediaeval magicians 
and alchemists to denote a master of their sciences. 

Adhab- Algal : The Mohammedan purgatory, where the 
wicked are tormented by the dark angels Munkir and Nekir. 

Adjuration : A formula of exorcism by which the evil spirit 
is commanded, in the name of God, to do or say what the 
exorcist requires of him. 

Adonai : A Hebrew word signifying " the Lord," and used 
by the Hebrews when speaking or writing of Jehovah, the 
awful and ineffable name of the God of Israel. The 
Jews entertained the deepest awe for this incommuni- 
cable and mysterious name, and this feeling led them to 
avoid pronouncing it and to the substitution of the word 
Adonai for " Jehovah " in their sacred text. This custom 
still prevails among the Jews, who attribute to the pro- 
nouncement of the Holy Name the power of working 
miracles. The Jehovah of the Israelites was their invisible 
protector and king, and no image of him was made. He 
was worshipped according to his commandments, with an 
observance of the ritual instituted through Moses. The 



Adoptive 



Africa 



term " Jehovah " means the revealed Absolute Deity, the 
Manifest, Only, Personal, Holy Creator and Redeemer. 
(See Magic, God, Egypt, Kabala.) 

Adoptive Masonry : Masonic societies which adopt women 
as members. Early in the eighteenth century such 
societies were established in France, and speedily spread 
to other countries. One of the first to " adopt " 
women were the Mopses. The Felicitaries existed in 
1742. The Fendeurs or Woodcutters were instituted 
in 1763 by Bauchaine, Master of a Parisian Lodge. 
It was modelled on the Carbonari, and its popu- 
larity led to the establishment of other lodges, notably 
the Fidelity, the Hatchet, etc. In 1774 the Grand Orient 
Lodge of France established a system of three degrees 
called the Rite of Adoption, and elected the Duchess of 
Bourbon as Grand Mistress of France. The rite has been 
generally adopted into Freemasonry, and various degrees 
added from time to time, to the number of about twelve 
in all. Latin and Greek mysteries were added to the rite 
by the Ladies' Hospitallers of Mount Tabor. The greatest 
ladies in France joined the French lodges of adoption. 
The Rite of Mizraim created lodges for both sexes in 1819, 
1821, 1838 and 1853, and the Rite of Memphis in 1839. 
America founded the Rite of the Eastern Star in five points. 
In these systems admission is generally confined to the 
female relations of Masons. The Order of the Eastern Star 
and that of A doptive Masonry were attempted in Scotland, 
but without success. 

Adrameiech : According to Wierius (q.v.,) Chancellor of the 
infernal regions, Keeper of the Wardrobe of the Demon 
King, and President of the High Council of the Devils. He 
was worshipped at Sepharvaim, an Assyrian town, where 
children were burned on his altar. The rabbis say that he 
shows himself in the form of a mule, or sometimes, of a 
peacock. 

Adventists : (See America, U.S. of.) 

Aeromancy : The art of foretelling future events by the 
observation of atmospheric phenomena, as, for example, 
when the death of a great man is presaged by the ap- 
pearance of a comet. Francois de la Tour Blanche says 
that aeromancy is the art of fortune-telling by means of 
spectres which are made to appear in the air, or the re- 
presentation by the aid of demons, of future events, 
which are projected on the clouds as if by a magic 
lantern. " As for thunder and lightning," he adds, 
" these are concerned with auguries, and the aspect of the 
sky and of the planets belong to the science of astrology." 

Aetites or Aquilaeus : A precious stone of magical properties, 
composed of oxide of iron with a little silex and alumina, 
and said to be found in the stomach or neck of the eagle. 
It is supposed to heal falling sickness, and prevent untimely 
birth. It should be worn bound on the arm to prevent 
abortion, . and on the thigh to aid parturition. 

Africa : (See Arabs, Egypt, Semites. The north of Africa is 
Mohammedan. This applies also to the Sudan and the 
Sahara. For Moorish Magic and Alchemy see Arabs. 
Instances of Arabic sorcery will also be found in the 
article " Semites." In West Africa Obeah is practised, 
for which see West Indies.) 

Magic in savage Africa is of the lower cultus, and chiefly 
of the kind known as " sympathetic." (See Magic.) But 
spiritualistic influence shows itself in fetishism, the cult 
of the dead, ju-ju or witchcraft, and the cult of the witch- 
doctor. 

Bantu Tribes. Among the Zulu and other Bantu tribes 
the cult of witchcraft was practised, but in secret, foi the 
results of detection were terrible. For the tracking of the 
witch, a caste of witch-finders was instituted, called " witch- 
doctors," whose duty it was to " smell out " the offenders. 
These were nearly all women. 



" It is not difficult to understand," says Lady Barker, 
" bearing in mind the superstition and cruelty which 
existed in remote parts of England not so very long ago ; 
how powerful such women become among a savage people, 
or how tempting an opportunity they could furnish of 
getting rid of an enemy. Of course they are exceptional 
individuals ; more observant, more shrewd, and more 
dauntless than the average fat, hard-working Kaffir women, 
besides possessing the contradictory mixture of great 
physical powers and strong hysterical tendencies. They 
work themselves up to a pitch of frenzy, and get to believe 
as firmly in their, own supernatural discernment as any 
individual among the trembling circle of Zulus to whom a 
touch from the whisk they carry is a sentence of instant 
death." 

The Zulu witch-finders are attended by a circle of black 
girls and women, who, like a Greek chorus, clap their hands 
together, and drone through a low monotonous chant, the 
measure and rhythm of which change at times with a stamp 
and a swing. Not less necessary is a ceremonial dress ; 
for such things appeal directly to the imagination of the 
crowd, and prepare them to be readily influenced by the 
necromancer's devices. The " Isinyanga," " Abangoma " 
or " witch-finders," whom Lady Barker describes for us, 
were attired with an eye for effect which would have done 
credit to a London theatre. It will suffice to depict one 
of them, by name Nozinyanga. Her fierce face, spotted 
with gouts of red paint on cheek and brow, was partly 
overshadowed by a helmet-like plume of the tall feathers 
of the sakabula bird. In her right hand she carried a 
light sheaf of assegais or lances, and on her left arm was 
slung a small and pretty shield of dappled ox-hide. Her 
petticoat, made of a couple of large gay handkerchiefs, 
was worn kilt-wise. But if there were little decoration 
in her skirts, the deficiency was more than compensated 
by the bravery of the bead-necklaces, the goat's-hair 
fringes, and the scarlet tassels which covered her from coat 
to waist. Her ample chest rose and fell beneath the 
baldric of leopard skin, fastened across it with huge brazen 
knobs, while down her back hung a beautifully dried and 
flattened skin of an enormous boa-constrictor. 

When the community had resolved that a certain mis- 
fortune was due to the witches, the next step obviously 
would be to detect and punish them. For this purpose 
the king would summon a great meeting, and cause his 
subjects to sit on the ground in a ring or circle for four or 
five days. The witch-finders took their places in the 
centre, and as they gradually worked themselves up to a 
frantic state of frenzy, resembling demoniacal possession, 
they lightly switched with their quagga-tail one or other 
of the trembling spectators, who was immediately dragged 
away and butchered on the spot. And not only he, but 
all the living things in his hut — wives and children, dogs 
and cats — not one was left alive, nor was a stick left stand- 
ing. Sometimes a whole kraal would be exterminated 
in this way, and the reader will perceive how terrible the 
cruel custom could be made to gratify private revenge or 
to work the king's tyrannical inclinations. 

A terrible little sorceress is described by Lady Barker 
under the name of Nozilwane, whose weird wistful glance 
had in it something uncanny and uncomfortable. She 
was dressed beautifully for her part, in lynx skins folded 
over and over from waist to knee, the upper part of her 
body, being covered by strings of avild beasts' teeth and 
fangs, beads, skeins of gaily-coloured yarn, strips of snake's 
skin, and fringes of Angora goat fleece. This, as a decora- 
tion, was both graceful and effective ; it was worn round 
the body and above each elbow, and fell in soft white 
flakes among the brilliant colouring and against the dusky 
skin. Lynx-tails depended like lappets on each side of 



Africa 



Africa 



her face, which was over-shadowed and almost hidden 
by a profusion of sakabula feathers. " This bird," says 
Lady Barker, " has a very beautiful plumage, and is 
sufficiently rare for the natives to attach a peculiar value 
and charm to the tail-feathers ; they are like those of a 
young cock, curved and slender, and of a dark chesnut 
colour, with a white eye at the extreme tip of each feather." 
Among all this thick, floating plumage were interspersed 
small bladders, and skewers or pins wrought out of tusks. 
Each witch-finder wore her own hair, or rather wool, 
highly greased and twisted up with twine until it ceases 
to wear the appearance of hair, and hangs around the face 
like a thick fringe, dyed deep red. 

Bent double, and with a creeping, cat-like gait, as if 
seeking a trail, out stepped Nozilwane. Every movement 
of her undulating body kept time to the beat of the girls' 
hands and their low crooning chant. Presently she pre- 
tended to find the thing she sought, and with a series of 
wild pirouettes, leaped into the air, shaking her spears 
and brandishing her little shield like a Bacchante. 
Nowamso, another of the party, was determined that her 
companion should not carry off all the applause, and she 
too, with a yell and a leap, sprang into the dance to the 
sound of louder grunts and harder hand-claps. Nowamso 
showed much anxiety to display her back, where a magni- 
ficent snake skin, studded in a regular pattern with brass- 
headed nails, floated like a stream. She was attired also 
in a splendid kilt of leopard skins, decorated with red 
rosettes, and her toilet was considered more careful and 
artistic than any of the others. Brighter her bangles, 
whiter her goat-fringes, and more elaborately painted her 
face. Nozilwane, however, had youth and a wonderful 
self-reliance on her side. The others, though they all 
joined in and hunted out an imaginary enemy, and in turn 
exulted over his discovery, soon became breathless and 
spent, and were glad when their attendants led them away 
to be anointed and to drink water. 

Central Africa, The magical beliefs of Central and 
Eastern Africa are but little known. They are for the most 
part connected with the cult of the dead and that of the 
fetish. As regards the first: — 

When the dead are weary of staying in the bush, they 
come for one of their people whom they most affect. And 
the spirit will say to the man : " I am tired of dwelling 
in the bush, please to build for me in the town a little house 
as close as possible to your own." And he tells him to 
dance and sing too, and accordingly the man assembles the 
women at night to join in dance and song. 

Then, next day, the people repair to the grave of the 
Obambo, or ghost, and make a rude idol, after which the 
bamboo bier, on which the body is conveyed to the grave, 
and some of the dust of the ground, are carried into a little 
hut erected near the house of the visited, and a white cloth 
is draped over the door. 

It is a curious fact, which seems to show that these peo- 
ple have a legend something like the old Greek myth of 
Charon and the Styx, that in one of the songs chanted 
during this ceremony occurs the following line : " You are 
well dressed, but you have no canoe to carry you across 
to the other side." 

Possession. Epileptic diseases, in almost all uncivilised 
countries, are assumed to be the result of demoniac pos- 
session. In Central Africa the sufferer is supposed to be 
possessed by Mbwiri, and he can be relieved only by the 
intervention of the medicine-man or fetish. In the middle 
of the street a hut is built for his accommodation, and there 
he resides until cured, or maddened, along with the priest 
and his disciples. There for ten days or a fortnight a 
continuous revel is held ; much eating and drinking at the 
expense of the patient's relatives, and unending dances 



to the sound of flute and drum. For obvious reasons the 
fetish gives out that Mbwiri regards good living with 
aversion. The patient dances, usually shamming madness, 
until the epileptic attack comes on, with all its dreadful 
concomitants — the frenzied stare, the convulsed limbs, 
the gnashing teeth, and the foam-flecked lips. The man's 
actions at this period are not ascribed to himself, but to the 
demon which has control of him. When a cure has been 
effected, real or pretended, the patient builds a little fetish- 
house, avoids certain kinds of food, and performs certain 
duties. Sometimes the process terminates in the patient's 
insanity ; he has been known to run away to the bush, 
hide from all human beings, and live o,n the roots and 
berries of the forest. 

•■ These fetish-men," says Read, " are priest doctors, 
like those of the ancient Germans. They have a profound 
knowledge of herbs, and also of human nature, for they 
always monopolise the real power in the state. But it 
is very doubtful whether they possess any secrets save 
that of extracting virtue and poison from plants. During 
the first trip which I made into the bush I sent for one of 
these doctors. At that time I was staying among the 
Shekani, who are celebrated for their fetish. He came 
attended by half-a-dozen disciples. He was a tall man 
dressed in white, with a girdle of leopard's skin, from which 
hung an iron bell, of the same shape as our sheep bells. 
He had two chalk marks over his eyes. I took some of my 
own hair, frizzled it with a burning glass, and gave it to 
him. * He popped it with alacrity into his little grass bag ; 
for white man's hair is fetish of the first order. Then I 
poured out some raspberry vinegar into a glass, drank a 
little of it first, country fashion, and offered it to him. 
telling him that it was blood from the brains of great 
doctors. Upon this he received it with great reverence, 
and dipping his fingers into it as if it was snap-dragon, 
sprinkled with it his forehead, both feet between the two 
first toes, and the ground behind his back. He then handed 
his glass to a disciple, who emptied it, and smacked his 
lips afterwards in a very secular manner. I then desired 
to see a little of his fetish. He drew on the ground with 
red chalk some hieroglyphics, among which I distinguished 
the.circle, the cross, and the crescent. He said that if I 
would give him a fine ' dush,' he would tell me all about it. 
But as he would not take anything in reason, and as I 
knew that he would tell me nothing of very greatimpor- 
tance in public, negotiations were suspended." 

The fetish-man seldom finds a native disposed to question 
his claim of supernatural powers. He is not only a doctor 
and a priest — two capacities in which his influence is 
necessarily very powerful — he is also a witch-finder, and 
this is an office which invests him with a truly formidable 
authority. When a man of worth dies, his death is in- 
variably ascribed to witchcraft, and the aid of the fetish- 
man is invoked to discover the witch. 

When a man is sick a long time, they call Ngembi, and if 
she cannot make him well, the fetish-man. He comes at 
night, in a white dress, with cock's feathers on his head, 
and having his bell and little glass. He calls two or three 
relations together into a room. He does not speak, but 
always looks in his glass. Then he tells them that the 
sickness is not of Mbwiri, nor of Obambo, nor of God, but 
that it comes from a witch. They say to him, " What 
shall we do ? " He goes out and says, " I have told you. 
I have no more to say." They give him a dollar's worth of 
cloth, and every night they gather together in the street, 
and they cry, ' ' I know that man who bewitched my brother. 
It is good for you to make him well." Then the witch 
makes him well. But if the man do not recover they call 
the bush doctor from the Shekani country. He sings in 
the language of the'bush. At night he goes into the street ; 



African 



Agrippa 



all the people flock about him. With a tiger-cat skin in 
his hand, he walks to and fro, until, singing all the while, 
he lays the tiger-skin at the feet of the witch. At the con- 
clusion of his song the people seize the witch, and put him 
or her in chains, saying, " If you don't restore our brother 
to health, we will kill you." 

African Builders' Architects : A mystical association founded 
by one, C. F. Koflen, a German official (1734-1797)- Its 
ostensible object was that of literary culture and intellect- 
ual study, but masonic qualifications were required of its 
members, and it attracted to itself some of the most 
distinguished Continental literati of the period. It had 
branches at Worms, Cologne and Paris. It is asserted 
that it was affiliated with the Society of Alethophilas or 
Lovers of Truth, which, indeed, is the name of one of its 
grades, the designations of which were as follow : Inferior 
Grades : (1) Apprentice of Egyptian Secrets ; (2) Initiate 
into Egyptian Secrets ; (3) Cosmopolitan ; (4) Christian 
Philosopher ; (5) Alethophilos. Higher Grades : (1) 
Esquire ; (2) Soldier ; (3) Knight — thus supplying Egypt- 
ian, Christian and Templar mysteries to the initiate. In 
1806 there was published at Berlin a pamphlet entitled 
A Discovery Concerning the System of the Order of African 
Architects. 

Ag : A red flower used by the natives of Hindustan to pro- 
pitiate their god, Sanee. It is made into a wreath with 
jasoon, also a red-coloured flower, which is hung round the 
neck of the god, who is of a congenial nature. This cere- 
mony is performed by night. 

Agaberte : Daughter of a certain giant called Vagnoste, 
dwelling in Scandinavia. She was a powerful enchantress, 
and was rarely seen in her true shape. Sometimes she 
would take the form of an old woman, wrinkled and bent, 
and hardly able to move about. At one time she would 
appear weak and ill, and at another tall and strong, so that 
her head seemed to touch the clouds. These transforma- 
tions she effected without the smallest effort or trouble. 
People were so struck with her marvels that they believed 
her capable of overthrowing the mountains, tearing up the 
trees, drying up the rivers with the greatest of ease. They 
held that nothing less than a legion of demons must be at 
her command for the accomplishment of her magic feats. 
She seems to be like the Scottish Cailleach Bheur, a nature 
hag. 

Agapis : This is a yellow stone, so called because it promotes 
love or charity. It cures stings and venomous bites, by 
being dipped in water and rubbed over the wound. 

Agares : According to Wierius (q.v.) Grand Duke of the 
eastern region of Hades. He is shown under the form of 
a benevolent lord mounted on a crocodile, and carrying a 
hawk on his fist. The army he protects in battle is indeed 
fortunate, for he disperses their enemies, and puts new 
courage into the hearts of the cowards who fly before 
superior numbers. He distributes place and power, titles 
and prelacies, teaches all languages, and has other equally 
remarkable powers. Thirty-one legions are under his 
command. 

Agate, or Achates : Good against the biting of scorpions or 
serpents, soothes the mind, drives away contagious air, 
and puts a stop to thunder and lightning. It is said also 
to dispose to solitude, promote eloquence, and secure the 
favour of princes. It gives victory over their enemies 
to those who wear it. 

Agathion : A familiar spirit which appears only at mid-day. 
It takes the shape of a man or a beast, or even encloses 
itself in a talisman, bottle, or magic ring. 

Agathodemon : A good demon, worshipped by the Egyptians 
under the shape of a serpent with a human head. The 
dragons or flying serpents venerated by the ancients were 
also called Agathodemons, or good genies. 



Agla : A kabalistic word used by the rabbis for the exorcisms 
of the evil spirit. It is made up of the initial letters of 
the Hebrew words, Athah gabor leolam, Adonai, meaning, 
" Thou art powerful and eternal, Lord." Not only among 
the Jews was this word employed, but among the more 
superstitious Christians it was a favourite weapon with 
which to combat the evil one, even so late as the sixteenth 
century. It is also to be found in many books on magic, 
notably in the Enchiridion of Pope Leo III. 

Aglaophotis : A kind of herb which grows in the deserts 
of Arabia, and which was much used by sorcerers for the 
evocation of demons. Other plants were then employed 
to retain the evil spirits so long as the sorcerer required 
them. 

Agreda (Marie of) : A Spanish nun, who published about the 
middle of the seventeenth century a work entitled, The 
Mystic City of God, a Miracle of the All-powerful, the Abyss 
of Grace : Divine History of the Life of the Most Holy Virgin 
Mary, Mother of God, our Queen and Mistress, manifested 
in these last times by the Holy Virgin to the Sister Marie of 
Jesus, A bbess of the Convent of the Immaculate Conception 
of the town of Agreda, and written by that same Sister by 
order of her Superiors and Confessors. 

This work, which was condemned by the Sorbonne, is a 
pretended account of many strange and miraculous hap- 
penings which befell the Virgin from her birth onwards, 
including a visit to Heaven in her early years, when she 
was given a guard of nine hundred angels. 

Agrippa von Nettesheim, Henry Cornelius (1486-1535) : A 
German soldier and physician, and an adept in alchemy, 
astrology and magic. He was born at Cologne on the 14th 
of September, i486, and educated at the University of 
Cologne. While still a youth he served under Maximilian I. 
of Germany. In 1509 he lectured at the University of 
Dole, but a charge of heresy brought against him by a monk 
named Catilinet compelled him to leave Dole, and he re- 
sumed his former occupation of soldier. In the following 
year he was sent on a diplomatic mission to England, and 
on his return followed Maximilian to Italy, where he passed 
seven years, now serving one noble patron, now another. 
Thereafter he held a post at Metz, returned to Cologne, 
practised medicine at Geneva, and was appointed physician 
to Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I. ; but, on being 
given some task which he found irksome, he left the service 
of his patroness and denounced her bitterly. He then 
accepted a post offered him by Margaret, Duchess of Savoy, 
Regent of the Netherlands. On her death in 1830, he 
repaired to Cologne and Bonn, and thence to France, where 
he was arrested for some slighting mention of the Queen- 
Mother, Louise of Savoy. He was soon released, however, 
and died at Grenoble in 1535. Agrippa was a man of great 
talent and varied attainments. He was acquainted with 
eight languages, and was evidently a physician of no mean 
ability, as well as a soldier and a theologian. He had, 
moreover, many noble .patrons. Yet, notwithstanding 
these advantages, he never seemed to be free from mis- 
fortune ; persecution and financial difficulties dogged his 
footsteps, and in Brussels he suffered imprisonment for 
debt. He himself was in a measure responsible for his 
troubles. He was, in fact, an adept in the gentle art of 
making enemies, and the persecution of the monks with 
whom he frequently came into conflict was bitter and 
increasing. His principal works were a defence of magic, 
entitled De occulta philosophia, which was not published 
until 1 53 1, though it was written some twenty years earlier, 
and a satirical attack on the scientific pretensions of his 
day, De incertitudine et Vanitate Scientiarum et A rtium 
atque Excellentia Verbi Dei Declamatio, also published at 
Antwerp in 1531. His other works included a treatise 
De Nobilitate el Praecellentia Feminu Sexus, dedicated to 



Agrippa 



Alain 



Margaret of Burgundy out of gratitude for her patronage. 
His interest in alchemy and magic dated from an early 
period of his life, and gave rise to many tales of his occult 
powers. It was said that he was always accompanied 
by a familiar in the shape of a large black dog. On his 
death he renounced his magical works and addressed his 
familiar thus : ' ' Begone, wretched animal, the entire cause 
of my destruction ! " The animal fled from the room and 
straightway plunged into the Saom, where it perished. At 
the inns where he stayed, Agrippa paid his bills with money 
that" appeared genuine enough at the time, but which after- 
wards turned to worthless horn or shell, like the fairy 
money which turned to earth after sunset. He is said to 
have summoned Tully to pronounce his oration for Roscius, 
in the presence of John George, elector of Saxony, the 
Earl of Surrey, Erasmus, and other eminent people. Tully 
duly appeared, delivered his famous oration, and left his 
audience deeply moved. Agrippa had a magic glass, 
wherein it was possible to see objects distant in time or 
place. On one occasion Surrey saw therein his mistress, 
the beautiful Geraldine, lamenting the absence of her 
noble lover. 

One other story concerning the magician is worthy of 
record. Once when about to leave home for a short time, 
he entrusted to his wife the key of his museum, warning her 
on no account to permit anyone to enter. But the curiosity 
of a boarder in their house prompted him to beg for the 
key, till at length the harrassed hostess gave it to him. 
The first thing that caught the student's attention was a 
book of spells, from which he began to read. A knock 
sounded on the door. The student took no notice, but 
went on reading, and the knock was repeated. A moment 
later a demon entered, demanding to know why he had 
been summoned. The student was too terrified to make 
reply, and the angry demon seized him by the throat and 
strangled him. At the same moment Agrippa entered, 
having returned unexpectedly from his journey. Fearing 
that he would be charged with the murder of the youth, he 
persuaded the demon to restore him to life for a little while, 
and walk him up and down the market place. The demon 
consented ; the people saw the student apparently alive 
and in good health, and when the demon allowed the 
semblance of life to leave the body, they thought the young 
man had died a natural death. However, an examination 
clearly showed that he had been strangled. The true 
state of affairs leaked out, and Agrippa was forced to flee 
for his life. 

These fabrications of the popular imagination were 
probably encouraged rather than suppressed by Agrippa, 
who loved to surround his comparatively harmless pursuits 
of alchemy and astrology with an air of mystery calculated 
to inspire awe and terror in the minds of the ignorant. 
It is known that he had correspondents in all parts of the 
world, and that from their letters, which he received in his 
retirement, he gleaned the knowledge which he was popu- 
larly believed to obtain from his familiars. 
Ahazu-Demon : (The Seizer). Practically nothing is known 
of this Semitic demon unless it is the same ahazie told of in 
medical texts, where a man can be stricken by a disease bear- 
ing this name. 
Ahi : (See Devil.) 

Ahrimanes : The name given to the Chief of the Cacodaemons, 
or fallen angels, by the Persians and Chaldeans. These 
Cacodaemons were believed to have been expelled from 
Heaven for their sins ; they endeavoured to settle down 
in various parts of the earth, but were always rej ected, and 
out of revenge they find their pleasure in injuring the 
inhabitants. Xenocritus thought that penance and self- 
mortification, though not agreeable to the gods, pacified 
the malice of the Cacodaemons. Ahrimanes and his 



followers finally took up their abode in all the space between 
the earth and the fixed stars, and there established their 
domain, which is called Arhiman-abad. As Ahrimanes 
was the spirit of evil his counterpart in Persian dualism 
was Ormuzd, the creative and benevolent being. (See 
Persia.) 
Ainsarii : An Ishmaelite sect of the Assassins (q.v.) who 
continued to exist after the stronghold of that society was 
destroyed. They held secret meetings for receptions, 
and possessed signs, words, and a catechism. (See The 
Asian Mystery, Rev. C. L. Lyde.) 
Air Assisting Ghosts to become Visible : It was formerly 
believed by some authorities that a ghost was wrapped in 
air, by which means it became visible. Thus a spectre 
might appear wherever there was air. 

Akasa, or Soniferous Ether : One of the five elementary 
principles of nature, mentioned in The Science of Breath, 
a Hindu Yoga. It is the first of these principles ; is given 
by " The Great Power," and out of it the others are created; 
These ethers may be likened to the five senses of man. In 
order to hear distinct sounds, the Hindu theosophist 
" concentrates " himself upon Akasa. . 

Akathaso : Evil spirits inhabiting trees. (See Burma.) 

Akhnim : A town of Middle Thebais, which at one time 
possessed the reputation of being the habitation of the 
greatest magicians. Paul Lucas, in his Second Voyage, 
speaks of the wonderful Serpent of Akhnim, which was 
worshipped by the Mussulmans as an angel, and by the 
Christians believed to be the demon Asmodeus. 

Akiba : A Jewish rabbi of the first century, who, from being 
a simple shepherd, became a learned scholar, spurred by_ 
the hope of winning the hand of a young lady he greatly 
admired. The Jews say that he was taught by the elemen- 
tal spirits, that he was a conjurer, and that, in his best 
days, he had as many as 24,000 disciples. He is said to be 
the author of a famous work, entitled, Yetzirah (q.v., On 
the Creation), which is by some ascribed to Abraham, and 
even to Adam. It was first printed at Paris in 1552. 

Aksakof, (Alexandre) : A Russian statesman, whose name 
stands high in the spiritualistic annals of his country. 
Born in 1832, he was educated at the Imperial Lyceum of 
St. Petersburg, and afterwards became Councillor of State 
to the Emperor of Russia. He made his first acquaintance 
with spiritualism through the writings of Swedenborg, 
some of which he afterwards translated. Later, he studied 
the works of other spiritualistic writers. He was instru- 
mental in bringing many mediums to Russia, and identified 
himself with Home, Slade, and other well-known mediums, 
and later with Eusapia Palladino. Mainly at the instance 
of M. Aksakof, a Russian Scientific Committee was ap- 
pointed in 1877 to enquire into spiritualism, but its enquiry 
was conducted in a very half-hearted manner. M. A ksakof 
was for many years compelled to publish his psychic works 
and j ournals in Germany and other countries, on account of 
the prohibition of the Russian Government. (See Russia.) 

Al : Part of inscription on a pantacle which forms a frontis- 
piece to the grimoire doctrine. Along with other inscrip- 
tions, it denotes the name of God. 

Alain of Lisle : It has been said by some writers that there 
were two men to whom was given the name of Alanus 
Insulensis, one of whom was Betnardine, Bishop of Auxerre, 
and author of a Commentary en the Prophecies of Merlin ; 
the other, that " Universal Doctor.'' whose brilliant career 
at the Paris University was followed by his withdrawal 
to a cloister, where he devoted himself entirely to the study 
of philosophy. Others again maintain that the Bishop of 
Auxerre and the " Universal Doctor " were one and the 
same. Even the date when they lived is very uncertain, 
being variously placed in the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies. In the year 1600 a treatise on alchemy, entitled 



Alamut 



Albigerius 



Dicta de Lapide Philosophico was published at Leyden, 
bearing on its title-page the name of Alanus Insulensis. It 
was thus ascribed to Bernardine, to the " Universal Doctor, " 
and, by still others, to a German named Alanus. Suppos- 
ing the two first-mentioned to be separate and distinct 
persons, we have nevertheless no proof that either was 
interested in alchemy ; and as for the third, there is no 
proof that he existed at all. On the other hand, we know 
that it was customary at that time to ascribe works of a 
very inferior nature to illustrious persons who had died, 
and were thus unable to deny them. The Dicta de Lapide 
Philosophico, a work of no great alchemistical value, on 
account of its vague and indefinite nature, may be, and 
probably is, a spurious work, wrongly ascribed to Alain. 
Alamut : A mountain in Persia. (See Assassins.) 
Alary (Francois) : A visionary, who had printed at Rouen 
in 1 701, The Prophecy of Count Bombasle, (Chevalier de la 
Rose-Croix), nephew of Paracelsus, (published in 1609 on 
the birth of Louis the Great.) 
Alastor : A cruel demon, who, according to Wierius, filled 
- the post of chief executioner to the monarch of Hades. 
The conception of him somewhat resembles that of Nemesis. 
Zoroaster is said to have called him " The Executioner." 
Others confound him with the destroying angel. Evil 
genies were formerly called Alastors. Plutarch says that 
Cicero, who bore a grudge against Augustus, conceived 
the plan of committing suicide on the emperor's hearth, 
and thus becoming his Alastor. 
Albertus Magnus : No fewer than twenty-one folio volumes 
are attributed to this alchemist, and though it is highly 
improbable that all of them are really his, the ascription 
in several cases resting on but slender evidence, those others 
which are incontestably from his pen, are sufficiently 
numerous to constitute him a surprisingly voluminous 
writer. It is noteworthy, moreover, that according to 
tradition, he was the inventor of the pistol and the cannon ; 
but, while it is unlikely that the credit is due to him for 
this, the mere fact that he was thus acknowledged indi- 
cates that his scientific skill was recognised by a few, if 
only a few, of the men Of his own time. 

Albertus was born at Larvingen, on the Danube, in the 
year 1205, and the term Magnus, which is usually applied 
to him, is not the result of his reputation, but is the Latin 
equivalent of his family name, de Groot. Like many 
another man destined to become famous, he was distinctly 
stupid as a boy, but from the outset he showed a predilection 
for religion, and so it came about that one night the blessed 
Virgin appeared to him, whereupon his intellect suddenly 
became metamorphosed, acquiring extraordinary vitality. 
Albertus therefore decided that he must show his gratitude 
to the Madonna by espousing holy orders, and eventually 
he won eminence in the clerical profession, and was made 
Bishop of Ratisbon ; but he held this office for only a little 
while, resigning it that he might give his entire time to 
scientific researches. Thenceforth, until his death, the 
exact date whereof is uncertain, he lived chiefly at a 
pleasant retreat in Cologne ; and it is reported that here 
his mental vigour gradually forsook him, being replaced 
by the dullness which characterised him as a youth. 

Albertus was repeatedly charged by some of his un- 
friendly contemporaries with holding communications 
with the devil, and practising the craft of magic ; while 
apropos of his reputed leanings in this particular, a curious 
story is recounted in an early history of the University of 
Pans. The alchemist, it seems, had invited some friends 
to his house at Cologne, among them being William, Count 
of Holland, and when the guests arrived they were amazed 
to find that, though the season was mid-winter and the 
ground was covered with snow, they were expected to 
partake of a repast outside in the garden. Great chagrin 



was manifested by everybody, while some even declared 
themselves insulted ; but their host bade them be seated, 
assuring them that all would be well. They continued to 
be dubious withal, yet they took their places, and hardly 
had they began to eat and drink ere their annoyance 
vanished, for lo ! the snow around them melted away, 
the sun shone brightly, the birds sang, and summer ap- 
peared to be reigning indeed. 

Michael Maier, the author of Museum Chimicum and 
numerous other alchemistic works, declares that Albertus 
succeeded in evolving the philosopher's stone, and that 
ere his death he handed it over to his distinguished pupil, 
St. Thomas Aquinas, who subsequently destroyed the 
precious article, suspecting it to be a contrivance of the 
devil. The alleged discoverer himself says nothing on this 
subject, but, in his De Rebus Metallicis et Mineralibus, he 
tells how he had personally tested some gold which had 
been manufactured by an alchemist, and which resisted 
many searching fusions. And, be this story true or not, 
Albertus was certainly an able scientist, while it is clear 
that his learning ultimately gained wide recognition, for a 
collected edition of his vast writings was issued at Leyden 
so late as 1653. 

Albigenses : A sect which originated in the south of France 
in the twelfth century. They were so called from one 
of their territorial centres, that of Albi. It is probable 
that their heresy came originally from Eastern Europe, 
and they were often designated Bulgarians, and undoubt- 
edly kept up intercourse with- certain secretaries of Thrace, 
the Bogomils ; and they are sometimes connected with 
the Paulicians. It is difficult to form any exact idea of 
their doctrines, as Albigensian texts are rare, and contain 
little concerning their ethics, but we know that they were 
strongly opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, and 
protested against the corruption of its clergy. But it is 
not as a religious body that we have to deal with the 
Albigenses here, but to consider whether or not their cult 
possessed any occult significance. It has been claimed by 
their opponents that they admitted two fundamental 
principles, good and bad, saying that God had produced 
Lucifer from Himself ; that indeed Lucifer was the son 
of God who revolted against Him ; that he had carried 
with him a rebellious party of angels, who were driven from 
Heaven along with him ; that Lucifer in his exile had 
created this world with its inhabitants, where he reigned, 
and where all was evil. It is alleged that they further 
believed that God for the re-establishment of order had 
produced a second son, who was Jesus Christ. Further- 
more the Catholic writers on the Albigenses charged them 
with believing that the souls of men were demons lodged 
in mortal bodies in punishment of their crimes. 

All this is, of course, mere tradition, and we may be sure 
that the dislike of the A Ibigenses for the irregularities then 
current in the Roman Church, brought such charges on 
their heads. They were indeed the lineal ancestors of 
Protestantism. A crusade was brought against them by- 
Pope Innocent III., and wholesale massacres took place. 
The Inquisition was also let loose upon them, and they 
were driven to hide in the forests and among the mountains, 
where, like the Covenanters of Scotland, they held sur- 
reptitious meetings. The Inquisition terrorised the district 
in which they had dwelt so thoroughly that the very name 
of Albigenses was practically blotted out, and by the year 
1330, the records of the Holy Office show no further writs 
issued against the heretics. 

Albigerius : A Carthaginian soothsayer mentioned by St. 
Augustine. He would fall into strange ecstacies in which 
his soul, separated from his body, would travel abroad 
and find out what was taking place in distant parts. He 
could read people's inmost thoughts, and discover any- 



Albumazar 



Alchemy 



thing he wished to learn. These wonders were ascribed 
to the agency of the Devil. St. Augustine also speaks 
of another case, in which the possessed man was ill of a 
fever. Though not in a trance, but wide awake, he saw 
the priest who was coming to visit him while he was yet 
six leagues away, and told the company assembled round 
his couch the exact moment when the good man would 
arrive. 
Albumazar : An astrologer of the ninth century, born in 
Korassan, known principally by his astrological treatise, 
entitled, Thousands of Years, in which he declares that the 
world could only have been created when the seven planets 
were in conjunction in the first degree of the ram, and that 
the end of the world would take place when these seven 
planets (the number has now risen to twelve) will be 
together in the last degree of the fish. Several of Albuma- 
zar's treatises on astrology have been printed in Germany, 
of which one was his Tractus Florum Astrologies, Augsburg, 
1488. (See Astrology.) 
Alcahest : The universal solvent. (See Alchemy.) 
Alchemist, A Modern Egyptian : A correspondent writing to 
the Liverpool Post of Saturday, November 28th, 1907, 
gives an interesting description of a veritable Egyptian 
alchemist whom he had encountered in Cairo not long 
before, as follows : "I was not slow in seizing an opportun- 
ity of making the acquaintance of the real alchemist living 
in Cairo, which the winds of chance had blown in my dir- 
ection. He received me in his private house in the native 
quarter, and I was delighted to observe that the appearance 
of the man was in every way in keeping with my notions 
of what an alchemist should be. Clad in the flowing robes 
of a graduate of Al Azhar, his long grey beard giving him 
a truly venerable aspect, the sage by the eager, far-away 
expression of his eyes, betrayed the mind of the dreamer, 
of the man lost to the meaner comforts of the world in his 
devotion to the secret mysteries of the universe. After 
the customary salaams, the learned man informed me 
that he was seeking three things — the philosopher's stone, 
at whose touch all metal should become gold — the elixir 
of life, and the universal solvent which would dissolve 
all substances as water dissolves sugar ; the last, he assured 
me, he had indeed discovered a short time since. I was 
well aware of the reluctance of the mediaeval alchemists 
to divulge their secrets, believing as they did Jhat the 
possession of them by the vulgar would bring about ruin 
of states and the fall of divinely constituted princes ; 
and I feared that the reluctance of the modern alchemist 
to divulge any secrets to a stranger and a foreigner would 
be no less. However, I drew from my pocket Sir William 
Crookcs's spinthariscope — a small box containing a particle 
of radium highly magnified — and showed it to the sheikh. 
When he applied it to his eye and beheld the wonderful 
phenomenon of this dark speck flashing out its fiery needles 
on all sides, he was lost in wonder, and when I assured him 
that it would retain this property for a thousand years, 
he hailed me as a fellow-worker, and as one who had indeed 
penetrated into the secrets of the world. His reticence 
disappeared at once, and he began to tell me the aims and 
methods of alchemical research, which were indeed the 
same as those of the ancient alchemists of yore. His 
universal solvent he would not show me, but assured me 
of its efficacy. I asked him in what he kept it if it dissolved 
all things. He replied ' In wax,' this being the one ex- 
ception. I suspected that he had found some hydro- 
fluoric acid, which dissolves glass, and so has to be kept 
in wax bottles, but said nothing to dispel his illusion. 

" The next day I was granted the unusual privilege of 
inspecting the sheikh's laboratory, and duly presented 
myself at the appointed time. My highest expectations 
were fulfilled ; everything was exactly what an alchemist's 



laboratory should be. Yes, there was the sage, surrounded 
by his retorts, alembics, crucibles, furnace, and bellows, 
and, best of all, supported by familiars of gnome-like 
appearance, squatting on the ground, one blowing the fire 
(a task to be performed daily for six hours continuously), 
one pounding substances in a mortar, and another seem- 
ingly engaged in doing odd jobs. Involuntarily my eyes 
sought the pentacle inscribed with the mystic word ' Abra- 
cadabra,' but here I was disappointed, for the black arts 
had no place in this laboratory. One of the familiars had 
been on a voyage of discovery to London, where he bought 
a few alchemical materials ; another had explored Spain 
and Morocco, without finding any alchemists, and the 
third had indeed found alchemists in Algeria, though they 
had steadily guarded their secrets. After satisfying my 
curiosity in a general way, I asked the sage to explain the 
principles of his researches and to tell me on what his 
theories were based. I was delighted to find that his 
ideas were precisely those of the mediaeval alchemists 
namely, that all metals are debased forms of the original 
gold, which is the only pure, non-composite metal ; all 
nature strives to return to its original purity, and all metals 
would return to gold if they could ; nature. is simple and 
not complex, and works upon one principle, namely, that 
of sexual reproduction. It was not easy, as will readily 
be believed, to follow the mystical explanations of the 
sheikh. Air was referred to by him as the ' vulture,' fire 
as the ' scorpion,' water as the ' serpent,' and earth as 
'calacant ' ; and only after considerable cross-questioning 
and confusion of mind was I able to disentangle his argu- 
ments. Finding his notions so entirely mediaeval, I was 
anxious to discover whether he was familiar with the 
phlogistic theory of the seventeenth century. The alchem- 
ists of old had noticed that the earthy matter which 
remains when a metal is calcined is heavier than the metal 
itself, and they explained this by the hypothesis, that the 
metal contained a spirit known as ' phlogiston,' which 
becomes visible when it escapes from the metal or com- 
bustible substance in the form of flame ; thus the presence 
of the phlogiston lightened the body just as gas does, and 
on its being expelled, the body gained weight. I accord- 
ingly asked the chemist whether he had found that iron 
gains weight when it rusts, an experiment he had ample 
means of making. But no, he had not yet reached the 
seventeenth century ; he had not observed the fact, but 
was none the less ready with his answer ; the rust of iron 
was an impurity proceeding from within, and which did not 
effect the weight of the body in that way. He declared 
that a few days would bring the realisation of his hopes, 
and that he would shortly send me a sample of the philo- 
sopher's stone and of the divine elixir ; but although his 
promise was made some weeks since, I have not yet seen 
the fateful discoveries." 
Alchemy : The science by aid of which the chemical philo- 
sophers of mediaeval times attempted to transmute the 
baser metals into gold and silver. There is considerable 
divergence of opinion as to the etymology of the word, 
but it would seem to be derived from the Arabic a?=the, 
and Aii»ya=chemistry, which in turn derives from late 
Greek chemeia=chemistTy , from chumeia a mingling, 
or cheein " to pour out," or " mix," Aryan root ghu, 
td pour, whence the word " gush." Mr. A. Wailis 
Budge in his Egyptian Magic, however, states that 
it is possible that it may be derived from the Egyptian word 
khemeia, that is to say " the preparation of the black ore," 
or " powder," which was regarded as the active principle in 
the transmutation of metals. To this name the Arabs 
affixed the article al, thus giving al-khemeia, or alchemy. 
History of Alchemy. — From an early period the Egypt- 
ians possessed the reputation of being skilful workers in. 



Alchemy 



10 



Alchemy 



metals, and, according to Greek writers, they were con- 
versant with their transmutation, employing quicksilver 
in the process of separating gold and silver from the native 
matrix. The resulting oxide was supposed to possess 
marvellous powers, and it was thought that there resided 
within it the individualities of the various metals — that 
in it their various substances were incorporated. This 
black powder was mystically identified with the under- 
world form of the god Osiris, and consequently was credited 
with magical properties. Thus there grew up in Egypt 
the belief that magical powers existed in fluxes and alloys. 
Probably such a belief existed throughout Europe in con- 
nection with the bronze-working castes of its several races. 
(See Shelta Thari.) It was probably in the Byzantium 
of the fourth century, however, that alchemical scienee 
received embryonic form. There is little doubt that 
Egyptian tradition, filtering through Alexandrian Hellenic 
sources was the foundation upon which the infant science 
was built, and this is borne out by the circumstance that 
the art was attributed to Hermes Trismegistus (q.v.) and 
supposed to be contained in its entirety in his works. 
The Arabs, after their conquest of Egypt in the seventh 
century, carried on the researches of the Alexandrian 
school, and through their instrumentality the art was 
brought to Morocco and thus in the eighth century to 
Spain, where it flourished exceedingly. Indeed, Spain 
from the ninth to the eleventh century became the reposi- 
tory of alchemical science, and the colleges of Seville, 
Cordova, and Granada were the centres from which this 
science radiated throughout Europe. The first practical 
alchemist may be said to have been the Arabian Geber 
(q.v.), who flourished 720-750. From his Summa Perfec- 
tionis, we may be justified in assuming that alchemical 
science was already matured in bis day, and that he drew 
his inspiration from a still older unbroken line of adepts. 
He was followed by Avicenna, Mesna and Rhasis (q.v.), 
and in France by Alain of Lisle, Arnold de Villanova and 
Jean de Meung (q.v.) the troubadour ; in England by 
Roger Bac 11 and, in Spain itself by Raymond Lully. 
Later, in French alchemy the most illustrious names are 
those of Flamel (b. ca. 1330), and Bernard Trevisan 
(b. ca. 1406) after which the centre of interest changes to 
Germany and in some measure to England, in which 
countries Paracelsus, Khunrath (ca. 1560), Maier (ca. 1568), 
Bohme, Van Helmont, the Brabanter (1553), Ripley, 
Norton, Dalton, Charnock, and Fludd kept the alchemical 
flame burning brightly. It is surprising how little altera- 
tion we find throughout the period between the seventh 
and the seventeenth centuries, the heyday of alchemy, in 
the theory and practice of the art. The same sentiments 
and processes are found expressed in the later alchemical 
authorities as in the earliest, and a wonderful unanimity 
as regards the basic canons of the great art is evinced by 
the hermetic students of all time. On the introduction 
of chemistry as a practical art, alchemical science fell into 
desuetude and disrepute, owing chiefly to the number of 
charlatans practising it, and by the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, as a school, it may be said to have 
become defunct. Here and there, however, a solitary 
student of the art lingered, and the department of this 
article on " Modern Alchemy " will demonstrate that the 
science has to a great extent revived during modern 
times, although it has never been quite extinct. 

The Quests of Alchemy. The grand objects of alchemy 
were (1) the discovery of a process by which the baser 
metals might be transmuted into gold and silver ; (2), 
the discovery of an elixir by which life might be prolonged 
indefinitely ; and there may perhaps be added (3), the 
manufacture of an artificial process of human life. (For 
the latter see "Horaunculus.") 



The Theory and Philosophy of Alchemy. The first ob- 
jects were to be achieved as follows : The transmutation 
of metals was to be accomplished by a powder, stone; or 
elixir often called the Philosopher's Stone, the application 
of which would effect the transmutation of the baser 
metals into gold or silver, depending upon the length of 
time of its application. Basing their conclusions on a 
profound examination of natural processes and research 
into the secrets of nature, the alchemists arrived at the 
axiom that nature was divided philosophically into four 
principal regions, the dry, the moist, the warm, the cold, 
whence all that exists must be derived. Nature is also 
divisible into the male and the female. She is the divine 
breath, the central fire, invisible yet ever active, and is 
typified by sulphur, which is the mercury of the sages, 
which slowly fructifies under the genial warmth of nature. 
The alchemist must be ingenuous, of a truthful disposition, 
and gifted with patience and prudence, following nature 
in every alchemical performance. He must recollect that 
like draws to like, and must know how to obtain the seed 
of metals, which is produced by the four elements through 
the will of the Supreme Being and the Imagination of 
Nature. We are told that the original matter of metals is 
double in its essence, being a dry heat combined with a warm 
moisture, and that air is water coagulated by fire, capable 
of producing a universal dissolvent. These terms the 
neophyte must be cautious of interpreting in their literal 
sense. Great confusion exists in alchemical nomen- 
clature, and the gibberish employed by the scores of 
charlatans who in later times pretended to a knowledge 
of alchemical matters did not tend to make things any 
more clear. The beginner must also acquire a thorough 
knowledge of the manner in which metals grow in the 
bowels of the earth. These are engendered by sulphur, 
which is male, and mercury, which is female, and the crux 
of alchemy is to obtain their seed — a process which the 
alchemistical philosophers have not described with any 
degree of clarity. The physical theory of transmutation 
is based on the composite character of metals, and on the 
presumed existence of a substance which, applied to 
matter, exalts and perfects it. This, Eugenius Philale- 
thes and others call " The Light." The elements of 
all metals are similar, differing only in purity and pro- 
portion. The entire trend of the metallic kingdom is 
towards the natural manufacture of gold, and the pro- 
duction of the baser metals is only accidental as the result 
of an unfavourable environment. The Philosopher's 
Stone is the combination of the male and female seeds 
which beget gold. The composition of these is so veiled 
by symbolism as to make their identification a matter of 
impossibility. Waite, summarising the alchemical process 
once the secret of the stone is unveiled, says : 

" Given the matter of the stone and also the necessary 
vessel, the processes which must be then undertaken to 
accomplish the magnum opus are described with moderate 
perspicuity. There is the calcination or purgation of the 
stone, in which kind is worked with kind for the space of a 
philosophical year. There is dissolution which prepares 
the way for congelation, and which is performed during 
the black state of the mysterious matter. It is accom- 
plished by water which does not wet the hand. There is 
the separation of the subtle and the gross, which is to be 
performed by means of heat. In the conjunction which 
follows, the elements are duly and scrupulously combined. 
Putrefaction afterwards takes place, 

' Without which pole no seed may multiply.' 
" Then, in the subsequent congelation the white colour 
appears, which is one of the signs of success. It becomes 
more pronounced in cibation. In sublimation the body 
is spiritualised, the spirit made corporeal, and again a more 



Alchemy 



11 



Alchemy 



glittering whiteness is apparent. Fermentation afterwards 
fixes together the alchemical earth and water, and causes 
the mystic medicine to flow like wax. The matter is then 
augmented with the alchemical spirit of life, and the 
exaltation of the philosophic earth is accomplished by the 
natural rectification of its elements. When these pro- 
cesses have been successfully completed, the mystic stone 
will have passed through three chief stages characterised 
by different colours, black, white, and red, after which it 
is capable of infinite multication, and when projected on 
mercury, it will absolutely transmute it, the resulting gold 
bearing every test. The base metals made use of must be 
purified to insure the success of the operation. The process 
for the manufacture of silver is essentially similar, but the 
resources of the matter are not carried to so high a degree. 

" According to the Commentary on the Ancient War of 
the Knights the transmutations performed by the perfect 
stone are so absolute that no trace remains of the original 
metal. It cannot, however, destroy gold, nor exalt it 
into a more perfect metallic substance ; it, therefore, 
transmutes it into a medicine a thousand times superior 
to any virtues which can be extracted from it in its vulgar 
state. This medicine becomes a most potent agent in the 
exaltation of base metals." 

There are not wanting authorities who deny that the 
transmutation of metals was the grand object of alchemy, 
and who infer from the alchemistical writings that the end 
of the art was the spiritual regeneration of man. Mrs. 
Atwood, author of A Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic 
Mystery, and an American writer named Hitchcock are 
perhaps the chief protagonists of the belief that by spiritual 
processes akin to those of the chemical processes of alchemy, 
the soul of man may be purified and exalted. But both 
commit the radical error of stating that the alchemical 
writers did not aver that the transmutation of base metal 
into gold was their grand end. None of the passages 
they quote, is inconsistent with the physical object of 
alchemy, and in a work, The Marrow of Alchemy, stated 
to be by Eugenius Philalethes, it is laid down, that the 
real quest is for gold. It is constantly impressed upon 
the reader, however, in the perusal of esteemed alchemical 
works, that only- those, who are instructed by God can 
achieve the grand secret. Others, again, state that a 
tyro may possibly stumble upon it, but that unless he is 
guided by an adept he has small chance of achieving the 
grand arcanum. It will be obvious to the tyro, however, 
that nothing can ever be achieved by trusting to the alle- 
gories of the adepts or the many charlatans who crowded 
the ranks of the art. Gold may have been made, or it 
may not, but the truth or fallacy of the alchemical method 
lies with modern chemistry. The transcendental view of 
alchemy, however, is rapidly gaining ground, and pro- 
bably originated in the comprehensive nature of the 
Hermetic theory and the consciousness in the alchemical 
mind that what might with success be applied to nature 
could also be applied to man with similar results. Says 
Mr. Waite : " The gold of the philosopher is not a metal, 
on the other hand, man is a being who possesses within 
himself the seeds of a perfection which he has never realised, 
and that he therefore corresponds to those metals which 
the Hermetic theory supposes to be capable of develop- 
ment. It has been constantly advanced that the con- 
version of lead into gold was only the assumed object of 
alchemy, and that it was in reality in search of a process 
for developing the latent possibilities in the subject man." 
At the same time, it must be admitted that the cryptic 
character of alchemical language was probably occasioned 
by a fear on the part of the alchemical mystic that he might 
lay himself open through his magical opinions to the rigours 
of the law. 



The Elixir of Life has been specially treated elsewhere. 

Records of Alleged Actual Transmutation. Several 
records of alleged transmutations of base metals into gold 
are in existence. These were achieved by Nicholas Flamel, 
Van Helmont, Martini, Richthausen, and Sethon. For a 
detailed account of the methods employed the reader is 
referred to the several articles on these hermetists. In 
nearly every case the transmuting element was a mysterious 
powder or the " Philosophers' Stone." 

Modern Alchemy. That alchemy has been studied in 
modern times there can be no doubt. M. Figuier in his 
L'Alchimie et les Alchimistes, dealing with the subject of 
modern alchemy, as expressed by the initiates of the first 
half of the nineteenth century, states that many French 
alchemists of his time regarded the discoveries of modern 
science as merely so many evidences of the truth of the 
doctrines they embraced. Throughout Europe, he says, 
the positive alchemical doctrine had many adherents at 
the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the 
nineteenth. Thus a " vast association of alchemists," 
founded in Westphalia in 1 790, continued to flourish in the 
year 1819, under the name of the " Hermetic Society." 
In 1837, an alchemist of Thuringia presented to the Society 
Industrielle of Weimar a tincture which he averred would 
effect metallic transmutation. About the same time 
several French journals announced a public course of 
lectures on hermetic philosophy by a professor of the 
University of Munich. He further states that many 
Hanoverian and Bavarian families pursued in common 
the search for the grand arcanum. Paris, however, was 
regarded as the alchemistical Mecca. There dwelt many 
theoretical alchemists and " empirical adepts." The first 
pursued the arcanum through the medium of books, the 
others engaged in practical efforts to effect transmutation. 
M. Figuier states that in the forties of last century he 
frequented the laboratory of a certain Monsieur L., which 
was the rendezvous of the alchemists of Paris. When 
Monsieur L's pupils left the laboratory for the day the 
modern adepts dropped in one by one, and Figuier relates 
how deeply impressed he was by the appearance and 
costumes of these strange men. In the daytime he fre- 
quently encountered them in the public libraries, buried 
in gigantic folios, and in the evening they might be seen 
pacing the solitary bridges with eyes fixed in vague con- 
templation upon the first pale stars of night. A long cloak 
usually covered their meagre limbs, and their untrimmed 
beards and matted locks lent them a wild appearance. 
They walked with a solemn and measured gait, and used 
the figures of speech employed by the medieval illumines. 
Their expression was generally a mixture of the most ardent 
hope and a fixed despair. 

Among the adepts who sought the laboratory of Monsieur 
L., Figuier remarked especially a young man, in whose 
habits and language he could see nothing in common 
with those of his strange companions. He confounded the 
wisdom of the alchemical adept with the tenets of 
the modern scientist in the most singular fashion, and 
meeting him one day at the gate of the Observatory, 
M. Figuier renewed the subject of their last discussion, 
deploring that " a man of his gifts could pursue the sem- 
blance of a chimera." Without replying, the young adept 
led him into the Observatory garden, and proceeded to 
reveal to him the mysteries of modern alchemical science. 

The young man proceeded to fix a limit to the researches- 
of the modern alchemists. Gold, he said, according to the 
ancient authors, has three distinct properties : (t) that 
of resolving the baser metals into itself, and interchanging 
and metamorphosing all metals into one another ; (2) the 
curing of afflictions and the prolongation of life; (3), as 
a spiritus mundi to bring mankind into rapport with the 



Alchemy 



12 



Alchindus 



supermundane spheres. Modern alchemists, he continued, 
reject the greater part of these ideas, especially those con- 
nected with spiritual contact. The object of modern 
alchemy might be reduced to the search for a substance 
having the power to transform and transmute all other 
substances one into another — in short, to discover that 
medium so well known to the alchemists of old and lost 
to us. This was a perfectly feasible proposition. In the 
four principal substances of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, 
and azote, we have the tetractus of Pythagoras and the 
tetragram of the Chaldeans and Egyptians. All the sixty 
elements are referable to these original four. The ancient 
alchemical theory established the fact that all the metals 
are the same in their composition, that all are formed from 
sulphur and mercury, and that the difference between them 
is according to the proportion of these substances in their 
composition. Further, all the products of minerals 
present in their composition complete identity with those 
substances most opposed to them. Thus fulminating acid 
contains precisely the same quantity of carbon, oxygen, 
and azote as cyanic acid, and " cyanhydric " acid does not 
differ from formate ammoniac. This new property of 
matter is known as " isomerism." M. Figuier's friend then 
proceeds to quote in support of his thesis and operations 
and experiments of M. Dumas, a celebrated French savant, 
as well as those of Prout, and other English chemists of 
standing. 

Passing to consider the possibility of isomerism in 
elementary as well as in compound substances, he points 
out to M. Figuier that if the theory of isomerism can apply 
to such bodies, the transmutation of metals ceases to be 
a wild, unpractical dream, and becomes a scientific possibil- 
ity, the transformation being brought about by a mole- 
cular rearrangement. Isomerism can be established in 
the case of compound substances by chemical analysis, 
showing the identity of their constituent parts. In the 
case of metals it can be proved by the comparison of the 
properties of isomeric bodies with the properties of metals, 
in order to discover whether they have any common char- 
acteristics. Such experiments, he continued, had been 
conducted by M. Dumas, with the result that isomeric sub- 
stances v/ere found to have equal equivalents, or equival- 
ents which were exact multiples one of another. This 
characteristic is also a feature of metals. Gold and osmium 
have identical equivalents, as have platinum and iridium. 
The equivalent of cobalt is almost the same as that of 
nickel, and the semi-equivalent of tin is equal to the 
equivalent of the two preceding metals. 

M. Dumas, speaking before the British Association, had 
shown that when three simple bodies displayed great 
analogies in their properties, such as chlorine, bromide, 
and iodine, barium, strontium, and calcium, the chemical 
equivalent of the intermediate body is represented by the 
arithmetical mean between the equivalents of the other 
two. Such a statement well showed the isomerism of ele- 
mentary substances, and proved that metals, however 
dissimiiar in outward appearance, were composed of the 
same matter differently arranged and proportioned. This 
theory successfully demolishes the difficulties in the way 
of transmutation. Again, Dr. Prout says that the chemical 
equivalents of nearly all elementary substances are the 
multiples of one among them. Thus, if the equivalent of 
hydrogen be taken for the unit, the equivalent of every 
other substance will be an exact multiple of it — carbon 
will be represented by six, azote by fourteen, oxygen by 
sixteen, zinc by thirty-two. But, pointed out M. Figuier's 
friend, if the molecular masses in compound substances 
have so simple a connection, does it not go to prove that 
all natural bodies are formed of one principle, differently 
arranged and condensed to produce all known compounds ? 



If transmutation is thus theoretically possible, it only 
remains to show by practical experiment that it is strictly 
in accordance with chemical laws, and by no means in- 
clines to the supernatural. At this juncture the young 
alchemist proceeded to liken the action of the Philosophers' 
Stone on metals to that of a ferment on organic matter. 
When metals are melted and brought to red heat, a mole- 
cular change may be produced analogous to fermentation. 
Just as sugar, under the influence of a ferment, may be 
changed into lactic acid without altering its constituents, 
so metals can alter their character under the influence of 
the Philosophers' Stone. The explanation of the latter 
case is no more difficult than that of the former. The 
ferment does not take any part in the chemical changes it 
brings about, and no satisfactory explanation of its effects 
can be found either in the laws of affinity or in the forces 
of electricity, light, or heat. As with the ferment, the 
required quantity of the Philosophers' Stone is infinitesimal. 
Medicine, philosophy, every modern science was at one 
time a source of such errors and extravagances as are 
associated with mediaeval alchemy, but they are not 
therefore neglected and despised. Wherefore, then, should 
we be blind to the scientific nature of transmutation ? 

One of the foundations of alchemical theories was that 
minerals grew and developed in the earth, like organic 
things. It was always the aim of nature to produce gold, 
the most precious metal, but when circumstances were not 
favourable the baser metals resulted. The desire of the 
old alchemists was to surprise nature's secrets, and thus 
attain the ability to do in a short period what nature takes 
years to accomplish. Nevertheless, the mediaeval alchem- 
ists appreciated the value of time in their experiments as 
modern alchemists never do. M. Figuier's friend urged 
him not to condemn these exponents of the hermetic 
philosophy for their metaphysical tendencies, for, he said, 
there are facts in our sciences which can only be explained 
in that light. If, for instance, copper be placed in air or 
water, there will be no result, but if a touch of some acid 
be added, it will oxidise. The explanation is that " the 
acid provokes oxidation of the metal, because it has an 
affinity for the oxide which tends to form " — a material 
fact almost metaphysical in its production, and only 
explicable thereby. 

He concluded his argument with an appeal for tolerance 
towards the mediaeval alchemists, whose work is under- 
rated because it is not properly understood. (See also 
Elixir of Life, Homunculus, and the many lives of the 
alchemists throughout this book.) 

LITERATURE. Atwood, A Suggestive Inquiry into 
the Hermetic Mystery, 1850 ; Hitchcock, Remarks on 
Alchemy and the Alchemists, Boston, 1857 ; Waite, Lives 
of the Alchemystical Philosophers, London, 1888 ; The 
Occult Sciences, London, 1891 ; Bacon, Mirror of Alchemy, 
l 597 ; T ne works of the Hon. Robert Boyle ; S. le Doux,' 
Dictionnaire Hermetique, 1695 ; Langlet de Fresnoy, His- 
toire de la Philosophic Hermetique, 1792 ; Theatrum Chemi- 
cum, (Essays by many great alchemists), 1662 ; Valentine, 
Triumphal Chariot of Antimony, 1656 ; Redgrove, Alchemy 
Ancient and Modern ; Figuier, L'Alchimie et les Alchimistes, 
Paris, 1857. 

Alchindi : {See Arabs.) 

Alchindus : An Arabian doctor of the eleventh century, 
placed by some authorities among the number of magicians, 
but regarded by others as merely a superstitious writer. 
He used charmed words and combinations of figurt-s in order 
to cure his patients. Demonologists maintained that the 
devil was responsible for his power, and based their state- 
ments on the fact that he had written a work entitled The 
Theory of the Magic Arts. He was probably, however, 
nothing more formidable than a natural philosopher at a 



Aldinach 



13 



Alexander 



time when all matter of science and philosophy were held 
in suspicion. Some of his theories were of a magical nature, 
it is true, as when he essayed to explain the phenomena of 
dreams.by saying that they were the work of the elementals, 
who acted their strange fantasies before the mind of the 
sleeper as actors play in a theatre. But on the whole there 
is little to connect him with the practice of magic. 

Aldinach : An Egyptian demon, whom the demonologists 
picture as presiding over the tempests, earthquakes, rain- 
storms, hail-storms, etc. It is he, also, who sinks ships. 
When he appears in visible form he takes the shape of a 
woman. 

Alectorius : This stone is about the size of a bean, clear as 
crystal, sometimes with veins the colour of flesh. It is said 
to be taken from the cock's stomach. It renders its owner 
courageous and invincible, brings him wealth, assuages 
thirst, and makes the husband love his wife, or, as another 
author has it, " makes the woman agreeable to her hus- 
band." But its most wonderful property is, that it helps 
to regain a lost kingdom and acquire a foreign one. 

Alectryomancy, or Alectormancy : An ancient method of 
divinotion with a cock. In practising it, a circle must be 
made in a good close place, and this must be divided equally 
into as many parts as there are letters in the alphabet. 
Then a wheat-corn must be placed on every letter, beginning 
with A, during which the depositor must repeat a certain 
verse. This must be done when the sun or moon is in Aries 
or Leo. A young cock, all white, should then be taken, 
his claws should be cut off, and these he should be forced 
to swallow with a little scroll of parchment made of lamb- 
skin upon which has been previously written certain words. 
Then the diviner holding the cock should repeat a form of 
incantation. Next, on placing the cock within the circle, 
he must repeat two verses of the Psalms, which are exactly 
the midmost of the seventy-two verses mentioned under 
the head of " Onimancy," and it is to be noted on the 
authority of an ancient Rabbi, that there is nothing in 
these seventy-two which is not of some use in the kaba- 
listical secret. The cock being within the circle, it must 
be observed from which letters he pecks the grains, and 
upon these others must be placed, because some names 
and words contain the same letters twice or thrice. These 
letters should be written down and put together, and they 
will infallibly reveal the name of the person concerning 
whom inquiry has been made ; it is said, though the story 
is doubted, that the magician lamblicus used this art to 
discover the person who should succeed Valens Caesar 
in the empire, but the bird picking up but four of the grains, 
those which lay on the letters T h e o, left it uncertain 
whether Theodosius, Theodotus, Theodorus, or Theodectes, 
was the person designed. Valens, however, learning 
what had been done, put to death several individuals 
whose names unhappily began with those letters, and the 
magician, to avoid the effects of his resentment, took a 
draught of poison. A kind of Alectromancy was also some- 
times practised upon the crowing of the cock, and the 
periods at which it was heard. 

Ammianus Marcellinus describes the ritual which ac- 
companied this act rather differently. The sorcerers 
commenced by placing a basin made of different 
metals on the ground and drawing around it at equal 
distances the letters of the alphabet. Then he who 
possessed the deepest occult knowledge, advanced, en- 
veloped in a long veil, holding in his hand branches of 
vervain, and emitting dreadful cries, accompanied by 
hideous convulsions. He stopped all at once before the 
magic basin, and became rigid and motionless. He struck 
on a letter several times with the branch in his hand, and 
then upon another, until he had selected sufficient letters 
to form a heroic verse, which was then given out to 



the assembly. The Emperor Valens, informed of this 
circumstance, was ill-pleased that the infernal powers 
should have been consulted regarding his destiny. Indeed, 
he went further, for with unexampled severity, he pro- 
scribed not only all the sorcerers, but all the philosophers 
in Rome, and punished them so severely that many per- 
ished. 

In the fourth song of the Caqtiet Bonbec, of Jonquieres, 
a poet of the fourteenth century, the details of an operation 
in Alectryomancy are exactly and curiously set forth. 

Aleuromancy : A species of divination practised with flour. 
Sentences were written on slips of paper, each of which 
was rolled up in a little ball of flour. These were thoroughly 
mixed up nine times, and divided amongst the curious, 
who were waiting to learn their fate. Apollo, who was 
supposed to preside over this form of divination, was 
surnamed Aleuromantis. So late as the nineteenth 
century the custom lingered in remoter districts. 

Alexander ab Alexandre : (Alessandro Alessandri.) A 
Neapolitan lawyer, who died in 1523. He published a 
dissertation on the marvellous, entitled De Rebus Admira- 
bilibus, in which he recounts prodigies which happened in 
Italy, dreams which were verified, the circumstances 
connected with many apparitions and phantoms, which he 
says that he beheld himself. He followed this dissertation 
with his celebrated work Genialium Dierum, in which he 
recounts with much credulity many prodigious happenings. 
He tells how one evening he set out to join a party of 
several friends at a house in Rome which had been haunted 
for a long time by spectres and demons. In the middle of 
the night, when all of them were assembled in one chamber 
with many lights, there appeared to them a dreadful spectre, 
who called to them in a loud voice, and threw about the 
ornaments in the room. One of the most intrepid of the 
company advanced in front of the spectre bearing a light, 
on which it disappeared. Several times afterwards the 
same apparition re-entered through the door. Alexander, 
who had been lying on a couch, found that the demon had 
slid underneath it, and on rising from it, he beheld a great 
black arm appear on a table in front of him. By this time 
several of the company had retired to rest, and the lights 
were out, but torches were brought in answer to their cries 
of alarm, on which the spectre opened the door, slid past 
the advancing domestics, and disappeared. Alexander 
visited many other haunted houses, but he appears to have 
been easily duped, and by no means the sort of person to 
undertake psychical research. (See Avicenna.) 

Alexander of Tralles : A physician born at Tralles in Asia 
Minor, in the sixth century, very learned, and with a leaning 
towards medico-magical practice. He prescribed for his 
patients amulets and charmed words, as, for instance, 
when he says in his Practice of Medicine that the figure 
of Hercules strangling the Nem'ean lion, graven on a stone 
and set in a ring, was an excellent cure for colic. He also 
claimed that charms and philacteries were efficacious 
remedies for gout, fevers, etc. 

Alexander the Paphlagonian : The oracle of Abonotica, an 
obscure Paphlagonian town, who for nearly twenty years 
held absolute supremacy in the empirical art. Born about 
the end of the second century, a native of Abonotica, he 
possessed but little in the way of worldly wealth,- His sole 
capital consisted in his good looks, fine presence, exquisite 
voice, and a certain talent for fraud, which he was soon to 
turn to account in an extraordinary manner. His idea 
was to institute a new oracle, and he fixed upon Chalcedon 
as a suitable place to commence operations. Finding no 
great encouragement there he made a fresh start by setting 
afoot a rumour to the effect that Apollo and his son jEscuIa- 
pius intended shortly to take up residence at Abonotica. 
Naturally, the rumour at length reached the ears of his 



Alexander 



14 



Alis de Telieux 



fellow-townsmen, who promptly set to work on a temple 
meet for the reception of the gods. The way was thus 
prepared for Alexander, who proceeded to Abonotica, 
diligently advertising his skill as a prophet, so that on his 
arrival people from many neighbouring towns applied to 
him, and ere long his fame had spread as far as Rome. We 
are told that the Emperor Aurelius himself consulted 
Alexander before undertaking an important military 
enterprise. 

Lucian gives a suppositious explanation of the Paphla- 
gonian prophet's remarkable popularity. Alexander, he 
says, came in the course of his early travels to Pella, in 
Macedon, where he found a unique breed of serpents, large, 
beautiful, and so tame and harmless that they were allowed 
. by the inhabitants to enter their houses and play with 
children. A plan took shape in his brain which was to 
help him to attain the fame he craved. Selecting the 
largest and finest specimen of the Macedonian snakes that 
he could find, he carried it secretly to his destination. The 
temple which the credulous natives of Abonotica had 
raised to Apollo was surrounded by a moat, and Alex- 
ander, ever ready to seize an opportunity wherever it 
presented itself, emptied a goose-egg of its contents, placed 
within the shell a newly-hatched serpent, and sunk it in 
the moat. He then impressively informed the people that 
Apollo had arrived. Making for the moat with all speed, 
followed by a curious multitude, he scooped up the egg, 
and in full view of the people, broke the shell and exposed 
to their admiring eyes a little, wriggling serpent. When 
a few days had elapsed he judged the time ripe for a second 
demonstration. Gathering together a huge crowd from 
every part of Paphlagonia, he emerged from the temple 
with the large Macedonian snake coiled about his neck. 
By an ingenious arrangement the head of the- serpent was 
concealed under the prophet's arm, and an artificial head, 
somewhat resembling that of a human being, allowed to 
protrude. The assembly was much astonished to find that 
the tiny serpent of a few days ago had already attained 
such remarkable proportions and possessed the face of a 
human being, and they appeared to have little doubt that 
it was indeed Apollo come to Abonotica. 

By means of ingenious mechanical contrivances the 
serpent was apparently made to reply to questions put 
to it. In other cases sealed rolls containing the questions 
were handed to the oracle and returned with the seals 
intact and an appropriate answer written inside. 

His audacity and ready invention enabled Alexander to 
impose at will upon the credulous people of his time, and 
these, combined with a strong and attractive personality, 
won, and preserved for him his remarkable popularity, as 
they have done for other " prophets " before and since. 
Alfarabi : (d. 954.) An adept of remarkable gifts and an 
extensive knowledge of all the sciences ; born at Othrar 
(or, as it was then called, Faral), in Asia Minor. His name 
was Abou-Nasr-Mohammed-Ibn-Tarkaw, but he received, 
from the town of his birth, his better-known appellation 
of Farabi, or Alfarabi. Though he was of Turkish extrac- 
tion, a desire to perfect himself in Arabic, led him to 
Bagdad, where he assiduously studied the Greek philoso- 
phers under Abou Bachar Maltey. He next stayed for a 
time in Hanan, where he learned logic from a Christian 
physician. Having far surpassed his fellow-scholars, he 
left Hanan and drifted at last to Egypt. During his 
wanderings he came in contact with all the most learned 
philosophers of his time, and himself wrote books on 
philosophy, mathematics, astromony, and other sciences, 
besides acquiring proficiency in seventy languages. His 
treatise on music, proving the connection of sound with 
atmospheric vibrations, and mocking the Pythagorean 
theory of the music of the spheres, attained some celebrity. 



He gained the good-will and patronage of the Sultan 
of Syria in a somewhat curious fashion. While passing 
through Syria he visited the court of the Sultan, who was at 
that moment surrounded by grave doctors and astrologers, 
who were discussing abstruse scientific points with the 
potentate. Alfarabi entered the presence of the Sultan in 
his stained and dusty travelling attire (he had been on a 
pilgrimage to Mecca), and when the prince bade him be 
seated, he, either unaware of, or indifferent to the etiquette 
of court life, sat down boldly on a corner of the royal sofa. 
The monarch, unused to such an informal proceeding, 
spoke in a little-known tongue to a courtier, and bade him 
remove the presumptuous philosopher. The latter, how- 
ever, astonished him by replying in the same language : 
" Sire, he who acts hastily, in haste repents." The 
Sultan, becoming interested in his unconventional guest, 
questioned him curiously, and learned of the seventy 
languages and other accomplishments of Alfarabi. The 
sages who were present were also astounded at his wide 
learning. When the prince called at length for some music, 
Alfarabi accompanied the musicians on a lute with such 
marvellous skill and grace that the entire company was 
charmed. When he struck up a lively measure, the gravest 
sages could not but dance to it. When he changed the 
melody to a softer lilt, tears sparkled in every eye, and at 
last, with a gentle lullaby, he put the court to sleep. The 
Sultan wished to keep such a valuable philosopher about 
his court, and some say that Alfarabi accepted his patronage 
and died peacefully in Syria. Others, again, maintain that 
he informed the Sultan that he would never rest till he had 
discovered the secret of the Philosophers' stone, which he 
believed himself on the point of finding. These say that 
he set out, but was attacked and killed by robbers in the 
woods of Syria. 

Alfragenus : [See Astrology.) 

Alfragius : (See Astrology.) 

Alf ridarya : A science resembling astrology, which lays down 
that all the planets, in turn influence the life of man, each 
one governing a certain "number of years. 

Alis de Telieux : In 1528, there was published in Paris a 
curious book, entitled, La merveilleuse histoire de I'esprit 
qui, depuis nagitere, s'est apparu au monastere des religieuses 
de Saint Pierre de Lyon, laquelle est pleine de grande ad- 
miration, comme on pourra vols par la lecture de ce present 
livre, par Adrien de Montalembert, aumonier du roi Fran- 
cois Ier. This work dealt with the appearance in the 
monastery of the spirit of Alis de Telieux, a nun who had 
lived there before the reformation of the monastery in 1513. 
A lis, it seems, had led rather a worldly life, following 
pleasure and enjoyment in a manner unbecoming to a nun, 
finally stealing the ornaments from the altar and selling 
them. After this last enormity, she, of course, left the 
monastery, and for a time continued her disgraceful career 
outside, but before she died she repented of her sins, and 
through the intercession of the Virgin, received pardon. 
This, however, did not gain for her Christian burial, and 
she was interred without the usual prayers and funeral rites. 
A number of years afterwards, when the monastery was 
occupied by other and better nuns, one of their number, a 
girl of about eighteen years, was aroused from her sleep 
by the apparition of Sister Alis. For some time afterwards 
the spirit haunted her wherever she went, continually rap- 
ping on the ground near where she stood, and even com- 
municating with the interested nuns. From all indications, 
it was a good and devout spirit who thus entered the 
monastery, but the good sisters, well versed in the wiles 
of the devil, had their doubts on the subject. The services 
of the Bishop of Lyons and of the narrator, Adrien de 
Montalembert, were called in to adjure the evil spirit. 
After many prayers and formalities, the spirit of A lis was 



All Hallow's Eve 



15 



All Hallow's Eve 



found to be an innocent one, attended by a guardian angel. 
She answered a number of questions regarding her present 
state and her desire for Christian burial, and confirmed the 
doctrines of the Catholic Church, notably that of purgatory, 
which latter spirit-revelation the author advances triumph- 
antly for the confusion of the Lutherans. The remains of 
Sister A lis were conveyed to consecrated ground, and 
prayers made for the release of her soul from purgatory, 
but for some reason or other she continued to follow the 
young nun for a time, teaching her, on her last visit, five 
secret prayers composed by St. John the Evangelist. 
All Hallow's Eve : One of the former four great Fire festivals 
in Britain, is supposed to have taken place on the 1st of 
November, when all fires, save those of the Druids, were 
extinguished, from whose altars only the holy fire must be 
purchased by the householders for a certain price. The 
festival is still known in Ireland as Samhein, or La Samon, 
i.e., the Feast of the Sun ; while in Scotland, it has assumed 
the name of Hallowe'en. All Hallow's Eve, as observed in 
the Church of Rome, corresponds with the Feralia of the 
ancient Romans, when they sacrificed in honour of the 
dead, offered up prayers for them, and made oblations to 
them. In ancient times, this festival was celebrated on the 
twenty-first of February, but the Roman Church transferred 
it in her calendar to the first of November. It was originally 
designed to give rest and peace to the souls of the departed. 
In some parts of Scotland, it is still customary for young 
people to kindle fires on the tops of hills and rising grounds, 
and fire of this description goes by the name of a " Hallow- 
e'en bleeze." Formerly it was customary to surround these 
bonfires with a circular trench symbolical of the sun. 
Sheriff Barclay tells us that about seventy years ago, while 
travelling from Dunkeld to Aberfeldy on Hallowe'en, he 
counted thirty fires blazing on the hill tops, with the 
phantom figures of persons dancing round the flames. 

In Perthshire, the " Hallowe'en bleeze " is made in the 
following picturesque fashion. Heath, broom, and dres- 
sings of flax are tied upon a pole. The faggot is then 
kindled ; a youth takes it upon his shoulders and carries 
it about. When the faggot is burned out a second is tied 
to the pole and kindled in the same manner as the former 
one. Several of these blazing faggots are often carried 
through the villages at the same time. 

" Hallowe'en " is believed by the superstitious in Scot- 
land to be a night on which the invisible world has peculiar 
power. His Satanic - Majesty is supposed to have great 
latitude allowed him on this anniversary, in common with 
that malignant class of beings known as witches, some of 
whom, it is said, may be seen cleaving the air on broom- 
sticks, in a manner wondrous to behold. Others again, 
less aerially disposed, jog comfortably along over by-road 
and heath, seated on the back of such sleek tabby cats as 
have kindly allowed themselves to be transformed into 
coal-black steeds for their accommodation. The green- 
robed fays are also said to hold special festive meetings at 
their favourite haunts. The ignorant believe that there is 
no such night in all the year for obtaining an insight into 
futurity. The following are the customs pertaining to this 
eve of mystic ceremonies : The youths and maidens, who 
engage in the ceremony of Pulling the Green Kail, go hand- 
in-hand, with shut eyes, into a bachelor's or spinster's 
garden, and pull up the first " kail stalks " which come in 
their way. Should the stalks thus secured prove to be of 
.stately growth, straight in stem, and with a goodly supply 
of earth at their roots, the future husbands (or wives) will 
be young, goodlooking and rich in proportion. But if the 
stalks be stunted, crooked, and have little or no earth at 
their roots, the future spouses will be found lacking in good 
looks and fortune. According as the heart or stem proves 
.sweet or sour to the taste, so will be the temper of the 



future partner. The stalks thus tasted are afterwards 
placed above the doors of the respective houses, and the 
christian names of those persons who first pass under- 
neath will correspond with those of the future husbands 
or wives. 

There is also the custom of Eating the Apple at the Glass. 
Provide yourself with an apple, and, as the clock strikes 
twelve, go alone into a room where there is a looking glass. 
Cut the apple into small pieces, throw one of them over 
your left shoulder, and advancing to the mirror without 
looking back, proceed to eat the remainder, combing your 
hair carefully the while before the glass. While thus en- 
gaged, it is said that the face of the person you are to marry 
will be seen peeping over your left shoulder. This " Hal- 
lowe'en " game is supposed to be a relic of that form of 
divination with mirrors which was condemned as sorcery 
by the former Popes. 

The Burning Nuts. Take two nuts and place them in 
the fire, bestowing on one of them your own name ; on the 
other that of the object of your affections. Should they 
burn quietly away, side by side, then the issue of your love 
affair will be prosperous ; but if one starts away from the 
other, the result will be unfavourable. 

And for the Sowing Hemp Seed, steal forth alone towards 
midnight and sow a handful of hemp seed, repeating the 
following rhyme : 
" Hemp seed, I sow thee, hemp seed, I sow thee ; 

And he that is my true love, come behind and harrow me." 
Then look over your left shoulder and you will see the 
person thus adjured in the act of harrowing. 

The ceremony of Winnowing Corn must also be gone 
through in solitude. Go to the barn and open both doors, 
taking them off the hinges if possible.lest the being you expect 
to appear, may close them and do you some injury. Then 
take the instrument used in winnowing corn, and go through 
all the attitudes of letting it down against the wind. Re- 
peat the operation three times, and the figure of your 
future partner will appear passing in at one door and out 
at the other. Should those engaging in this ceremony be 
fated to die young, it is believed that a coffin, followed by 
mourners, will enter and pursue the too adventurous youth 
or maiden, who thus wishes to pry into the hidden things 
of the future, round the barn. 

Another is Measuring the Bean Stack. Go three times 
round a bean stack with outstretched arms, as if measuring 
it, and the third time you will clasp in your arms the shade 
of your future partner. 

Eating the Herring. Just before retiring to rest eat a 
raw or roasted salt herring, and in your dreams your hus- 
band (or wife) that is to be, will come and offer you a drink 
of water to quench your thirst. 

Dipping the Shirt Sleeve. Go alone, or in company with 
others, to a stream where " three lairds' lands meet," and 
dip in the left sleeve of a shirt ; after this is done not one 
word must be spoken, otherwise the spell is broken. Then 
put your sleeve to dry before your bedroom fire. Go to 
bed, but be careful to remain awake, and you will see the 
form of your future helpmate enter and turn the sleeve 
in order that the other side may get dried. 

The Three Plates. Place three plates in a row on a table. 
In one of these put clean water, in another foul, and leave 
the third empty. Blindfold the person wishing to try his 
or her fortune, and lead them up to the table. The left 
hand must be put forward. Should it come in contact 
with the clean water, then the future spouse will be young, 
handsome, and a bachelor or maid. The foul signifies a 
widower or a widow ; and the empty dish, single blessed- 
ness. This ceremony is repeated three times, and the 
plates must be differently arranged after each attempt. 

Throwing the Clue. Steal forth alone and at night, to 



Allantara 



16 



Alruy 



the nearest lime-kiln, and throw in a clue of blue yarn, 
winding it off on to a fresh clue. As you come near the 
end, someone will grasp hold of the thread lying in the kiln. 
You then ask, " Who holds ? " when the name of your 
future partner will be uttered from beneath. 

Allantara : (See Spain.) 

Allat : Wife of Allah, and joint ruler with him oyer the 
Chaldean Hell. M. Maspero describes her as " the lady 
of the great country where all go after death, who have 
breathed here below," and as their terrible judge. 

Allen Kardec : (See Spiritualism.) 

Alii Allahis : A continuation of the old sect of the Persian 
Magi, (q.v.). 

Allmuseri : An African secret society with secret rites akin 
to those of the Cabiric and Orphic Mysteries. Their 
reception takes place once a year in a wood, and the candi- 
date is supposed to die. The Initiates surround the 
Neophyte and chant funereal songs. He is then brought 
to the temple erected for the purpose, and anointed with 
palm oil. After forty days of probation, he is said to have 
obtained a new soul, is greeted with hymns of joy, and 
conducted home. (See Heckethorn, Secret Societies.) 

Alludels : (See Arabs.) 

Alraadel : [See Key of Solomon.) 

Almagest : (See Astrology.) 

Almanach du Diable : An almanac containing some very 
curious predictions for the years 1737 and 1738, which 
purported to be published in the infernal regions. It is a 
satire against the Jansenists, which was suppressed on 
account of some over-bold predictions, and which has 
become very rare. The authorship was ascribed to Quesnel, 
an ironmonger at Dijon. The Jansenists replied with, a 
pamphlet directed against the Jesuits, which was also 
suppressed. It was entitled Almanac de Dieu, dedicated to 
M. Carre de Montgeron, for the year 1738, and, in contra- 
distinction to the other, claimed satirically to be printed in 
heaven. 

Almoganenses : The name given by the Spaniards to certain 
people who, by the flight and song of birds, meetings with 
wild animals, and various other means, foretold coming 
events, whether good or evil. " They carefully preserve 
among themselves," says Laurent Valla, " books which 
treat of this science, where they find rules of all sorts of 
prognostications and predictions. The soothsayers are 
divided into two classes, one, the masters or principals, 
the other the disciples and aspirants." 

Another kind of knowledge is also attributed to them, 
that of being able to indicate not only the way taken by 
horses and other beasts of burden which are lost, but even 
the road followed by one or more persons. They can 
specify the kind and shape of the ground, whether the 
earth is hard or soft, covered with sand or grass, whether it 
is a broad road, paved or sanded, or narrow, twisting paths, 
and tell also how many passengers are on the road. They 
can thus follow the track of anyone, and cause thieves to be 
pursued and apprehended. Those writers who mention 
the Almoganenses, however, do not specify either the period 
when they flourished, or the country or province they 
occupied, but it seems possible from their name and other 
considerations that they were Moorish. 

Alocer : A powerful demon, according to Wierius, Grand 
Duke of Hades. He appears in the shape of a knight 
mounted on an enormous horse. His face has leonine 
characteristics ; he has a ruddy complexion and burning 
eyes ; and he speaks with much gravity. He is said to 
give family happiness to those whom he takes under his 
protection, and to teach astronomy and liberal arts. Thirty- 
six legions are controlled by him. 

Alomancy : Divination by means of salt, of which process 
little is known. It is this science which justifies people in 



saying that misfortune is about to fall on the household 
when the salt cellar is overturned. 

Alopecy : A species of charm by the aid of which one can 
fascinate an enemy against whom he has a grudge, and 
whom he wishes to harm. 

Alphabet, Magical : (See Kabala.) 

Alphabet of the Magi : (See Tarot.) 

Alphitomancy : A method of divination carried out with the 
help of a loaf of barley, which has been practised since the 
earliest days. It was used to prove the guilt or innocence 
of a suspected person. When many persons were accused 
of a crime, and it was desired to find the true culprit, a loaf 
of barley was made and a portion given to each of the sus- 
pected ones. The innocent people suffered no ill-effects, 
while the criminal betrayed himself by an attack of indiges- 
tion. This practice gave rise to a popular imprecation : 
" If I am deceiving you, may this piece of bread choke, 
me." By means of it a lover might know if his mistress was 
faithful to him, or a wife, her husband. The procedure was 
as follows : A quantity of pure barley flour was kneaded 
with milk and a little salt, and without any leaven. It was 
then rolled up in greased paper, and cooked among the 
cinders. It was afterwards taken out and rubbed with 
verbena leaves, and given to the person suspected of 
deceit, who, if the suspicion was justified, would be unable 
to digest it. 

There was said to be near Lavinium a sacred wood, where 
Alphitomancy was practised in order to test the purity of 
the women. The priests kept a serpent, or, as some say, a 
dragon, in a cavern in the wood. On certain days of the 
year the young women were sent thither, blind-folded, 
and carrying a cake made of barley flour and honey. The 
devil, we are told, led them by the right road. Those who 
were innocent had their cakes eaten by the serpent, while 
the cakes of the others were refused. 

Alpiel : An angel or demon, who, according to the Talmud, 
presides over fruit-trees. 

Alraun : Images made of the roots of the ash tree, which are 
sometimes mistakenly called mandrakes, (q.v.) 

Airlines : Female demons or sorceresses, the mothers of the 
Huns. They took all sorts of shapes, but without changing 
their sex. The name was given by the Germans to little 
statues of old sorceresses, about a foot high. To these they 
attributed great virtues, honouring them as the negroes 
honour their fetishes ; clothing them richly, housing them 
comfortably, and serving them with food and drink at every 
meal. They believed that if these little images were 
neglected they would cry out, a catastrophe which was to be 
avoided at all costs, as it brought dire misfortunes upon 
the household. They may have been mandrakes, and it was 
claimed for them that they could foretell the future, ans- 
wering by means of motions of the head, or unintelligible 
words. They are still consulted in Norway. 

Alruy, David : A Jewish magician, mentioned in his Voyages 
by Benjamin the Jew. Alruy boasted himself a descendant 
of King David. He was educated in Bagdad, receiving 
instruction in the magic arts to such good purpose that he 
came to be more proficient than his masters. His false 
miracles gained so much popularity for him that some of 
the Jews believed him to be that prophet who was to 
restore their nation to Jerusalem. The King of Persia 
caused him to be cast into prison, but no bolts and bars 
could hold for long so redoubtable a magician. He escaped 
from his prison and appeared before the eyes of the aston- 
ished king, though the courtiers standing round saw noth- 
ing, and only heard his voice. In vain the king called angrily 
for someone to arrest the imposter. No one could see him, 
and while they groped in search of him, like men blind- 
folded, he slipped from the palace, with the king in pursuit, 
all the amazed assembly running after their prince. At. 



Althotas 



17 



America 



length they reached the sea shore, and Alruy turned and 
showed himself to all the people. Then, spreading a scarf 
on the surface of the water, he walked over it lightly, before 
the boats which were to pursue him were ready. This 
adventure confirmed his reputation as the greatest magician 
who had lived within the memory of man. But at last a 
Turkish prince, a subject of the Persian king, bribed the 
father-in-law of the sorcerer to kill him, and one night, 
when Alruy was sleeping peacefully in his bed, a dagger 
thrust put an end to his existence. 

Althotas : The presumed " master " and companion of 
Cagliostro. Considerable doubt has been expressed re- 
garding his existence. Figuier states that he was no 
imaginary character ; that the Roman Inquisition collected 
many proofs of his existence, but none as regards his origin 
or end, as he vanished like a meteor. " But," states the 
French author, " he was a magician and doctor as well, 
possessed divinatory abilities of a high order, was in pos- 
session of several Arabic manuscripts, and had great skill 
in chemistry." His connection with Cagliostro will be 
found detailed in the article on that adept. Eliphas Levi 
states that the name Althotas is composed of the word 
" thot " with the syllables " al " and " as," which if read 
cabalistically are sala, meaning messenger or envoy ; the 
name as a whole therefore signifies " Thot, the Messenger 
of the Egyptians," and such, says Levi, in effect he was. 
Althotas has been sometimes identified with Kolmer, the 
instructor of Weishaupt in magic, and at other times with 
the Comte de Sainte-Germain (both of whom see). It 
would indeed, be difficult to say with any definiteness 
whether or not A Ithotas was merely a figment of Cagliostro's 
brain. The accounts concerning him are certainly con- 
flicting, for whereas Cagliostro stated at his trial in Paris 
that A Ithotas had been his lifelong preceptor, another account 
says that; he met him first on the quay at Messina, and the 
likelihood is that his character is purely fictitious, as there 
does not appear to be any exact evidence that he was ever 
encountered in the flesh by anyone. 

Alu-Demon : This Semitic demon owes his parentage to a 
human being ; he hides himself in caverns and corners, and 
slinks through the streets at night. He also lies in wait 
for the unwary, and at night enters bed-chambers and 
terrorises folks, threatening to pounce upon them if they 
shut their eyes. 

Amadeus : A visionary who experienced an apocalypse and 
revelations, in one of which he learned the two psalms 
composed by Adam, one a mark of joy at the creation of 
Eve, and the other the dialogue he held with her after they 
had sinned. Both psalms are printed in Fabricius' Codex 
Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti. 

Amaimon : One of the four spirits who preside over the four 
parts of the universe. Amaimon, according to the magic- 
ians, was the governor of the eastern part. 

Amandinus : A variously coloured stone, which enables the 
wearer of it to solve any question concerning dreams or 
enigmas. 

Amaranth : A flower which is one of the symbols of immortal- 
ity. It has been said by magicians that a crown made with 
this flower has supernatural properties, and will bring fame 
and favour to those who wear it. 

Ambassadors, Demon : {See Demonology.) 

Amduseias : Grand Duke of Hades. He has, according to 
Wierius (q.v.), the form of a unicorn, but when evoked, 
appears in human shape. He gives concerts, at the com- 
mand of men, where one hears the sound of all the musical 
instruments but can see nothing. It is said that the trees 
themselves incline to his voice. He commands twenty- 
nine legions. 

America, United States of : Occultism amongst the aborig-" 
inal tribes of America will be found dealt with under the 



article " North-American Indians." The occult history of 
the European races which occupy the territory now known 
as the United States of America does not commence until 
some little time after their entrance into the North Ameri- 
can continent. It is probable that the early English 
and Dutch settlers carried with them the germs of the 
practice of witchcraft, but it is certain that they brought 
with them an active belief in witchcraft and sorcery. It 
is significant, however, that no outbreak of fanaticism 
occurred in connection with this belief until nearly the end 
of the seventeenth century, in 1692, when an alarm of 
witchcraft was raised in the family of the Minister of Salem, 
and several black servants were charged with the supposed 
crime. It is quite likely that these negroes practised 
voodoo or obeah (q.v.), but, however this may be, the 
charges did not stop at them. The alarm spread rapidly, 
and in a brief space numerous persons fell under suspicion 
on the most frivolous pretexts. The new Governor of the 
Colony, Sir William Phipps, appears to have been carried 
away with the excitement, and authorised judicial prose- 
cutions. The first person tried, a woman named Bridget 
Bishop, was hanged, and the Governor feeling himself 
embarassed among the extraordinary number of charges 
made after this, called in the assistance of the clergy of 
Boston. 3k.s events proved, this was a fatal thing to do. 
Boston, at this time, possessed a distinguished family of 
puritanical ministers of the name of Mather. The original 
Mather had settled in Dorchester in 1636, and three years 
later had a son born to him, whom he called Increase Mather. 
He became a clergyman, as did his son. Cotton Mather, 
born in 1663. Increase was President of Harvard College, 
and his son occupied a distinguished position therein, and 
also preached at Boston. The fanaticism and diabolical 
cruelty of these two men has probably never been equalled 
in the history of human persecution. Relying implicitly 
upon the scriptural injunction : " Thou shalt not suffer a 
witch to live," and blinded by their fanatic zeal, they cost 
the colony many precious lives. Indeed, beside their 
regime, the rigours of Sprenger (q.v.) and Bodin (q.v.), pale 
into insignificance. That ministers professing to preach 
a gospel of charity and love could have so far descended as 
to torture and condemn thousands of human beings to the 
gallows and the stake, can only be regarded as astounding. 
In 1688 an Irish washer woman, named Glover, was em- 
ployed by a mason of Boston, one Goodwin, to look 
after his children, and these shortly afterwards displayed 
symptoms which Cotton Mather, on examination, stated 
were those of diabolical possession. The wretched washer- 
woman was brought to trial, found guilty, and hanged ; 
and Cotton Mather launched into print upon the case 
under the title of Late Memorable Providences Relating to 
Witchcraft and Possession which displayed an extraordinary 
amount of ingenuity and an equally great lack of anything 
like sound judgment. As was the case with the works of 
the European writers on witchcraft and sorcery, this book 
fanned the flame of credulity, and thousands of the ignor- 
ant throughout the colony began to cast about for similar 
examples of witchcraft. Five other persons were brought 
to trial and executed, and a similar number shortly met 
the same fate, among them a minister of the Gospel, by 
name George Borroughs, who disbelieved in witchcraft. This 
was sufficient, and he was executed forthwith. Popular 
sentiment was on his side, but the fiendish Cotton Mather 
appeared at the place of execution on horseback, denounced 
Borroughs as an impostor, and upheld the action of his 
judges. Another man, called Willard, who had been 
employed to arrest suspected witches, refused to continue 
in his office, and was himself arrested. He attempted to 
save himself by flight, but was pursued and overtaken, and 
duly executed. Even dogs accused of witchcraft were put 



America 



18 



America 



to death, but the magistrates who had undertaken the 
proceedings, ignorant as they were, began to have some 
suspicion that the course they had adopted was a violent 
and dangerous one, and popular sentiment rose so high that 
the Governor requested Cotton Mather to write a treatise 
in defence of what had been done. The result was the 
famous volume, Wonders of the Invisible World, in which 
the author gives an account of several of the trials at Salem, 
compares the doings of witches in New England with those 
in other parts of the world, and discourses elaborately on 
witchcraft generally. The witch mania now spread 
throughout the whole colony. One of the first checks it 
received was the accusation of the wife of Mr. Hale, a 
minister. Her husband had been a zealous promotor 
of the prosecutions, but this accusation altered his views, 
and he became convinced of the injustice of the whole 
movement. But certain persons raised the question as to 
whether the Devil could not assume the shape of an inno- 
cent and pious person as well as a wicked one for his own 
purposes, and the assistance of Increase Mather, President 
of Harvard College, was called in to decide this. He wrote 
a book, A Further Account of the Trials of the New England 
Witches, and added many cases concerning witchcraft and 
evil spirits personating men, in the course of which he un- 
hesitatingly affirmed that it was possible for the enemy 
of mankind to assume the guise of a person in whom there 
was no guile. A new scene of agitation was the town of 
Andover, where a great many persons were accused of 
witchcraft and thrown into prison, until a certain justice 
of the peace, named Bradstreet, who deserves special 
mention for his enlightened policy, refused to grant any 
more warrants for arrest. The accusers immediately 
fastened upon him, and declared that he had killed several 
people by means of sorcery, and so alarmed was he that he 
fled from the town. But the fanatics who made it their 
business to accuse, became bolder, and aimed at persons 
of rank, until at last they had the audacity to impeach 
the wife of Governor Phipps himself. This withdrew from 
them the countenance of the Governor, and a certain 
Bostonian who was accused, brought an action of damages 
against his accusers for defamation of character. After 
this, the whole agitation died down, and scores of persons 
who had made confessions retracted ; but the Mathers 
obstinately persisted in the opinions they had published, 
and regarded the reactionary feeling as a triumph of Satan. 
A Boston girl, named Margaret Rule, was seized with con- 
vulsions, and when visited by Cotton Mather, was found by 
him to be suffering from a diabolical attack of obsession. 
He did his best to renew the agitation, but to no purpose, 
for a certain Robert Calif, an influential merchant of the 
town, also examined the girl, and satisfied himself that the 
whole thing was a delusion. He penned an account of 
his examination exposing the theories of the Mathers, 
which is published under the title of More Wonders of the 
Invisible World. This book was publicly burned by the 
partisans of the fanatical clergy, but the eyes of the public 
were now opened, and opinion generally was steadfastly 
against the accusation and prosecution of reputed witches. 
The people of Salem drove from their midst the minister, 
Paris, with whom the prosecution had begun, and a deep 
remorse settled down upon the community. Indeed, most 
of the persons concerned in the judicial proceedings pro- 
claimed their regret ; the jurors signed a paper stating 
their repentance and pleading delusion. But even all this 
failed to convince the Mathers, and Cotton wrote his 
Magnalia, an ecclesiastical history of New England, pub- 
lished 1700, which repeats his original view of the power 
of Satan at Salem, and evinces no regret for the part he had 
taken in the matter. In 1723, he edited The Remarkables 
of his father, in which he took occasion to repeat his theories. 



Increase Mather died in 1723, at the age of eighty-five, and 
Cotton lived on to 1728. It has been claimed that they 
acted according to their lights and conscience, but there 
is no doubt that their vanity would not permit them to 
retract what they had once set down regarding witchcraft, 
and their names will go down to posterity with those of the 
inquisitors and torturers of the middle ages, as men, who 
with less excuse than these, tormented and bereft of life 
hundreds of totally innocent people. 

For the history of Spiritualism in America, See Spirit- 
ualism, where a full summary of the subject will be found. 

Apart from the doings at Salem, colonial America has 
little to offer in the way of occult history ; but the modern 
United States of America is extremely rich in occult history. 
This, however, is a history of outstanding individuals — 
Thomas Lake Harris, Brigham Young, the Foxes, Andrew 
Jackson Davis, and so on, biographies of whom will be 
found scattered throughout this work. But that is not to 
say that various occult movements have not from time to 
time either originated in, or found a home in the United 
States. Indeed, the number of occult or semi-occult sects 
which have originated there, is exceedingly great, and the 
foundation of occult communities has been frequent. 
Such were the Mountain Cove community of Harris ; the 
Society of Hopedale, founded by Ballou ; and so on. The 
notorious community, or rather nation of Mormons had 
undoubtedly a semi-occult origin. Its founder, Joseph 
Smith, and its first great prophet, Brigham Young, both 
had occult ideas, which rather remind us of those of Blake 
(q.v.), and were decidedly of biblical origin. Smith pur- 
ported to discover tablets of brass upon which was en- 
graved the new law. This was the germ of the Book of 
Morman the Prophet, and a certain pseudo-mysticism was 
associated with the Mormon movement. This, however, 
wore off after a while. More fresh in the recollection are 
the blasphemous absurdities of the prophet Dowie, who 
purported to be a prophet of the new Christianity, and 
succeeded in amassing very considerable wealth. Later, 
however, he became discredited, and many of his disciples 
seceded from him. Sects of Adventists have also been 
fairly numerous. These persons at the call of their 
leaders have met in cemeteries and elsewhere arrayed 
in white robes, in the belief that the Last Day had arrived ; 
but finding themselves duped, they invariably turned upon 
the charlatans who had aroused these false hopes. There 
is an instance on record, however, where one such person 
succeeded in bringing about the repetition of such a scene. 

Theosophy, as will be seen in the central article on that 
subject, owes much to America, for it may be said that in 
the United States it received an almost novel interpreta- 
tion at the hands of William Q. Judge, and Katherine B. 
Tingley, the founder of the theosophic colony at Point 
Loma, California. 

The United States is frequently alluded to as the home 
and birth-place of " queer " religions par excellance. 
If Paris be excepted this charge holds good, for nowhere 
is pseudo-occultism so rife. It would indeed be difficult 
to account for this state of things. Shrewd as the 
average American is, there is no question that he is 
prone to extremes, and the temper of the nation as a whole 
is not a little hysterical. Such sects are often founded by 
unscrupulous foreign adventurers, and worshippers of 
Isis, diabolic societies and such-like abound in the larger 
cities, and even in some of the lesser communities. But 
on the other hand many such cults, the names of which for 
obvious reasons we cannot mention here, are of native 
Ameiican origin. In course of time these duly invade 
Europe, with varying fortunes. There exist, how- 
ever, in America, numbers of cultured persons who 
make a serious study of the higher branches of mysticism 



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and occultism, and who compare favourably in erudition 
and character with advanced European mystics. It might 
indeed with truth be said that America has produced the 
greatest occult leaders of the last quarter of a century. 

American Indians. Among the various native races 
of the American continent, the supernatural has ever 
flourished as universally as among peoples in an analo- 
gous condition of civilisation in other parts of the 
world. They will be treated in the present article accord- 
ing to their geographical situation. Mexico, Central 
America and Peru have been noticed in separate articles. 

North American Indians. The oldest writers on the 
North American Indians agree that they practised sorcery 
and the magic arts, and often attributed this power of the 
Indians to Satan. The Rev. Peter Jones, writing as late 
as the first decade of the nineteenth century, says : " I 
have sometimes been inclined to think that if witchcraft 
still exists in the world, it is to be found among the abori- 
gines of America." The early French settlers called the 
Nipissing Jongleurs because of the surprising expertness 
in magic of their medicine men. Carver and Fletcher 
observed the use of hypnotic suggestion among the Menomi- 
nee and Sioux about the middle of last century, and it is 
generally admitted that this art, which is known to modern 
Americanists as orenda, is known among most Indian tribes 
as Mooney has proved in his Ghost Dance Religion. Brinton, 
alluding to Indian medicine-men and their connection 
with the occult arts, says : " They were also adepts in 
tricks of sleight of hand, and had no mean acquaintance 
with what is called natural magic. They would allow 
themselves to be tied hand and foot with knots innumer- 
able, and at a sign would shake them loose as so many 
wisps of straw ; they would spit fire and swallow hot coals, 
pick glowing stones from the flames, walk with naked feet 
over live ashes, and plunge their arms to the shoulder in 
kettles of boiling water with apparent impunity. 

" Nor was this all. With a skill not inferior to that of 
the jugglers of India, they could plunge knives into vital 
parts, vomit blood, or kill one another out and out to all 
appearances, and yet in a few minutes be as well as ever ; 
they could set fire to articles of clothing and even houses, 
and by a touch of their magic restore them instantly as 
perfect as before. Says Father Bautista : ' They can make 
a stick look like a serpent, a mat like a centipede, and a 
piece of stone like a scorpion.' If it were not within our 
power to see most of these miracles performed any night 
in our great cities by a well-dressed professional, we should 
at once deny their possibility. As it is they astonish us 
but little. 

" One of the most peculiar and characteristic exhibitions 
of their power, was to summon a spirit to answer inquiries 
concerning the future and the absent. A great similarity 
marked this proceeding in all northern tribes, from the 
Eskimos to the Mexicans. A circular or conical lodge of 
stout poles, four or eight in number, planted firmly in the 
ground was covered with skins or mats, a small aperture 
only being left for the seer to enter. Once in, he carefully 
closed the hole and commenced his incantations. Soon 
the lodge trembles, the strong poles shake and bend as 
with the united strength of a dozen men, and strange, un- 
earthly sounds, now far aloft in the air, now deep in the 
ground, anon approaching near and nearer, reach the ears 
of the spectators. 

" At length the priest announces that the spirit is present, 
and is prepared to answer questions. An indispenpalve 
preliminary to any inquiry is to insert a handful of tobacco, 
or a string of beads, or some such douceur under the skins, 
ostensibly for the behoof of the celestial visitor, who would 
seem not to be above earthly wants and vanities. The 
replies received, though occasionally singularly clear and 



correct, are usually of that profoundly ambiguous purport 
which leaves the anxious inquirer little wiser than he was 
before. 

" For all this, ventriloquism, trickery, and shrewd 
knavery are sufficient explanations. Nor does it mater- 
ially interfere with this view, that converted Indians, on 
whose veracity we can implicitly rely, have repeatedly 
averred that in performing this rite they themselves did 
not move the medicine lodge ; for nothing is easier than in 
the state of nervous excitement they were then in to be 
self-deceived, as the now familiar phenomenon of table- 
turning illustrates. 

" But there is something more than these vulgar arts 
now and then to be perceived. There are statements sup- 
ported by unquestionable testimony, which ought not 
to be passed over in silence, and yet I cannot but approach 
them with hesitation. They are so revolting to the laws 
of exact science, so alien, I had almost said, to the experience 
of our lives. Yet is this true, or are such experiences only 
ignored and put aside without serious consideration ? 
Are there not in the history of each of us passages which 
strike our retrospective thought with awe, almost with 
terror ? Are . there not in nearly every community in- 
dividuals who possess a mysterious power, concerning 
whose origin, mode of action, and limits, we and they are 
alike, in the dark ? 

" I refer to such organic forces as are popularly summed 
up under the words clairvoyance, mesmerism, rhabdom- 
ancy, animal magnetism, physical spiritualism. Civilised 
thousands stake their faith and hope here and hereafter, 
on the truth of these manifestations ; rational medicine 
recognises their existence, and while she attributes them 
to morbid and exceptional influences, confesses her want 
of more exact knowledge, and refrains from barren theoris- 
ing. Let us follow her example, and hold it enough to 
show that such powers, whatever they are, were known to 
the native priesthood as well as the modern spiritualists 
and the miracle mongers of the Middle Ages. 

" Their highest development is what our ancestors 
called ' second sight.' That under certain conditions 
knowledge can pass from one mind to another otherwise 
than through the ordinary channels of the senses, is shown 
by the examples of persons en rapport. The limit to this 
we do not know, but it is not unlikely that clairvoyance 
or second sight is based upon it." 

In his autobiography, the celebrated Sac chief, Black 
Hawk, relates that his great grandfather " was inspired 
by a belief that at the end of four years he should see a 
white man, who would be to him a father." Under the 
direction of this vision he travelled eastward to a certain 
spot, and there, as he was forewarned, met a Frenchman, 
through whom the nation was brought into alliance with 
France. 

No one at all versed in the Indian character will doubt 
the implicit faith with which this legend was told and 
heard. But we may be pardoned our scepticism, seeing 
there are so many chances of error. It is not so with an 
anecdote related by Captain Jonathan Carver, a cool- 
headed English trader, whose little book of travels is an 
unquestioned authority. In 1767 he was among the 
Killistenoes at a time when they were in great straits 
for food, and depending upon the arrival of the traders to 
rescue them from starvation. They persuaded the chief 
priest to consult the divinities as to when the relief would 
arrive. After the usual preliminaries, their magnate 
announced that the next day precisely, when the sun 
reached the zenith, a canoe would arrive with further 
tidings. At the appointed hour, the whole vilage, to- 
gether with the incredulous Englishman, was on the beach, 
and sure enough, at the minute specified, a canoe swung 



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round a distant point of land, and rapidly approaching 
the shore, brought the expected news. Charlevoix is 
nearly as trustworthy a writer as Carver. Yet he de- 
liberately relates an equally singular instance. 

But these examples are surpassed by one described in 
the Atlantic Monthly, of July, 1866, the author of which, 
the late Col. John Mason Brown, has testified to its 
accuracy in every particular. Some years since at the 
head of a party of voyageurs, he set forth in search of a 
band of Indians somewhere on the vast plains along the 
tributaries of the Copper-mine and Mackenzie rivers. 
Danger, disappointment, and the fatigues of the road, 
induced one after another to turn back, until of the original 
ten only three remained. They also were on the point 
of giving up the apparently hopeless quest, when they were 
met by some warriors of the very band they were seeking. 
These had been sent out by one of their medicine men to 
find three whites, whose horses, arms, attire, and personal 
appearance he minutely described, which description was 
repeated to Col. Brown by the warriors before they saw his 
two companions. When afterwards, the priest, a frank 
and simple-minded man, was asked to explain this extra- 
ordinary occurrence, he could offer no other explanation 
than that " he saw them coming, and heard them talk on 
their journey." 

Many tales such as these have been recorded by travellers, 
and however much they may shock our sense of probability, 
as well-authenticated exhibitions of a power which sways 
the Indian mind, and which has ever prejudiced it so un- 
changeably against Christianity and civilisation, they can- 
not be disregarded. Whether they too are but specimens 
of refined knavery, whether they are instigations of the 
devil, or whether they must be classed with other facts as 
illustrating certain obscure and curious mental faculties, 
each may decide as the bent of his mind inclines him, for 
science makes no decision. 

Those nervous conditions associated with the name of 
Mesmer were nothing new to the Indian magicians. Rub- 
bing and stroking the sick, and the laying on of hands, were 
very common parts of their clinical procedures, and at the 
initiations to their societies they were frequently exhibited. 
Observers have related that among the Nez Perces of 
Oregon, the novice was put to sleep by songs, incantations, 
and " certain passes of the hand," and that with the 
Dakotas he would be struck lightly on the breast at a pre- 
concerted moment, and instantly " would drop prostrate 
on his face, his muscles rigid and quivering in every fibre." 

There is no occasion to suppose deceit in this. It finds 
its parallel in every race and every age, and rests on a 
characteristic trait of certain epochs and certain men, 
which leads them to seek the divine, not in thoughtful con- 
templation on the laws of the universe and the facts of 
self-consciousness, but in an entire immolation of the 
latter, a sinking of their own individuality in that of 
the spirits whose alliance they seek. 

The late Washington Mathews, writing in Bulletin 30 of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, says : 

" Sleight-of-hand was not only much employed in the 
treatment of disease, but was used on many other occasions. 
A very common trick among Indian charlatans was to 
pretend to suck foreign bodies, such as stones, out of the 
persons of their patients. Records of this are found among 
many tribes, from the lowest in culture to the highest, even 
among the Aztecs. Of course, such trickery was not with- 
out some therapeutic efficacy, for, like many other pro- 
ceedings of the shamans, it was designed to cure disease by 
influence on the imagination. A Hidatsa, residing in 
Dakota, in 1865, was known by the name of Cherry-in-the- 
mouth, because he had a trick of producing from his mouth, 
at any season, what seemed to be fresh wild cherries. He . 



had found some way of preserving cherries, perhaps in 
whisky, and it was easy for him to hide them in his mouth 
before intending to play the trick ; but many of the In- 
dians considered it wonderful magic. 

" The most astonishing tricks of the Indians were dis- 
played in their fire ceremonies and in handling hot sub- 
stances, accounts of which performances pertain to various 
tribes. It is said that Chippewa sorcerers could handle 
with impunity red-hot stones and burning brands, and 
could bathe the hands in boiling water or syrup ; such 
magicians were called ' fire-dealers ' and ' fire-handlers.' 
There are authentic accounts from various parts of the 
world of fire-dancers and fire-walks among barbarous races, 
and extraordinary fire acts are performed also among 
widely separated Indian tribes. Among the Arikara of 
what is now North Dakota, in the autumn of 1865, when 
a large fire in the centre of the medicine lodge had died 
down until it became a bed of glowing embers, and the light 
in the lodge was dim, the performers ran with apparently 
bare feet among the hot coals and threw these around in the 
lodge with their bare hands, causing the spectators to flee. 
Among the Nahavo, performers, naked except for breech- 
cloth and moccasins, and having their bodies daubed with a 
white infusorial clay, run at high speed around a fire, hold- 
ing in their hands great faggots of flaming cedar bark, which 
they apply to the bare backs of those in front of them and 
to their own persons. Their wild race around the fire is 
continued until the faggots are nearly all consumed, but they 
are never inj ured by the flame. This immunity may be ac- 
counted for by supposing that the cedar bark does not 
make a very hot fire, and that the clay coating protects the 
body. Menominee shamans are said to handle fire, as also 
are the female sorcerers of Honduras. 

" Indians know well how to handle venomous serpents 
with impunity. If they can not avoid being bitten, as 
they usually can, they seem to be able to avert the fatal 
consequences of the bite. The wonderful acts performed 
in the Snake Dance of the Hopi have often been described. 

" A trick of Navaho dancers, in the ceremony of the 
mountain chant, is to pretend to thrust an arrow far down 
the throat. In this feat an arrow with a telescopic shaft 
is used ; the point is held between the teeth ; the hollow 
part of the handle, covered with plumes, is forced down 
toward the lips, and thus the arrow appears to be swallowed. 
There is an account of an arrow of similar construction 
used early in the eighteenth century by Indians of Canada, 
who pretended a man was wounded by it and healed in- 
stantly. The Navaho also pretend to swallow sticks, 
which their neighbours of the peublo of Zufii actually do 
in sacred rites, occasionally rupturing the oesophagus in the 
ordeal of forcing a stick into the stomach. Special societies 
which practise magic, having for their chief object rain- 
making and the cure of disease, exist among the south- 
western tribes. Swallowing sticks, arrows, etc., eating 
and walking on fire, and trampling on cactus, are per- 
formed by members of the same fraternity. 

" Magicians are usually men ; but among the aborigines 
of the Mosquito Coast in Central America, they are often 
women who are called sukias, and are said to exercise great 
power. According to Hewitt, Iroquois women are reported 
traditionally to have been magicians. 

" A trick of the juggler among many tribes of the North 
was to cause himself to be bound hand and foot and then, 
without visible assistance or effort on his part to release 
himself from the bonds. Civilised conjurers who perform 
a similar trick are hidden in a cabinet, and claim super- 
natural aid ; but some Indian jugglers performed this 
feat under observation. It was common for Indian magic- 
ians to pretend they could bring rain, but the trick con- 
sisted simply of keeping up ceremonies until rain fell, the 



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last ceremony being the one credited with success. Catlin 
describes this among the Mandan, in 1832, and the practice 
is still common among the Pueblo tribes of the arid region. 
The rain-maker was a special functionary among the 
Menominee. 

" To cause a large plant to grow to maturity in a few 
moments and out of season is another Indian trick. The 
Navaho plant the root stalk of a yucca in the ground in the 
middle of the winter, and apparently cause it to grow, 
blossom, and bear fruit in a few moments. This is done 
by the use of artificial flowers and fruit carried under the 
blankets of the performers ; the dimness of the firelight 
and the motion of the surrounding dancers hide from the 
spectators the operations of the shaman when he exchanges 
one artificial object for another. In this way the Hopi 
grow beans, and the Zufii corn, the latter using a large 
cooking pot to cover the growing plant." 

South American Indians. Throughout South America 
the magician caste analogous to the medicine men or 
shamans of North America are known as piajes or piaes. 
Of those of British Guiana, Brett writes : 

" They are each furnished with a large gourd or calabash, 
which has been emptied of its seeds and spongy contents, 
and has a round stick run through the middle of it by means 
of two holes. The ends of this stick project — one forms 
the handle of the instrument, and the other has a long 
string to which beautiful feathers are attached, wound 
round it in spiral circles. Within the calabash are a few 
small white stones, which rattle when it is shaken or 
turned round. The calabash itself is usually painted red. 
It is regarded with great awe by the heathen Indians, who 
fear to touch it, or even to approach the place where it is 
kept. 

" When attacked by sickness, the Indians cause them- 
selves to be conveyed to some friendly sorcerer, to whom a 
present of more or less value must be made. Death is 
sometimes occasioned by those removals, cold being taken 
from wet or the damp of the river. If the patient cannot 
be removed, the sorcerer is sent for to visit him. The 
females are all sent away from the place, and the men must 
keep at a respectful distance, as he does not like his pro- 
ceedings to be closely inspected. He then commences his 
exorcisms, turning, and shaking his marakka, or rattle 
and chanting an address to the yauhahu. This is con- 
tinued for hours, until about midnight the spirit is sup- 
posed to be present, and a conversation to take place, which 
is unintelligible to the Indians, who may overhear it. 
These ceremonies are kept up for successive nights. 

"If the patient be strong enough to endure the disease, 
the excitement, the noise, and the fumes of tobacco in 
which he is at times enveloped, and the sorcerer observe 
signs of recovery he will pretend to extract the cause of 
the complaint by sucking the part affected. After many 
ceremonies he will produce from his mouth some strange 
substance, such as a thorn or gravel-stone, a fish-bone 
or bird's claw, a snake's tooth, or a piece of wire, which 
some malicious yauhahu is supposed to have inserted in the 
affected part. As soon as the patient fancies himself rid 
of this cause of his illness his recovery is generally rapid, 
and the fame of the sorcerer greatly increased. Should 
death, however, ensue, the blame is laid upon the evil 
spirit, whose power and malignity have prevailed over the 
counteracting charms. Some rival sorcerer will at times 
come in for a share of the blame, whom the sufferer has 
unhappily made his enemy, and who is supposed to have 
employed the yauhahu in destroying him. The sorcerers 
being supposed to have the power of causing, as well as of 
curing diseases, are much dreaded by the common people, 
who never wilfully offend them. So deeply rooted in the 
Indian's bosom is this belief concerning the origin of 



diseases, that they have little idea of sickness arising from 
other causes. Death may arise from a wound or a con- 
tusion, or be brought on by want of food, but in other cases 
it is the work of the yauhahu. 

" I once came upon a Warau practising his art upon a 
woman inflicted with a severe internal complaint. He 
was, when I first saw him, blowing violently into his hands 
and rubbing them upon the affected part. He very 
candidly acknowledged his imposture when I taxed him 
with it, put up his implements, and went away. The fate 
of the poor woman, as it was relate.l to me some time after- 
wards, was very sad. Though a Venezuelan half-breed, 
and of the Church of Rome, she was wedded to the Indian 
superstitions, and after trying the most noted sorcerers 
without relief, she inflicted on herself a mortal wound 
with a razor in the vain attempt to cut out the imaginary 
cause of her internal pain. 

" Some have imagined that those men have faith in the 
power of their own incantations fn>m their performing them 
over their own children, and even causing them to be acted 
over themselves when sick. This practice it is indeed 
difficult to account for. The juggling part of their busi- 
ness is such a gross imposture as could only succeed with 
a very ignorant and credulous people ; but it is perhaps 
in their case, as in some others, difficult to tell the precise 
point where credulity ends and imposture begins. It is 
certain that they are excited during their incantations in a 
most extraordinary way, and • positively affirm • that they 
hold intercourse with spirits ; nor will they allow them- 
selves to be laughed out of the assertion however ridiculous 
it may appear to us. 

" The Waraus, in many points the most degraded of the 
tribes, are the most renowned as sorcerers. The huts 
which they set apart for the performance of their super- 
stitious rites are regarded with great veneration. 

" Mr. Nowers, on visiting a Warau settlement, entered 
one of those huts, not being aware of the offence he was 
committing, and found it perfectly empty, with the excep- 
tion of the gourd, or mataro, as it is called by the tribe. 
There was, in the centre of the hut, a small raised place 
about eighteen inches high, on which the fire had been 
made for burning tobacco. The sorcerer being asked to 
give up the gourd, peremptorily refused, saying that if he 
did so his ' two children would die the same night.' " 

Keller, in his Amazon and Madeira Rivers, says : " As 
with the shamans of the North Asiatic nations, the influence 
a Paje may secure over his tribe depends entirely on the 
success of his cures and his more or less imposing personal 
qualities. Woe to him if by some unlucky ministration 
or fatal advice he forfeits his prestige. The hate of the 
whole tribe turns against him, as if to indemnify them for 
the fear and awe felt by them until then ; and often he 
pays for his envied position with his life. 

" And an influential and powerful position it is. His 
advice is first heard in war and peace. He has to mark 
the boundaries of the hunting-grounds ; and, when quarrels 
arise, he has to decide in concert with the chieftain, some- 
times even against the latter's wishes. By a majestically 
distant demeanour, and by the affectation of severe fasting 
and of nightly meetings with the spirits of another world, 
these augurs have succeeded in giving such an appearance 
of holiness to the whole caste, that their influence is a 
mighty one to the present day, even with" the Indians of 
the Aldeamentos, where contact with the white race is sure 
by-and-by to produce a certain degree of scepticism. 

" When I was at the Aldeamento of San Ignacio, on the 
Paranapanema, Cuyaba, chieftain and Paje of an indepen- 
dent horde of Cayowa Indians made his appearance, and 
I had the honour of being introduced to this magnificent 
sample of a conjurer. He was a man of about fifty, with 



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Amethyst 



large well-cut features, framed within a dense, streaming 
mane of long black hair. The long xerimbita on his under 
lip (a long, thin, cylinder of a resin resembling amber), a 
great number of black and white beads covering his chest 
in regular rows like a cuirass, and a broad girdle holding 
his cherapi (sort of apron), which was fringed all round 
with rich, woven ornaments, gave him quite a stately, 
majestic appearance." 

Their magicians were called by the Chilians gligua or 
dugol, and were subdivided into guenguenu, genpugnu and 
genplru, meaning respectively " masters of the heavens," 
" of epidemics," and " of insects or worms." There was 
also a sect called calcu, or " sorcerers," who dwelt in caves, 
and who were served by ivunches, or " man-animals," to 
whom they taught their terrible arts. The Araucanians 
believed that these ' wizards had the power to transform 
themselves at night into nocturnal birds, to fly through 
the air, and to shoot invisible arrows at their enemies, 
besides indulging in the malicious mischief with which 
folklore credits the wizards of all countries. Their priests 
proper they believed to possess numerous familiars who 
were attached to them after death — the belief of the 
" magicians " of the Middle Ages. These priests or 
diviners were celibate, and led an existence apart from 
the tribe, in some communities being garbed as women. 
Many tales are told of their magical prowess, which lead us 
to believe that they were either natural epileptics or 
ecstatics, or that disturbing mental influences were brought 
about in their case by the aid of drugs. The Araucanians 
also held that to mention their real personal names gave 
magic power over them, which might be turned to evil ends. 
Regarding the wizards of the inhabitants of the territory 
around the River Chaco, in Paraguay, Mr. Barbrooke- 
Grubb in his book, An Unknown People in an Unknown 
Land, says : 

" The training necessary to qualify an Indian to become 
a witch-doctor consists, in the first place, in severe fastings, 
and especially in abstention from fluid. They carry this 
fasting to such an excess as to affect the nervous system 
and brain. Certain herbs are eaten to hasten this stage. 
They pass days in solitude, and, when thoroughly worked 
up to an hysterical condition, they see spirits and ghosts, 
and have strange visions. It is necessary, furthermore, 
that they should eat a few live toads and some kinds of 
snakes. Certain little birds are plucked alive and then 
devoured, their power of whistling being supposed to be 
thus communicated to the witch-doctor. There are other 
features in the preliminary training which need not be 
mentioned, and when the initiatory stage has been satis- 
factorily passed, they are instructed in the mysteries 
under pledge of secrecy. After that their future depends 
upon themselves. 

" It is unquestionable that a few of these wizards under- 
stand to a slight degree the power of hypnotism. They 
appear at times to throw themselves into a hypnotic state 
by sitting in a strained position for hours, fixing their gaze 
upon some distant object. In this condition they are 
believed to be able to throw their souls out — that is, in 
order to make them wander. It seems that occasionally, 
when in this state, they see visions which are quite the 
•opposite of those they had desired. At other times they 
content themselves with concentrating their attention for 
a while upon one of their charms, and I have no doubt that 
occasionally they are sincere in desiring to solve some 
perplexing problems. 

" One of the chief duties of the wizard is to arrange the 
weather to suit his clansmen. . If they want rain it is to 
him they apply. His sorceries are of such a kind that they 
may be extended over a long period. He is never lacking 
in excuses, and so, while apparently busy in combating the 



opposing forces which are hindering the rain, he gains time 
to study weather signs. He will never or rarely venture 
an opinion as to the expected change until he is nearly 
certain of a satisfactory result. Any other Indian could 
foretell rain were he to observe signs as closely as does 
the wizard. The killing of a certain kind of duck, and the 
sprinkling of its blood upwards, is his chief charm. When 
he is able to procure this bird he is sure that rain cannot 
be far off, because these ducks do not migrate southwards 
until they know that there is going to be water in the 
swamps. These swamps are filled by the overflowing of the 
rivers as much as by the local rainfalls, and the presence 
of water in the rivers and swamps soon attracts rain-clouds. 

" The wizards also observe plants and animals, study 
the sky and take note of other phenomena, and by these 
means can arrive at fairly safe conclusions. They are 
supposed to be able to foretell events, and to a certain 
extent they succeed so far as these events concern local 
interests. By judicious questioning and observation, the 
astute wizard is able to judge with some amount of exacti- 
tude how certain matters are likely to turn out. 

" After we had introduced bullock-carts into their 
country, the people were naturally interested in the return 
of the carts from their periodical journeys to the river. 
When the wizards had calculated carefully the watering- 
places, and had taken into consideration the state of the 
roads, the character of the drivers, and the condition and 
number of the bullocks, all that they then required to know 
was the weight of the loads and the day on which it was 
expected that the carts would leave the river on their 
return journey. The last two items they had to obtain 
from us. When they had these data, by a simple calcula- 
tion they could make a very shrewd guess, not only at the 
time when they might be expected to arrive at the village, 
but also at what particular part of the road they might 
happen to be on any given day. A great impression was 
made upon the simple people by this exhibition of power, 
but when we discovered what they were doing, we with- 
held the information, or only gave them part, with the 
result that their prophecies either failed ignominiously or 
proved very erroneous. Their reputation accordingly 
- began to wane. 

" The wizards appear to be authorities on agricultural 
matters, and when application to the garden spirit has 
failed, the witch-doctor is called in. He examines the 
crop, and if he thinks it is likely to be a poor one, he says it 
is being blighted by an evil spirit,,-but that he will use what 
sorceries he can to preserve it. If, on the other hand, he 
has reason to believe that the crop will be a good one, he 
spits upon it here and there, and then assures the people 
that now they may expect a good harvest. 

" Some of the chief duties of the witch-doctor consist in 
laying ghosts, driving off spirits, exorcising kilyikhama in 
cases of possession assisting wandering souls back to their 
bodies, and generally in the recognising of spirits. When a 
ghost is supposed to haunt a village, the wizard and his 
assistants have sometimes an hour's arduous chanting, in 
order to induce the restless one to leave. When he con- 
siders that he has accomplished this, he assures the people 
that it is done, and this quiets their fears. Evil spirits 
frequenting a neighbourhood have also to be driven off by 
somewhat similar chanting." 
Amethyst : " This gem," says Camillus Leonardus, " is 
reckoned among the purple and transparent stones, mixed 
with a violet colour, emitting rosy sparkles." The Indian 
variety is the most precious. When made into drinking 
cups or bound on the navel, it prevented drunkenness. 
It is also held to sharpen the wit, turn away evil thoughts, 
and give a knowledge of the future in dreams. Drunk in 
a potion, it was thought to expel poison and render the 



Amiante 



23 



Anamelech 



barren fruitful. It was frequently engraved with the head 
of Bacchus, and was a favourite with the Roman ladies. 

Amiante : A species of fire-proof stone, which Pliny and the 
demonologists recommended as an excellent specific against 
the charms of magic. 

Amniomancy : Divination by means of the caul, or mem- 
brane which sometimes envelopes the head of a child at 
birth. From an inspection of this caul, the wise women 
predict the sort of future the baby will have. If it be red, 
happy days are in store for the child, or if lead-coloured, 
he will have misfortunes. 

Anion: A great and powerful marquis of the infernal empire. 
He is represented as a wolf with a serpent's tail, vomiting 
flame. When he appears in human form, his head re- 
sembles that of a large owl with canine teeth. He is the 
strongest of the princes of the demons, knows the past and 
the future, and can reconcile, when he will, friends who 
have quarelled. He commands forty legions. 

Amoymon : One of the four kings of Hades, of which the 
eastern part falls to his share. He may be invoked in the 
morning from nine o'clock till midday, and in the evening 
from three o'clock till six. He has been identified with 
Amaimon (q.v.) Asmodeus (q.v.) is his lieutenant, and 
the first prince of his dominions. 

Amphiaraus : A famous soothsayer of ancient times, who hid 
himself so that he might hot have to go to the war of Thebes, 
because he had foreseen that he should die there. This, 
indeed happened, but he came to life again. A temple 
was raised to him in Attica, near a sacred fountain by which 
he had left Hades. He healed the sick by showing them 
in a dream the remedies they must use. He also founded 
many oracles. After sacrifice, those who consulted the 
oracle slept under a sheep skin, and dreamed a dream which 
usually found plenty of interpreters after the event. Am- 
phiaraus himself was an adept in the art of explaining 
dreams. Some prophecies in verse, which are no longer 
extant, are attributed to him. 

Amulets : The charm, amulet, or mascot, is, of course, 
directly derived from the conception of the fetish (q.v.), 
which was believed by savage and semi-barbarous people 
to contain a spirit. Amulets may be said to be of two 
classes : those which are worn as (i) fetishes, that is the 
dwelling-place of spiritual entities, who are active on 
behalf of the wearer ; or (2), mascots to ward off bad luck 
or such influences as the evil eye. 

That charms were worn by prehistoric man there is little 
room for doubt, as objects which in many cases partake 
of the appearance and general description of amulets are 
discovered in neolithic tombs. The ancient Egyptians 
possessed a bewildering variety of amulets, which were worn 
both by the living and the dead. Indeed, among the latter, 
every part of the body had an amulet sacred to itself. 
These were, as a rule, evolved from various organs of the 
gods : as, for example, the eye of Isis, the backbone of 
Osiris, and so forth. Among the savage and semi-civilised 
peoples, the amulet usually takes the form of a necklace, 
bracelets, or anklets, and where belief in witchcraft and 
the evil eye is strong, the faith in these, and in charms, is 
always most intense. Among civilised races it has been 
observed that it is usually the ignorant classes who adopt 
the use of amulets : such as sailors, miners, beggars, 
Gypsies, and criminals. But amulets are also to be 
found in use among educated persons, although, of 
course, the superstitious part of the practice has in these 
cases often disappeared. Universally speaking, stones, 
teeth, claws, shells, coral and symbolic emblems, are 
favoured amulets. The reason for the wearing of these is 
exceedingly difficult to arrive at, but a kind of doctrine 
of correspondences may be at the root of the belief — the 
idea that like produces like, or that an effect resembles its 



cause, or that things which have once been in contact but 
have ceased to be so, continue to act on each other by 
magical means. For example, the desert goat is a sure- 
footed animal ; accordingly, its tongue is carried as a 
powerful amulet against falling by certain Malay tribes. 
Beads resembling teeth are often hung round the necks of 
Kaffir children in Africa to assist them in teething, and the 
incisor teeth of the beaver are frequently placed round the 
necks of little American-Indian girls to render them in- 
dustrious, like that animal. Again, certain plants and 
minerals indicate by their external character the diseases 
for which nature intended them as remedies. Thus the 
euphrasia, or eyebright, was supposed to be good for the 
eyes because it contains a black pupil-like spot ; and the 
blood-stone was employed for stopping the flow of blood 
from a wound. 

It is strange that wherever prehistoric implements, such 
as arrowheads and celts, are discovered, they are thought 
by the peasantry of the locality in which they are found to 
be of great virtue as amulets. Some light is cast on 
this custom by the fact that stone arrowheads 
were certainly in use among mediaeval British witches. 
But in most countries they are thought to descend 
from the sky, and are therefore kept to preserve 
people and cattle from lightning. This does not, how- 
ever, explain away the reason why water poured over 
a prehistoric arrowhead is given to cure cows in Ire- 
land. Certain roots, which have the shape of snakes, are 
kept by the Malays to ensure them against snake-bite ; 
and instances of this description of correspondence, known 
as the doctrine of signatures, could be multiplied ad in- 
finitum. Among the Celts a great many kinds of amulets 
Were used : such as the symbolic wheel of the sun god, 
found so numerously in France and Great Britain ; pebbles, 
amulets of the teeth of the wild boar, and pieces of amber. 
The well-known serpent's egg of the Druids was also in all 
probability an amulet of the priestly class. Indian amulets 
are numerous, and in Buddhist countries their use is uni- 
versal, especially where that religion has become degraded, 
or has in any way degenerated. In Northern Buddhist 
countries almost everyone constantly wears an amulet 
round the neck. These generally represent the leaf of 
the sacred fig-tree, and are made in the form of a box which 
contains a scrap of sacred writing, prayer, or a little picture. 
Women of position in Tibet wear a chatelaine containing a 
charm or charms, and the universal amulet of the Buddhist 
priests in that country is the thunderbolt, supposed to have 
fallen direct from Indra's heaven. This is usually imitated 
in bronze or other metal, and is used for exorcising evil 
spirits. Amulet types are for the most part very ancient, 
and present much the same characteristics in all parts of 
the world. 

Amy : Grand President of Hades, and one of the princes of 
the infernal monarchy. He appears there enveloped with 
flame, but on earth, in human form. He teaches the 
secrets of astrology and of the Lberal arts, and gives faith- 
ful servants. He reveals to those who possess his favour, 
the hiding-place of treasures guarded by demons. Thirty- 
six of the infernal legions are under his command. The 
fallen angels acknowledge his orders, and he hopes that at 
the end of 200,000 years, he shall return to heaven to occupy 
the seventh throne. 

Anachitis : Used in divination to call up spirits from water ; 
another stone, called synochitis, obliged them to remain 
while they were interrogated. 

Anamelech: An obscure demon, bearer of ill hews. He was 
worshipped at Sepharvaun, a town of the Assyrians. He 
always reveals himself in the figure of a quail. His name, 
we are told, signifies a "good king," and some authorities de- 
clare that this demon is the moon, as Andramelechisthesun. 



Anancithidus 



24 



Angels 



Anancithidus : Leonardus describes this as " a necromantic 
stone, whose virtue is to call up evil spirits and ghosts." 

Anania, or Agnany (Jean d') : A lawyer of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, who wrote four books, entitled, Be Natura Bcemo- 
num, (On the Nature of Demons), and a treatise on Magic 
and Witchcraft, neither of which works are well known. 
He died in Italy in 1458. 

Ananisapta : A Kabbalistic word made up from the initial 
letters of the prayer : Antidotum Nazareni Auferat Necene 
Intoxicationis ; Sanctificet Alimenta, Poculaque Trinitas 
Alma. When written on virgin parchment, it is a powerful 
talisman to protect against disease. 

Anarazel : One of the demons charged with the guardianship 
of subterranean treasure, which he carries about from one 
place to another, to hide them from men. It is he who, 
with his companions Gaziel and Fecor, shakes the founda- 
tions of houses, raises the tempests, rings the bells at mid- 
night, causes spectres to appear, and inspires a thousand 
terrors. 

Anathema : The name was given by the ancients to certain 
classes of votive offerings, to the nets that the fisherman 
lays on the altar of the sea-nymphs, to the mirror that 
Lais consecrated to Venus ; to offerings of vessels, gar- 
ments, instruments, and various other" articles. The word 
was also applied to the victim devoted to the infernal 
gods, and it is in this sense that it is found among Jews 
and Christians, referring either to the curse or its object. 
The man who is anathematized is denied communication 
with the faithful, and delivered to the demon if he dies 
without absolution. The Church has often lavished 
anathemas upon its enemies, though St. John Chrysostom 
has said that it is well to anathematize false doctrine, but 
that men who have strayed should be pardoned and prayed 
for. Formerly, magicians and sorcerers employed a sort 
of anathema to discover thieves and witches. Some 
limpid water was brought, and in it were boiled as many 
pebbles as there were persons suspected. The pebbles 
were then buried under the door-step over which the thief 
or the sorcerer was to pass, and a plate of tin attached to 
it, on which was written the words : " Christ is conqueror ; 
Christ is king ; Christ is master." Every pebble must 
bear the name of one of the suspected persons. The stones 
are removed at sunrise, and that representing the guilty 
person is hot and glowing. But, as the devil is malicious, 
that is not enough. The seven penitential psalms must 
then be recited, with the Litanies of the Saints, and the 
prayers of exorcism pronounced against the thief or the 
sorcerer. His name must be written in a circular figure, 
and a triangular brass nail driven in above it with a hammer, 
the handle of which is of cypress wood, the exorcist saying 
meanwhile : " Thou art just, Lord, and just are Thy judg- 
ments." At this, the thief would betray himself by a loud 
cry. If the anathema has been pronounced by a sorcerer, 
and one wishes merely to escape the effects of it and cause 
it to return to him who has cast it, one must take, on 
Saturday, before sunrise, the branch of a hazel tree of one 
year, and recite the following prayer : "I cut thee, branch 
of this year, in the name of him whom I wish to wound as I 
wound thee." The branch is then laid on the table and 
other prayers said, ending with " Holy Trinity, punish 
him who has done this evil, and take him from among us 
by Thy great justice, that the sorcerer or sorceress may be 
anathema, and we safe." Harrison Ainsworth's famous 
novel, The Lancashire Witches, deals with the subject 
and the Pendleton locality. 

Ancient War of the Knights, Commentary on the : {See 
Alchemy.) 

Andre, Franeolse : (See France.) 

Andrews, Mrs. : (See Materialisation.) 

Androdamas : Androdamas resembles the diamond, and is said 



to be found in the sands of the Red Sea, in squares or dies. 
Its name denotes the virtue belonging to it, namely, to 
restrain anger, mitigate lunacy, and lessen the gravity of 
the body. 

Android : A man made by other means than the natural 
mode of reproduction. The automaton attributed to 
Albertus Magnus, which St. Thomas destroyed with his 
stick because its answers to his questions puzzled him, 
was such an android. Some have attempted to humanize 
a root called the mandrake, which bears a fantastic resem- 
blance to a human being. (See Mandragora.) 

Angekok, Eskimo Shamans : (See Eskimos.) 

Angelic Brethren : (See Visions.) 

Angels : The word angel, " angelos " in Greek, " malak " 
in Hebrew, literally signifies a " person sent " or a " mes- 
senger." It is a name, not of nature but of office, and is 
applied also to men in the world, as ambassadors or repre- 
sentatives. In a lower sense, angel denotes a spiritual 
being employed in occasional offices ; and lastly, men in 
office as priests or bishops. The " angel of the congrega-' 
tion," among the Jews, was the chief of the synagogue. 
Such is the scriptural usage of a term, which, in common 
parlance, is now limited to its principal meaning, and 
denotes only the inhabitants of heaven. 

The apostle of the Gentiles speaks of the angels as " minis- 
tering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall 
be heirs of salvation," in strict keeping with the import of 
the term itself. In Mark i., 2, it is applied to John the 
Baptist : " Behold I send my messenger (' angel ') before 
my face," and the word is the same (" malak ") in the 
corresponding prophecy of Malachi. In Hebrews xii., 
22, 24, we read : " Ye have come to an innumerable 
company of angels, to the spirits of the just," etc., and this 
idea of their great number is sustained by the words of our 
Lord himself, where, for example, he declares that " twelve 
legions " of them were ready upon His demand. In the 
Revelation of St. John, a vast idea of their number is given. 
They are called the " armies " of heaven. Their song of 
praise is described as " the voice of a great multitude, and 
as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty 
thunderings." In fine, the sense of number is over- 
whelmed in the effort to compute them. 

As to their nature, it is essentially the same as that of 
man, for not only are understanding and will attributed 
to them, but they have been mistaken for men when they 
appeared, and Paul represents them as capable of disobe- 
dience (Heb. ii., 7, 16.) The latter possibility is exhibited 
in its greatest extent by Jude, who speaks of the " angels 
which kept not their first estate, but left their own habita- 
tion," and upon this belief is founded the whole system 
of tradition concerning angels and demons. The former 
term was gradually limited to mean only the obedient 
ministers of the will of the Almighty, and the influence of 
evil angels was concentrated into the office of the great 
adversary of all good, the devil or Satan. These ideas were 
common to the whole Eastern world, and were probably 
derived by the Jewish people from the Assyrians. The 
Pharisees charged the Saviour with casting out devils " by 
Beelzebub the prince of the devils." But that evil spirits 
acted in multitudes under one person, appears from Mark 
v., 9, where the evil spirit being asked his name, answered : 
" My name is ' Legion ' for we are many." 

It is generally held that two orders are mentioned in 
scripture, " angels " and " archangels " ; but the latter 
word only occurs twice, namely, in Jude, where Michael is 
called " an archangel," and in I. Thess. iv., 16, where it is 
written : " the Lord shall descend from heaven with a 
shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump 
of God." This is a slender foundation to build a theory 
upon. The prefix simply denotes rank, not another order 



Angels 



25 



Angels 



of intelligence. There is nothing in the whole of Scripture, 
therefore, to show that intelligent beings exist who have 
other than human attributes. Gabriel and Michael are 
certainly mentioned by name, but they appeared to Daniel, 
Zacharias, and the Virgin Mary, in fulfilment of a function, 
correspondent to the high purpose of which, may be the 
greater power, wisdom, and goodness, we should attribute 
to them ; and hence the fuller representation of the angelic 
hosts, as chief ang'-ls. 

The mention of Michael by name occurs five times in 
Scripture, and always in the character of a chief militant :— 
In Daniel, he is the champion of the Jewish church against 
Persia ; in the Revelation, he overcomes the dragon ; 
and in Jude he is mentioned in personal conflict with the 
devil about the body of Moses. He is called by Gabriel, 
" Michael, your prince," meaning of the Jewish church. 
In the alleged prophecy of Enoch, he is styled : " Michael, 
one of the holy angels, who, presiding over human virtue, 
commands the nations " ; while Raphael, it says, " pre- 
sides oper the spirits of men " ; Uriel, " over clamour and 
terror " ; and Gabriel, " over Paradise, and over the 
cherubims." In the Catholic services, St. Michael is 
invoked as a " most glorious and warlike prince," " the 
receiver of souls," and " the vanquisher of evil spirits." 
His design, according to Randle Holme, is a banner hang- 
ing on a cross ; and he is armed as representing victory, 
with a dart in one hand and a cross on his forehead. Bishop 
Horsley and others considered Michael only another 
designation for the Son of God. We may add as a certain 
biblical truth, that the Lord Himself is always meant, in 
an eminent sense, by any angel named as His minister ; 
and he is called the angel of the Covenant, because he em- 
bodied in his own person the whole power and representa- 
tion of the angelic kingdom, as the messenger, not of 
separate and temporary commands, but of the whole 
Word in its fulness. 

Paul speaks of a " third heaven," which must be under- 
stood not as a distinct order of created intelligences, but in 
the same sense as the Lord's declaration : " In my Father's 
house are many mansions." For Jesus Christ always 
speaks of His kingdom as essentially one, even in both 
worlds, the spiritual and natural. 

Dionysius, or St. Denis, the supposed Areopagite, des- 
cribes three hierarchies of angels in nine choirs, thus : 
Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones, Dominions, Principalities, 
Powers, Virtues, Angels, Archangels. And Vartan, or 
Vertabied, the Armenian poet and historian, who flourished 
in the thirteenth century, describes them under the same 
terms, but expressly states : " these orders differ from 
one another in situation and degree of glory, just as there 
are different ranks among men, though they are all of one 
nature." He also remarks that the first order are attracted 
to the Deity by love, and hardly attributes place to them, 
but states of desire and love, while the heaven which con- 
tains the whole host is above the primum mobile, which, 
again is superior to the starry firmament. This description, 
and all others resembling it, the twelve heavenly worlds 
of Plato, and the heaven succeeding it, the heaven of the 
Chinese, for example, are but as landmarks serving to 
denote the heights which the restless waves of human in- 
telligence have reached at various times in the attempt 
to represent the eternal and infinite in precise terms. 
Boeheme recognises the " whole deep between the stars," 
as the heaven of one of the three hierarchies, and places 
the other two above it ; " in the midst of all which," he says, 
" is the Son of God ; no part of either is farther or nearer 
to him, yet are the three kingdoms circular about him." 
The Revelations of Swedenborg date a century later, and 
begin all these subjects de novo, but his works are accessible 
to all, and therefore we do not further allude to them. 



The Jewish rabbi's hold the doctrine of another hier- 
archy superior to these three, and some of them, as Bechai 
and Joshua, teach that " every day ministering angels are 
created out of the river Dinor, or fiery stream, and they 
sing an anthem and cease to exist ; as it is written, they 
are new every morning." This, however, is only a mis- 
understanding, for to be " renewed " or " created " in the 
scriptural sense, is to be regenerated ; and to be renewed 
every morning is to be kept in a regenerate state ; the 
fiery stream is the baptism by fire or divine love. 

The following represent the angelic hierarchies answering 
to the ten divine names : — ■ 

i. Jehovah, attributed to God the Father, being the 
pure and simple essence of the divinity, flowing through 
Hajoth Hakados to the angel Metratton and to the minister- 
ing spirit, Reschith Hajalalim, who guides the primum 
mobile, and bestows the gift of being on all. These names 
are to be understood as pure essences, or as spheres of 
angels and blessed spirits, by whose agency the divine 
providence extends to all his words. 

2. Jah, attributed to the person of the Messiah or Logos, 
whose power and influence descends through the angel 
Masleh into the sphere of the Zodiac. This is the spirit 
or word that actuated the chaos, and ultimately produced 
the four elements, and all creatures that inherit them, by 
the agency of a spirit named Raziel, who was the ruler of 
Adam. 

3. Ehjeh, attributed to the Holy Spirit, whose divine 
light is received by the angel Sabbathi, and communicated 
from him through the sphere of Saturn. It denotes the 
beginning of the supernatural generation, and hence of 
all living souls. 

The ancient Jews considered the three superior names 
which are those above, to be attributed to the divine 
essence as personal or proper names, while the seven follow- 
ing denote the measures {middothj'or attributes which are 
visible in the works of God. But the modern Jews, in 
opposition to the tripersonalists, consider the whole as 
attributes. Maurice makes the higher three denote the 
heavens, and the succeeding the seven planets or worlds, 
to each of which a presiding angel was assigned. 

4. El, strength, power, light, through which flow grace, 
goodness, mercy, piety, and munificence to the angel 
Zadkiel, and passing through the sphere of Jupiter fashion- 
eth the images of all bodies, bestowing clemency, benevo- 
lence and justice on all. 

5. Elohi, the upholder of the sword and left hand of 
God. Its influence penetrates the angel Geburah (or 
Gamaliel) and descends through the sphere of Mars. It 
imparts fortitude in times of war and affliction. 

6. Tsebaoth, the title of God as Lord of hosts. The 
angel is Raphael, through whom its mighty power passes 
into the sphere of the sun, giving motion, heat and bright- 
ness to it. 

7. Elion, the title of God as the highest. The angel is 
Michael. The sphere to which he imparts its influence is 
Mercury, giving benignity, motion, and intelligence, with 
elegance and consonance of speech. 

8. Adonai, master or lord, governing the angel Haniel, 
and the sphere of Venus. 

9. Shaddai, the virtue of this name is conveyed by 
Cherubim to the angel Gabriel, and influences the sphere 
of the moon. It causes increase and decrease, and rules 
the jinn and protecting spirits. 

10. Elohim, the source of knowledge, understanding 
and wisdom, received by the angel Jesodoth, and imparted 
to the sphere of the earth. 

The division of angels into nine orders or three hier- 
archies, as derived from Dionysius Areopagus, was held in 
the Middle Ages, and gave the prevalent character to 



Angels 



26 



Anonymous 



much of their symbolism. With it was held the doctrine 
of their separate creation, and the tradition of the rebel- 
lious hierarchy, headed by Lucifer, the whole of which was 
rendered familiar to the popular mind by the Epic of Milton. 
Another leading tradition, not so much interwoven with the 
popular theology, was that of their intercourse with women, 
producing the race of giants. It was supposed to be 
authorised by Gen. vi. 2 in the adoption of which the 
Christian fathers seem to have followed the opinion of 
Philo-Judseus, and Josephus. A particular account of the 
circumstances is given in the book of Enoch, already men- 
tioned, which makes the angels, Uriel, Gabriel, and Michael, 
the chief instruments in the subjugation of the adulterers 
and their formidable off-spring. The classic writers have 
perpetuated similar traditions of the "hero" race, all of 
them born either from the love of the gods for women, or 
of the preference shown for a goddess by some mortal man. 
The Persian, Jewish, and Mohammedan accounts of 
angels all evince a common origin, and they alike admit a 
difference of sex. In the latter, the name of Azazil is given 
to the hierarchy nearest the throne of God, to which the 
Mohammedan Satan (Eblis or BLiris) is supposed to have 
belonged ; also Azreal, the angel of death, and Asrafil 
(probably the same as Israfil) , the angel of the resurrection. 
The examiners, Moukir and Nakir, are subordinate angels 
of terrible aspect, armed with whips of iron and fire, who 
interrogate recently deceased souls as to their lives. The 
parallel to this tradition in the Talmud is an account of 
seven angels who beset the paths of death. The Koran 
also assigns two angels to every man, one to record his good, 
and the other his evil actions ; they are so merciful that if 
an evil action has been done, it is not recorded till the man 
has slept, and if in that interval he repents, they piace on 
the record that God has pardoned him. The Siamese, 
beside holding the difference of sex, imagine that angels 
have offspring ; but their traditions concerning the govern- 
ment of the world and the guardianship of man are similar 
to those of other nations. 

The Christian fathers, for the most part, believed that 
angels possessed bodies of heavenly substance (Tertullian 
calls it " angelified flesh"), and, if not, that they could 
assume a corporeal presence at their pleasure. In fact, all 
the actions recorded of them in Scripture, suppose human 
members and attributes. It is not only so in the historic 
portions, but in the prophetic, even in the Apocalypse, the 
most replete with symbolic figures. (See Magic.) 

Anglieri : A Sicilian younger brother of the seventeenth 
century, who is known by a work of which he published 
two volumes and promised twenty-four, and which was 
entitled Magic Light, or, the origin, order, and government 
of all things celestial, terrestial, and infernal, etc. Mongi- 
tore mentions it in his Sicilian Library. 

Anglo-Saxons : (See England.) 

Angurvadel : The sword, possessing magical properties, 
which was inherited by Frithjof, the hero of an Icelandic 
saga. It had a golden hilt, and shone like the Northern 
Lights. In times of peace certain characters on its blade 
were dull and pale ; but during a battle they became red, 
like fire. 

Anima Mundi : The soul of the world ; a pure ethereal spirit 
which was said by some ancient philosophers to be diffused 
throughout all nature. Plato is considered by some to be 
the originator of this idea ; but it is of more ancient origin, 
and prevailed in the systems of certain eastern philo- 
sophers. By the Stoics it was believed to be the only 
vital force in the universe ; it has been entertained by 
many philosophical sects in a variety of forms, and in more 
modern times by Paracelsus and others. It is also in- 
corporated in the philosophy of Schelling. Rich says : 
" The anima mundi, or heaven of this world, in which the 



stars are fixed, is understood to be a receptivity of the 
empyrean or heaven in which God dwells, so that the forms 
or seminal conceptions of the one correspond to the divine 
ideas of the other." 
Animal Magnetism : {See Hypnotism and Spiritualism.) 
Animism : The doctrine of spiritual beings, or the concept 
that a great part, if not the whole, of inanimate nature, 
as well as of animate beings, are endowed with reason and 
volition identical with that of man. It is difficult to 
distinguish this conception from that of personalisation, 
but the difference exists. The savage hears the wind 
whistle past him, and thinks that in it he can distinguish 
voices. He sees movement in streams, trees, and other 
objects, which he believes to be inhabited by spirits. The 
idea of a soul probably arose through dreams, apparitions, 
or clairvoyance, hallucinations and shadows, and perhaps 
through the return to life after periods of unconsciousness. 
Movement, therefore, argued life. The cult of fetishism 
well instances the belief in animism, for it posits the en- 
trance into an inanimate body of a separate spiritual entity 
deliberately come to inhabit it. There is no necessity 
in this place to go into the question whether or not animism 
is at the basis of religious belief ; but it is distinctly at the 
root of magical belief and practice. 
Annali Dello Spiritismo : {See Italy.) 

Anneberg : A demon of the mines, known principally in 
Germany. On one occasion he killed with his breath 
twelve miners who were working in a silver mine of which 
he had charge. He is a wicked and terrible demon, repre- 
sented under the figure of a horse, with an immense neck 
and frightful eyes. 
Annie Eva Fay : Medium. (See Spiritualism.) 
Annius de Viterbo : A learned ecclesiastic, born at Viterbo 
in 1432, who, either deceived himself, or a deceiver of others, 
published a collection of manuscripts full of fables and 
absurdities, falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Victor, 
Cato, Manettio and others, and known under the name of 
The Antiquities of Annius. He was also responsible for a 
treatise on The Empire of the Turks, and a book on the 
Future Triumphs of the Christians over the Turks and the 
Saracens, etc. These two works are explanations of the 
Apocalypse. The author claims that Mahomet is the 
Antichrist, and that the end of the world will take place 
when the Christians will have overcome the Jews and the 
Mohammedans, which event did not appear to him to be 
far distant. 
Annwyl : The Celtic Other-world. (See Hell.) 
Anonymous Adept (fl/1750) : A noted German Jesuit of the 
eighteenth century, known to his clerical confreres and his 
flock as Athanasius the Churchman. He composed two 
folio volumes of semi-alchemistic writing, which were 
published at Amsterdam in 1768. In the course of 
these voluminous works, he alludes to an alchemist 
whose name he refrains from revealing, and who is 
usually hailed in consequence by the elusive title 
heading this article. Athanasius, we find, having long en- 
deavoured to discover the Philosopher's Stone, and having 
met with no success, chanced one day to encounter a 
venerable personage, who addressed him thus : "I see by 
these glasses and this furnace that you are engaged in 
search after something very great in chemistry, but, believe 
me, you will never attain your object by working as you 
are do^ng." Pondering on these words, the shrewd Jesuit 
suspected that his interlocutor was truly learned in 
alchemy, wherefore he besought him to display his erudition, 
and thereupon out Anonymous Adept took a quill, and wrote 
down a receipt for the making of transmutatory powder, 
together with specific directions for using the same. " Let 
us proceed together," said the great unknown ; nor were 
the hopes of Athanasias frustrated, for in a little while a 



Anpiel 



27 



Antichrist 



fragment of gold was duly made, the wise pedagogue dis- 
appearing immediately afterwards. The Jesuit now 
fancied himself on the verge of a dazzling fortune, and he 
proceeded straightway to try and manufacture nuggets ; 
but, alas ! Try as he might, his attempts all proved futile. 
Much enraged, he went to the inn where the Anonymous 
Adept was staying, but it need scarcely be said, perhaps, 
that the bird was flown. " We see by this true history." 
remarks Athanasius, by way of pointing a moral, " how 
the devil seeks to deceive men who are led by a lust of 
riches " ; while he relates further, that having been duped 
in this wise, he destroyed his scientific appliances, to 
renounce alchemy for ever. 

Anpiel : One of the angels charged by the rabbis with 
the government of the birds, for every known species was 
put under the protection of one or more angels. 

Anselm de Parma : An astrologer, born at Parma, where he 
died in 1440. He wrote Astrological Institutions, a 
work which has never been printed. Wierius, and some 
other demonologists, classed him with the sorcerers, because 
certain charlatans, who healed sores by means of mysterious 
words, had taken the name of " Anselmites." But Naudo 
observes that they boasted that they had obtained their 
gift of healing, not from Anselm of Parma, but from St. 
Anselm of Canterbury, just as the Salutadores in Spain 
recognised in Catherine, their patron saint, and those who 
healed snake-bites in Italy, St. Paul. 

Ansitif : A little known demon, who, during the possession of 
the nuns of Louviers, in 1643, occupied the body of Sister 
Barbara of St. Michael. 

Answerer, or Fragarach : A magical sword belonging to the 
Irish Sea-God, Lir. It was brought from the Celtic Other- 
world by LugR, the Irish Sun-God, and it was believed that 
it could pierce any armour. 

Anthony St. : A great demon of enormous stature one day ap- 
proached St. Anthony to offer his services. By way of 
response the saint looked at him sideways and spat in his 
face. The demon took the repulse so much to heart that 
he vanished without a word, and did not dare to appear on 
earth for a long time afterwards. It is hardly conceivable 
that St. Anthony could have treated the devil so rudely, if 
one did not know how many temptations he had suffered 
from him, though it is difficult to admit that he was the 
object of so many attacks on the part of the devil, when he 
himself said : "I fear the demon no more than I fear a 
fly, and with the sign of the cross I can at once put him to 
flight." St. Athanasius, who wrote the life of St. Anthony, 
mingled with his hero's adventures with the devil, certain 
incidents which contrast strangely enough with these. 
Some philosophers, astonished at the great wisdom of 
A ntkony, asked him in what book he had discovered so fine 
a doctrine. The saint pointed wrth one hand to the earth, 
with the other to the sky. " There are my books," said he, 
" I have no others. If men will design to study as I do 
the marvels of creation, they will find wisdom enough there. 
Their spirit will soon soar from the creation to the Creator." 
And certainly these were not the words of a man who 
trafficked with the devil. 

Anthropomancy : Divination by the entrails of men or 
women. This horrible usage is very ancient. Herodotus 
said that Menelaus, detained in Egypt by contrary winds, 
sacrificed to his barbarous curiosity, two children of the 
country, and sought to discover his destiny by means of 
anthropomancy. Heliogabalus practised this means of divi- 
nation. Julian the Apostate, in his magical operations, 
during his nocturnal sacrifices, caused, it is said, a large 
number of children to be killed, so that he might consult 
their entrails. In his last expedition, being at Carra, in 
Mesopotamia, he shut himself in the Temple of the Moon, 
and having done all manner of evil there, he sealed the 



doors and posted a guard, whose duty it was to see 
that they were not opened until his return. However, he 
was killed in battle with the Persians, and those who 
entered the Temple of Carra, in the reign of Julian's 
successor, found there a woman hanging by her hair, with 
her liver torn out. It is probable that Gillesde Retz (q.v.) 
also practised this dreadful species of divination. 
Antichrist : The universal enemy of mankind, who will in the 
latter days be sent to scourge the world for its wickedness. 
According to the Abbot Bergier, A ntichrist is regarded as a 
tyrant, impious and excessively cruel, the arch enemy of 
Christ, and the last ruler of the earth. The persecutions 
he will inflict on the elect will be the last and most, severe 
ordeal which they will have to undergo. Christ, himself, 
according to several commentators, foretold that they 
would have succumbed to it if its duration had not been *• 
shortened on their behalf. He will pose as the Messiah, 

and will perform things wonderful enough to mislead the > 

elect themselves. The thunder will obey him, according 
to St. John, and Leloyer asserts that the demons below 
watch over hidden treasures by means of which he will 
be able to tempt many. It is on account of the miracles 
that he will perform, that Boguet calls him the " Ape of 
God," and it is through this scourge that God will pro- 
claim the final judgment and the vengeance to be meted 
out to wrong-doers. 

Antichrist will have a great number of forerunners, and 

will appear just before the end of the world. St. Jerome 
claims that he will be a man begotten by a demon ; others, 
a demon in the flesh, visible and fantastical, or an incarnate 
demon. But, following St. Ireneus, St. Ambrose, St. 
Augustine, and almost all the fathers, Antichrist will be a 

man similar to, and conceived in the same way as all others, 

differing from them only in a malice and an impiety more 
worthy of a demon, than of a man. ' Cardinal Bellarmin, 
at a later date, and contrary to their authority, asserts 
however, that Antichrist will be the son of a demon incubus 
and a sorceress. 
•~-^_jj e will be a Jew of th e tribe of Dan , according to Mal- 
venda] who supports nis'view by the "words of the dying 
Jacob to his sons : " Dan shall be a serpent by the way — ^ T 
an adder in the path ; " — by those of Jeremiah : — " The 
armies of Dan will devour the earth " ; and by the seventh 
chapter of the Apocalypse, where St. John has omitted 
the tribe of Dan in his enumeration of the other tribes. 

Antichrist willbe always at war, and will astonish the 
earth with his miracles. He will persecute the upright, 
and will mark his own by a sign on the face or the hand. 

Elijah and Enoch will come at length and convert the 
Jews and will meet death, at last by order of Antichrist, 
Then will Christ descend from the heavens, kill Antichrist 
with the two-edged sword, which will issue from His mouth, 
and reign on the earth for a thousand years, according to 
some ; an indefinite time, according to others. 

It is claimed by some that the reign of Antichrist will 
last fifty years : the opinion of the majority is that his 
reign will last but three and a-half years, after which the 
angels will sound the trumpets of the day of judgment, and 
Christ will come and judge the world. The watchword of 
Antichrist, says Boguet, will be r "I abjure baptism." 
Many commentators have foreseen the return of Elijah 
in these words of Malachi : " I will send Elijah, the prophet, 
before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the 
Lord." But it is not certain that Malachi referred to this 
ancient prophet, since Christ applied this prediction to 
John the Baptist, when he said : " Elias is come already, 
and they knew him not; " and when the angel foretold to 
Zacharias the birth of his son, he said to him : " And he 
shall go forth before the Lord in the spirit and power of 
Elias." 



Antichrist 



28 



Apollonius 



By Antichrist may probably be meant the persecutors 
of the Church. Again, the Protestants give the name to the 
Pope and the Catholics to all their enemies. Napoleon 
even has been called Antichrist, 

The third treatise in the Hisloire Veritable et Memorable 
des Trois Possedees de Flandre, by Father Sebastien Mich- 
alies, dominican friar, throws much light in the words of 
exorcised demons, on Antichrist. " Conceived through 
the medium of a devil, he will be as malicious as a madman, 
with such wickedness as was never seen on earth. An 
inhuman martyr rather than a human one, he will treat 
Christians as souls are treated in hell. He will have a 
multitude of synagogue names, and he will be able to fly 
when he wishes. Beelzebub will be his father, Lucifer 
his grandfather." 

The revelations of exorcised demons show that Anti- 
christ was alive in 1613. It appears that he has not yet 
attained his growth " He was baptised on the Sabbath 
of the sorcerers, before his mother, a Jewess, called La 
Belle-Fleur. He was three years old in 1613. Louis 
Gaufridi is said to have baptised him, in a field near Paris. 
An exorcised sorceress claimed to have held the little A nti- 
christ on her knees. She said that his bearing was proud, 
and that even then he spoke many divers languages But 
he had talons in the place of feet, and he wore no slippers. 
He will do much harm, but there will be comforters, for 
• the Holy Ghost still lives." (See Merlin.) His father is 
shown in the figure of a bird, with four feet, a tail, a bull's 
head much flattened, horns and black shaggy hair. He 
will mark his own with a seal representing this in miniature. 
Michaelis adds that things execrable will be around him. 
He will destroy Rome on account of the Pope, and the Jews 
will help him. He will resuscitate the dead, and, when 
thirty, will reign with Lucifer, the seven-headed dragon, 
and, after a reign of three years, Christ will slay him. 

Many such details might be quoted of Antichrist, whose 
appearance has long been threatened, but with as yet no 
fulfilment. (See End of the World.) We must mention, 
however, a volume published many years ago at Lyons, 
by Rusand, called, Les Prdcurseurs de V Antechrist. This 
work shows that the reign of A nlichrist, if it has not begun, 
is drawing near ; that the philosophers, encyclopedists 
and revolutionaries of the eighteenth century were naught 
but demons incarnated to precede and prepare the way for 
Antichrist. In our own time it has frequently been averred 
' that A ntichrist is none other than the ex- Kaiser of Germany. 
Antipathy : The old astrologers, who wished to explain 
everything, claimed that the dislike which one feels for a 
person or thing is caused by the stars. Thus, two persons 
born under the same aspect, will be mutually attracted 
one to the other, and will love without knowing why. 
Others, again, born under opposite conjunctions, will feel 
an unreasoning hate for each other. But how can that 
antipathy be explained which great men sometimes have 
for the commonest things ? There have been many such 
cases, and all are inexplicable. Lamothe-Levayer could 
not bear to hear the sound of any instrument, and dis- 
played the liveliest pleasure at the noise of thunder. Caesar 
could not hear the crowing of a cock without shuddering ; 
Lord Bacon fell into despondency during the eclipse of the 
moon ; Marie de Medicis could not bear to look on a rose, 
even in a painting, though she loved all other flowers. 
Cardinal Henry of Cardonne had the same antipathy, and 
fell into a swoon when he felt the odour of roses ; Marshal 
d'Albret became ill at dinner when a young wild boar or a 
sucking-pig was served ; Henry III. of France could not 
remain in a chamber where there was a cat ; Marshal de 
Schomberg had the same weakness ; Ladislas, King of 
Poland, was much disturbed at the sight of apples ; Scaliger 
trembled in every limb at the sight of cress ; Erasmus 



could not taste fish without having the fever ; Tycho- 
Brahe felt his knees give way when he met a hare or a fox ; 
the Duke of Epernon fainted at the sight of a leveret ; 
Cardan could not suffer eggs ; Ariosto, baths ; the son of 
Crcesus, bread ; Caesar of Lescalle, the sound of the vielle 
or violin. 

The causes of these antipathies are sometimes to be found 
in childish impressions. A lady who was very fond of 
pictures and engravings, fainted away when she found them 
in a book. She explained her terror thus : When she was a 
child her father had one day seen her turning over the 
leaves of the books in his library, in search of pictures. 
He had roughly taken the book from her hand, telling her 
in terrible tones that there were devils in these books, who 
would strangle her if she dared to touch them. These 
absurd threats occasionally have baneful effects that can- 
not be overcome. Pliny, who was fairly credulous, assures 
us that there is such an antipathy between the wolf and the 
horse, that if a horse pass by the way a wolf has gone, he 
feels his legs become so numbed that he cannot walk. 
But the instinct of animals does not err. A horse in 
America could detect the presence of a puma, and obsti- 
nately refused 1 3 go through a forest where his keen sense 
of smell announced to him that the enemy was at hand. 
Dogs also can tell when a wolf is near. Perhaps, on the 
whole, human beings would be wiser if they followed the 
dictates of these sympathetic or antipathetic impressions. 

Antiphates : A shining black stone, used as a defence against 
witchcraft. 

Antracites, or Antrachas, or Anthrax : A stone, sparkling like 
fire, supposed by Albertus Magnus to be the carbuncle. It 
cures " imposthumes." It is girdled with a white vein. 
If smeared with oil it loses its colour, but sparkles the more 
for being dipped in water. 

Anupadaka Plane : (See Monadic World.) 

Aonbarr : A horse belonging to Manaanan, son of the Irish 
Sea-God, Lir. It was believed to possess magical gifts, 
and could gallop on land or sea. 

Apantomancy : Divination by means of any objects which 
happen to present themselves. To this class belong the 
omens drawn from chance meetings with a hare, an eagle, etc. 

Apepi, Book of Overthrowing of : An Egyptian work which 
forms a considerable portion of the funerary papyrus of 
Nesi-Amsu. It deals with the diurnal combat between 
Ra, the Sun-God, and Apepi, the great serpent, the im- 
personation of spiritual evil, and several of the chapters, 
notably 31, 33, and 35 to 39 are obviously borrowed from 
the Book of the Dead (q.v.). It contains fifteen chapters, 
in which there is a great deal of repetition, and details the 
various methods for the destruction of Apepi, including 
many magical directions. It is set forth that the name of 
Apepi must be written in green on a papyrus and then 
burnt. Wax figures of his attendant fiends were to be 
made, mutilated, and burnt, in the hope that through the 
agency of sympathetic magic their prototypes might be 
injured or destroyed. Another portion of the work details 
the creative process and describes how men and women 
were formed from the tears of the god Khepera. This 
portion is known as The Book of Knowing the Evolutions 
of Ra. The work is evidently of high antiquity, as is 
shown by the circumstance that many variant readings 
occur. Only one copy, however, is known. The funeral 
papyrus in which it is contained was discovered at Thebes 
in i860, was purchased by Rhind, and sold to the trustees 
of the British Museum by Mr. David Bremner. The linen 
on which it is written is of very fine texture, measures 
19 feet by 9 1 inches, and it has been translated by Mr. 
Wallis Budge in Archaeologia, Vol. 52, Part IT. 

Apollonius of Tyana : A Neo-Pythagorean philosopher of 
Greece, who had a great reputation for magical powers. 




The Reign of Antichrist 

After an engraving by Michael Volgemuth in the Liber Chronicorum, 1493 

(Cabinet of Engravings, Bibliotheque Nationale, Pans) 



ANTICHRIST 



[face p. 28 



Apollonius 



29 



Apparitions 



Born at Tyana, in Asia Minor, Apollonius was contemporary 
with Christ. He was educated at Tarsus and at the Temple 
of jEsculapius, at jEgae, where he became an adherent of 
the sect of Pythagoras, to whose strict discipline he sub- 
mitted himself throughout his life. In his desire for know- 
ledge he travelled widely in Eastern countries, and is said 
to have performed miracles wherever he went. At Ephesus, 
for instance, he warned the people of the' approach of a 
terrible plague, but they gave no heed to him until the 
pestilence was actually in their midst, when they bethought ' 
them of the warning, and summoned the potent magician 
who had uttered it. Apollonius pointed out to the people 
a poor, maimed beggar, whom he denounced as the cause 
of the pestilence and an enemy of the gods, bidding them 
stone the unfortunate wretch to death. The citizens were 
at first .reluctant to comply with so cruel an injunction, 
but something in the expression of the beggar confirmed 
the prophet's accusation, and the wretch was soon covered 
with a mound of stones. When the stones were removed 
no man was visible, but a huge black dog, the cause of the 
plague, which had come upon the Ephesians. At Rome he 
raised from death — or apparent death — his biographer does 
not seem to know which — a young lady of consular family, 
who had been betrothed, and was lamented by the 
entire city. Yet another story relates how Apollonius 
saved a friend of his, Menippus of Corinth, from marrying 
a vampire. The youth neglected all the earlier warnings 
of his counsellor, and the preparations for the wedding 
proceeded till finally all was in readiness for the ceremony. 
At this juncture Apollonius appeared on the scene, caused 
the wedding feast, the guests, and all the evidences of 
wealth, which were but illusion to vanish, and wrung from 
the bride the confession that she was a vampire. Many 
other similar tales are told of the philosopher's clairvoyant 
and magical powers. 

The manner of his death is wrapped in mystery, though 
he is known to have lived to be nearly a hundred years of 
age. His disciples did not hesitate to say that he had 
not died at all, but had been caught up to heaven, and his 
biographer casts a doubt upon the matter. At all events, 
when he had vanished from the terrestial sphere, the in- 
habitants of his native Tyana built a temple in his honour, 
and statues were raised to him in various other tem- 
ples. 

A life of Apollonius, written by Philostratus at the 
instance of Julia, mother of the Emperor Severus, is the 
only extant source of information concerning the sage, 
though other lives, now lost, are known to have existed. 
The account given by Philostratus purports to have been 
compiled from the memoirs of " Damis the Assyrian," a 
disciple of Apollonius, but it has been suggested that 
Damis is but a literary fiction. The work is largely a 
romance ; fictitious stories are often introduced, and the 
whole account is mystical and symbolical. Nevertheless 
it is possible to get a glimpse of the real character of Apol- 
lonius beyond the literary artifices of the writer. The 
purpose of the philosopher of Tyana seems to have been to 
infuse into paganism a morality more practical combined 
with a more transcendental doctrine. He himself practised 
a very severe asceticism, and supplemented his own know- 
ledge by revelations from the gods. Because of his claim 
to divine enlightenment, some would have refused him a 
place among the philosophers, but Philostratus holds that 
this in no wise detracts from his philosophic reputation. 
Pythagoras and Plato and Democritus he points out, were 
wont to visit Eastern sages, even as Apollonius had done, 
and they were not charged with dabbling in magic. Divine 
revelations had been given to earlier philosophers-; why 
not also to the Philosopher of Tyana ? It is probable 
that Apollonius borrowed considerably from Oriental 



sources, and that his doctrines were more Brahminical 
than magical. 
Apparel, Phantom : (See Phantom Dress.) 
Apparitions : An apparition (from Latin apparel's, to appear) 
is in its literal sense merely an appearance, that is, a sense- 
percept of any kind, but in every-day usage the word has a 
more restricted meaning and is used only to denote an 
abnormal or superabnormal appearance or percept, which 
cannot be referred to any natural objective cause. Taken 
in this sense the word covers all visionary appearances, 
hallucinations, clairvoyance, and similar unusual perceptions. 
" Apparition " and " ghost " are frequently used as synony- 
mous terms, though the former is, of course, of much wider 
significance. A ghost is a visual apparition of a deceased 
human being, and the term implies that it is the spirit of 
the person it represents Apparitions of animals and of 
inanimate objects are also sufficiently frequent. All 
apparitions do not take the form of visual images ; auditory 
and tactile false perceptions, though less common, are 
not unknown, and there is record of a house that was 
" haunted " with the perpetual odour of violets. 

Evolution of the Belief in Apparitions. — -There is no doubt 
that the belief which identifies an apparition with the spirit 
of the creature it represents — a belief widely current in all 
nations and all times — is directly traceable to the ancient 
doctrine of animism, which endowed everything in nature, 
from man himself to the smallest insect, from the heavenly 
bodies to an insignificant plant or stone, with a separable 
soul. It is not difficult to understand how the conception 
of souls may have arisen. Sir J. Frazer, in his Golden Bough, 
says : "As the savage commonly explains the processes of 
inanimate nature by supposing that they are produced by 
living beings working in or behind the phenomena, so he 
explains the phenomena of life itself. If an animal lives 
and moves, it can only be, he thinks, because there is a 
little animal inside which moves it. If a man lives and 
moves, it can only be because he has a little man or animal 
inside, who moves him. The animal inside the animal, the 
man inside the man, is the soul. And as the activity of an 
animal or man is explained by the presence of the soul, 
so the repose of sleep or death is explained by its absence ; 
sleep or trance being the temporary, death being the per- 
manent absence of the soul." Sometimes the human soul 
was represented as a bird — an eagle, a dove, a raven — or 
as an animal of some sort, just as the soul of a river might 
be in the form of a horse or a serpent, or the soul of a tree 
in human shape ; but among most peoples the belief was 
that the soul was an exact reproduction of the body 
resembling it in every feature, even to details of dress, etc. 
Thus, when a man saw another in dream, it was thought 
either that the soul of the dreamer had visited the person 
dreamed of, or that the soul of the latter had visited the 
dreamer. By an easy process of reasoning, the theory was 
extended to include dreams of animals and inanimate 
things, which also were endowed with souls. And thus 
it is quite probable that the hallucinations with which 
primitive peoples as well as those at a later stage of culture 
were at times visited, and which they doubtless knew 
well how to induce, should be regarded as the souls of the 
things they represent. If it be granted that telepathy 
and clairvoyance operate sometimes at the present day, 
and among civilised peoples, it may be conceded on still 
more abundant testimony that they were known to primitive 
races. And it is obvious that these faculties would have 
a powerful effect in the development of a belief in appari- 
tions. The apparition of a deceased person, again, would 
inevitably suggest the continuance of the soul's existence 
beyond the grave, and the apparition of a sick person, or 
one in some other grave crisis— such as might now-a-days 
be accounted for telepathically — would also be regarded 



Apparitions 



30 



Apparitions 



as the soul, which at such times was absent from the body. 
There is a widely diffused opinion that ghosts are of a 
filmy, unsubstantial nature, and this also would seem to 
have taken its rise in the first animistic concepts of primitive 
man. At a very early stage of culture we find spirit and 
breath confused — they are identified in the Latin spiritus 
and the Greek pneuma. as well as in other languages. 
How natural it is, therefore, that the breath, condensed in 
the cold air to a white mist, should be regarded as the stuff 
that ghosts are made of. On another hypothesis, the 
shadowy nature of the ghost may have resulted from an 
early confusion of the soul with the shadow. Thus ani- 
mistic ideas of the soul have given rise to the belief in 
apparitions. But animism has a further contribution to 
make towards this belief in the host of spirits which have 
not, and never have had, bodies, true supernatural beings, 
as distinct from souls — gods, elementary spirits, and those 
evil spirits to which were attributed disease, disaster, 
possession, and bewitchment. This class of beings has 
evolved into the fairies, elves, brownies, bogies, and goblins 
of popular folklore, of which many apparitions are recorded. 
Savage Instances of Apparitions. In classic and mediaeval 
times the concept of the ghost was practically identical 
with that of savage peoples. It is only within the last 
two generations that scientific investigation was deemed 
necessary, as the result of the birth of a scepticism hitherto 
confined to the few, and in the general mind weak or 
non-existent. (For details of such research see, Spiritual- 
ism and Psychical Research.) One of the most noteworthy 
features of ghosts in savage lands is the fear and antagonism 
with which they are regarded. Almost invariably the 
spirits of the deceased are thought to be unfriendly towards 
the living, desirous of drawing the souls of the latter, or 
their shadows, into the spirit-world. Sometimes, as with 
the Australian aborigines, they are represented as malign- 
ant demons. Naturally, everything possible is done to 
keep the ghost at a distance from the habitation of the 
living. With some peoples thorn bushes are planted round 
the beds of the surviving relatives. Persons returning 
from a funeral pass through a cleft tree, or other narrow 
aperture, to free themselves from the ghost of him whom 
they have buried. Others plunge into water to achieve 
the same purpose. The custom of closing the eyes of the 
dead is said to have arisen from the fear that the ghost 
would find its way back again, and the same reason is given 
for the practice, common among Hottentots, Hindus, 
North American Indians, and many other peoples, of 
carrying the dead out through a hole in the wall, the 
aperture being immediately afterwards closed. The 
Mayas of Yucatan, however, draw a line with chalk from 
the tomb to the hearth, so that the soul may return if it 
desires to do so. Among uncultured races, the names of 
the departed, in some mysterious manner bound up with 
the soul, if not identified with it, are not mentioned by the 
survivors, and any among them possessing the same name, 
changes it for another. The shape in which apparitions 
appear among savages may be the human form, or the 
form of a beast, bird, or fish. Animal ghosts are common 
among the Indians of North and South America. Certain 
African tribes believe that the souls of evil-doers become 
jackals on the death of the body. The Tapuya Indians of 
Brazil think that the souls of the good enter into birds, and 
this belief is of rather wide diffusion. When the apparition 
is in human shape it is generally an exact counterpart 
of the person it represents, and, like the apparitions of more 
civilised countries, its dress is that worn by the deceased 
in his lifetime. This last feature, of course, implies the 
doctrine of object-souls, which has its roots in animism. 
Though it is generally accepted by savage peoples that the 
shades of the departed mingle with the living, coming and 



going with no particular object in view, yet the revenant 
may on occasion have a special purpose in visiting the 
scene of his earthly life. It may be that the spirit desires 
that its body be buried with the proper ceremonial rites, 
if these have been omitted. In savage, as in civilised 
countries, it is believed that the spirits of those who have 
not been buried at all, cannot have any rest till the rite 
has been duly performed. In China, the commonest ghost 
is that of a person who has been murdered, and who seeks 
to be avenged on his murderer. The spirit of one who has 
been murdered, or has died a violent death, is considered in 
Australia also to be especially likely to walk abroad, while 
in many barbarous or semi -barbarous lands the souls of 
women who have died in childbirth, are supposed to become 
spirits of a particularly malignant type, dwelling in trees, 
tormenting and molesting passers-by. There is another 
reason for which apparitions sometimes appear : to reveal 
the site of hidden treasure. The guardians of buried 
hoards are, however, supernatural beings rather than human 
souls, and the shapes they take are often grotesque or 
terrible. It is customary for ghosts to haunt certain 
localities. The favourite spot seems to be the burial-place, 
of which there is an almost universal superstitious dread ; 
but the Indians of Guiana go a step farther in maintaining 
that every place where anyone has died is haunted. Among 
the Kaffirs and the Maoris of New Zealand a hut wherein 
a death has occurred is taboo, and is often burnt or deserted. 
Sometimes, even a whole village is abandoned on account 
of a death — a practice, this, which must be attended with 
some inconvenience. There is one point on which the 
apparitions of primitive peoples differ from those of more 
advanced races — the former seldom attain to the dignity 
of articulate human speech. They chirp like crickets, for 
instance, among the Algonquin Indians, and their " voices " 
are only intelligible to the trained ear of the shaman. The 
ghosts of the Zulus and New Zealanders, again, speak to 
the magicians in thin, whistling tones. This idea of the 
semi-articulate nature of ghosts is not confined to savage 
concepts ; Shakespeare speaks of " the sheeted dead," 
who, " did squeak and gibber in the streets of Rome," and 
the " gibbering " ghost appears in other connections. 
Naturally the articulate- apparition is doubly convincing, 
since it appeals to two separate senses. Dr. Tylor says : 
" Men who perceive evidently that souls do talk when they 
present themselves in dream or vision, naturally take for 
granted at once the objective reality of the ghostly voice, 
and of the ghostly form from which it proceeds." Spirits 
which are generally invisible may appear to certain persons 
and under certain circumstances. Thus in the Antilles, 
it is believed that one person travelling alone may see a 
ghost which would be invisible to a number of people. 
The shamans, or medicine-men, and magicians are able 
to perceive apparitions which none but they can see. The 
induction of hallucinations by means of fasts, rigid ascetic- 
ism, solitude, the use of narcotics and intoxicants, dances, 
and the performing of elaborate ceremonial rites, is known 
all over the world, and among uncultured as well as cul- 
tured peoples. Coincidental apparitions, it may be re- 
marked en passant, are comparatively rare in savage 
countries. Naturally, a great many savage instances of 
apparitions are concerned with supernatural beings other 
than human souls, but such cases are dealt with elsewhere. 
Ancient and Modem Ideas Concerning Apparitions. The 
belief in apparitions was very vivid among ancient Oriental 
peoples. The early Hebrews atrtibuted them to angels, 
demons, or the souls of the dead, as is shown in the numerous 
Scriptural instances of apparitions. Dreams were re- 
garded as apparitions if the predictions made in them were 
fulfilled, or if the dream-figure revealed anything unknown 
to the dreamer which afterwards proved to be true. That 



Apparitions 



31 



Apparitions 



the Hebrews believed in the possibility of the souls of the 
dead returning, is evident from the tale of the Witch of 
Endor. Calmet says, in this connection : " Whether 
Samuel was raised up or not, whether his soul, or only a 
shadow, or even nothing at all appeared to the woman, 
it is still certain that Saul and his attendants, with the 
generality of the Hebrews, believed the thing to be pos- 
sible." Similar beliefs were held by other Eastern nations. 
Among the Greeks and Romans of the classic period. 
apparitions of gods and men would seem to have been fairly 
common. Calmet, in his Dissertation on Apparitions, says : 

" The ancient Greeks, who had derived their religion and 
theology from the Egyptians and Eastern nations, and the 
Latins, who had borrowed theirs from the Greeks, were all 
firmly persuaded that the souls of the dead appeared some- 
times to the living — that they could be called up by necro- 
mancers, that they answered questions, and gave notice 
of future events ; that Apollo gave oracles, and that the 
priestess, filled with his spirit, and transported with a holy 
enthusiasm, uttered infallible predictions of things to come. 
Homer, the most ancient of all the Greek writers, and their 
greatest divine, relates several apparitions, not only of 
gods, but of dead men and heroes. In the Odyssey, he 
introduces Ulysses consulting Teresias, who, having pre- 
pared a pit full of blood, in order to call up the Manes, 
Ulysses draws his sword to hinder them from drinking the 
blood for which they were very thirsty, till they had ans- 
wered the questions proposed to them. It was also a 
prevailing opinion, that the souls of men enjoyed no repose, 
but wandered about near their carcases as long as they 
continued unburied. Even after they were buried, it was 
a custom to offer them something to eat, especially honey, 
upon the supposition that after having left their graves, 
they came to feed upon what was brought them. They 
believed also, that the demons were fond of the smoke of 
sacrifices, of music, of the blood of victims, and the com- 
merce of women ; and that they were confined for a deter- 
minate time to certain houses or other places, which they 
haunted, and in which they appeared. 

" They held that souls, when separated from their gross 
and terrestial bodies, still retained a finer and more subtile 
body, of the same form with that which they had quitted ; 
that these bodies were luminous like the stars ; that they 
retained an inclination for the things which they had loved 
in their life-time, and frequently appeared about their 
graves. When the soul of Patroclus appeared to Achilles, 
it had his voice, his shape, his eyes, and his dress, but not 
the same tangible body. Ulysses relates, that when he 
went down into hell, he saw the divine Hercules, that is, 
adds he, his image : for he himself is admitted to the ban- 
quets of the immortal gods. Dido says, that after death 
she, that is, her image bigger than the life, shall go down 
to the infernal regions. 

" 'Et mine magna mei sub terras ibit imago.' 

" And iEneas knew his wife Creusa, who appeared to 
him in her usual shape, but of a taller and nobler stature 
than when she was alive. 

" Infelix simulacrum, atque ipsius umbra Creuscs, 
Visa mihi ante oculos, et nota major imago. 

" In the speech which Titus made to his soldiers, to 
persuade them to mount to the assault of the Tower An- 
tonia at Jerusalem, he uses this argument : ' Who knows 
not that the souls of those who bravely expose themselves 
to danger, and die in war, are exalted to the stars, are 
there received into the highest region of heaven, and ap- 
pear as good genii to their relations ; while they who die 
of sickness, though they have lived good lives, are plunged 
into oblivion and darkness under earth, and are no more 
remembered after death, than if they had never existed." 

Again he says • 



" We find that Origen, Tertullian, and St. Irenaus, were 
clearly of this opinion. Origen, in his second book against 
Celsus, relates and subscribes to the opinion of Plato, who 
says, that the shadows and images of the dead, which are 
seen near sepulchres, are nothing but the soul disengaged 
from its gross body, but not yet entirely freed from matter ; 
that these souls become in time luminous, transparent, 
and subtile, or rather are carried in luminous and trans- 
parent bodies, as in a vehicle, in wh'ch they appeal to the 
living. . . . Tertullian, in his book concerning the soul, 
asserts that it is corporeal, and of a certain figure, and 
appeals to the experience of those who have seen apparitions 
of departed souls, and to whom they have appeared as 
corporeal and tangible, though of an aerial colour and 
consistence. He defines the soul to be a breath from God, 
immortal, corporeal, and of a certain figure." 

It is interesting to note that some of these classic spectres 
are nearly akin to the melodramatic conceptions of more 
modern times. The younger Pliny tells of haunted houses 
whose main features correspond with those of later haunt- 
ings — houses haunted by dismal, chained spectres, the 
ghosts of murdered men who could not rest till their mortal 
remains had been properly buried. 

In the early centuries of the Christian era there was no 
diminution in the number of apparitions witnessed. Visions 
of saints were frequently seen, and were doubtless induced 
by the fasts, rigid asceticism, and severe penances practiced 
in the name of religion. The saints themselves saw visions, 
and were attended by guardian angels, and harassed by 
the unwelcome attentions of demons, or of their master, 
the devil. These beliefs continued into the Middle Ages, 
when, without undergoing any abatement in vigour, they 
began to take on a more romantic aspect. The witch 
and wer-wolf superstitions were responsible for many tales of 
animal apparitions. The poltergeist flourished in a congenial 
atmosphere. Vampires were terribly familiar in Slavonic 
lands, and nowhere in Europe were they quite unknown. 
The malignant demons, known as incubi and succubi, were 
no less common. In the northern countries familiar spirits 
or goblins, approximating to the Roman lares, or the 
wicked and more mischievous lemures, haunted the 
domestic hearth, and bestowed well-meant, but not always 
desirable, attentions on the families to which they attached 
themselves. These beings were accountable for a vast 
number of apparitions, but the spirits of the dead also 
walked abroad in the Dark Ages. Generally they wished 
to unburden their minds of some weighty secret which 
hindered them from resting in their graves. The criminal 
came to confess his guilt, the miser to reveal the spot where 
he had hidden his gold. The cowled monk walked the dim 
aisles of a monastery, or haunted the passages of some 
Rhenish castle, till the prayers of the devout had won 
release for his tortured soul. Perchance, a maiden in 
white flitted through the corridor of some old mansion, 
moaning and wringing her hands, enacting in pantomime 
some long-forgotten tragedy. At the cross-roads lingered 
the ghost of the poor suicide, uncertain which way to take. 
The old belief in the dread potency of the unburied dead 
continued to exercise sway. There is, for example, the 
German story of the Bleeding Nun. Many and 
ghastly had been her crimes during her lifetime, and 
finally she was murdered by one of her paramours, 
her body being left unburied. The castle wherein she 
was slain became the scene of her nocturnal wanderings. 
It is related that a 'young woman who wished to elope 
with her lover decided to disguise herself as this ghostly 
spectre in order to facilitate their escape. But the un- 
fortunate lover eloped with the veritable Bleeding Nun 
herself, mistaking her for his mistress. This, and other 
traditional apparitions, such as the Wild Huntsman, the 



Apparitions 



32 



Apparitions 



Phantom Coach, the Flying Dutchman, which were not 
confined to any one locality, either originated in this period 
or acquired in it a wildly romantic character which lent 
itself to treatment by ballad-writers, and it is in ballad 
form that many of them have come down to us. 

This hey-day of the apparition passed, however, at 
length, and in the eighteenth century we find among the 
cultured classes a scepticism as regards the objective 
nature of apparitions, which was destined two centuries 
later to become almost universal. Hallucination, though 
not yet very well understood, began to be called the " power 
of imagination." Many apparitions, too, were attri- 
buted to illusion.. Nevertheless, the belief in apparitions 
was sustained and strengthened by the clairvoyant 
powers of magnetic subjects and somnambules. Sweden- 
borg, who had, and still has many disciples, did 
much to encourage the idea that apparitions were 
objective and supernatural. To explain the fact that 
only the seer saw these beings and heard their voices, 
he says : 

" The speech of an angel or of a spirit with man is heard 
as sonorously as the speech of one man with another : yet 
it is not heard by others who stand near, but by the man 
himself alone. The reason is, the speech of an angel or 
of a spirit flows in first into the man's thought, and by an 
internal way into the organ of hearing, and thus actuates 
it from within, whereas the speech of man flows first into 
the air, and by an external way into the organ of hearing 
which it actuates from without. Hence, it is evident, that 
the speech of an angel and of a spirit with man is heard in 
man, and, since it equally affects the organ of hearing, that 
it is equally sonorous." 

Thus it will be seen that ancient and modern ideas on 
apparitions differ very little in essential particulars, though 
they take colour from the race and time to which they 
belong. Now they are thin, gibbering shadows ; now they 
are solid, full-bodied creatures, hardly to be distinguished 
from real flesh and blood ; again they are rich in romantic 
accessories ; but the laws which govern their appearance 
are the same, and the beliefs concerning them are not 
greatly different, in whatever race or age they may be 
found. 

Present-Day Theories Concerning Apparitions.— At the 
present time apparitions are generally, though by no means 
universally, referred to hallucination (q.v.) Even those 
who advance a spiritualistic theory of apparitions fre- 
quently incline to this view, for it is argued that the dis- 
carnate intelligence may, by psychical energy alone, 
produce in the brain of a living person a definite hallu- 
cination, corresponding perhaps to the agent's appearance 
in life. Hallucinations may be either coincidental or non- 
coincidental. The former, also known as telepathic hallu- 
cinations, are those which coincide with a death, or with 
some other crisis in the life of the person represented by 
the hallucination. The Society for Psychical Research 
has been instrumental in collecting numerous instances of 
coincidental hallucinations, many of which are recorded 
in Phantasms of the Living, by Messrs. Myers, Podmore and 
Gurney. Mr. Podmore was indeed the chief exponent of the 
telepathic theory of ghosts (for which see also Telepathy) 
which he had adopted after many years of research and 
experiment. He suggested that apparitions result from a 
telepathic impression conveyed from the mind of one 
living person to that of another, an impression which may 
be doubly intense in time of stress or exalted emotion, or 
at the moment of dissolution. Apparitions of the dead 
he would account for by a theory of latent impressions, 
conveyed to the mind of the percipient during the agent's 
lifetime, but remaining dormant until some particular train 
of thought rouses them to activity. This view is largely 



supported at the present day. Hallucinations, whether 
coincidental or otherwise, may, and do present themselves 
to persons who are perfectly sane and normal, but they are 
also a feature of insanity, hypnotism and hysteria, and of 
certain pathological conditions of brain, nerves, and sense- 
organs. The late Mr. Myers was of opinion that an appari- 
tion represented an actual " psychic invasion," that it was 
a projection of some of the agent's psychic force. Such 
a doctrine is, as Mr. Myers himself admitted, a reversion to 
animism. There is another modern theory of apparitions, 
particularly applicable to haunted houses. This is the 
theory of psychometry (q.v.). Sir Oliver Lodge, in his 
Man and the Universe, says : 

" Occasionally a person appears able to respond to 
stimali embededd, as it were among psycho-physical 
surroundings in a manner at present ill understood and 
almost incredible: — as if strong emotions could be un- 
consciously recorded in matter, so that the deposit shall 
thereafter affect a sufficiently sensitive organism, and 
cause similar emotions to reproduce themselves in its sub- 
consciousness, in a manner analogous to the customary 
conscious interpretation of photographic or phonographic 
records, and indeed of pictures or music and artistic em- 
bodiment generally." 

Take, for example, a haunted house of the traditional 
Christmas-number type, wherein some one room is the 
scene of a ghostly representation of some long past tragedy. 
On a psychometric hypothesis the original tragedy has 
been literally photographed on its material surroundings, 
nay, even on the ether itself, by reason of the intensity 
of emotion felt by those who enacted it ; and thenceforth 
in certain persons an hallucinatory effect is experienced cor- 
responding to such impression. It is this theory which is made 
to account for the feeling one has on entering certain rooms, 
that there is an alien presence therein, though it be in- 
visible and inaudible to mortal sense. The doctrine of 
psychometry in its connection with apparitions is of con- 
siderable interest because of its wide possibilities, but it 
belongs to the region of romance rather than to that of 
science, and is hardly to be considered as a serious theory 
of apparitions at least, until it is supported by better 
evidence than its protagonists can show at present. 

Spiritualistic theories of apparitions also vary, though 
they agree in referring such appearances to discarnate 
intelligences, generally to the spirits of the dead. The 
opinion of some spiritualistic authorities is, as has been 
said, that the surviving spirit produces in the mind of the 
percipient, by purely psychic means, an hallucination 
representing his (the agent's) former bodily appearance. 
Others believe that the discarnate spirit can materialise by 
taking to itself ethereal particles from the external world, 
and thus build up a temporary physical organism through 
which it can communicate with the living. Still others 
consider that the materialised spirit borrows such temporary 
physical organism from that of the medium, and experi- 
ments have been made to prove that the medium loses 
weight during the materialisation. (See Materialisation.) 
The animistic belief that the soul itself can become visible 
is not now generally credited, since it is thought that pure 
spirit cannot be perceptible to the physical senses. But 
a compromise has been made in the ' psychic body, ' (q.v.), 
midway between soul and body, which some spiritualists 
consider clothes the soul at the dissolution of the physical 
body. The psychic body is composed of material particles, 
very fine and subtle, and perceptible as a rule, only to the 
eye of the clairvoyant. It is this, and not the spirit., 
which is seen as an apparition. We must not overlook 
the theory held by some Continental investigators., that 
" spirit materialisations " so-called are manifestations of 
psychic force emanating from the medium. 



Apparitions 



33 



Aquinas 



Different Classes of Apparitions. — Many of the various 
classes of apparitions having been considered above, and 
others being dealt with under their separate headings, it is 
hardly necessary to do more than enumerate them here. 
Apparitions may be divided broadly into two classes — 
induced and spontaneous. To the former class belong 
hypnotic and post-hypnotic hallucinations (see Hypnotism) 
and visions (q.v.) induced by the use of narcotics and 
intoxicants, fasts, ascetic practices, incense, narcotic 
salves, and auto-hypnotisation. The hallucinatory ap- 
pearances seen in the mediumistic or somnambulistic trance 
are, of course, allied to those of hypnotism, but usually 
arise spontaneousjy, and are often associated with clair- 
voyance (q.v.). Crystallomancy (q.v.) or crystal vision 
is a form of apparition which is stated to be frequently 
clairvoyant, and in this case the theory of telepathy is 
especially applicable. Crystal visions fall under the 
heading of induced apparitions, since gazing in a crystal 
globe induces in some persons a species of hypnotism, a 
more or less slight dissociation of consciousness, without 
which hallucination is impossible. Another form of clair- 
voyance is second sight (q.v.). a faculty common among 
the Scottish Highlanders. Persons gifted with the second 
sight often see symbolical apparitions, as, for instance, the 
vision of a funeral or a coffin when a death is about to occur 
in the community. Symbolical appearances are indeed 
a feature of clairvoyance and visions generally. Clair- 
voyance includes retrocognition and premonition — visions 
of the past and the future respectively — as well as appari- 
tions of contemporary events happening at a distance. 
Clairvoyant powers are often attributed to the dying. 
Dreams are, strictly speaking, apparitions, but in ordinary 
usage the term is applied only to coincidental or veridical 
dreams, or to those " visions of the night," which are of 
peculiar vividness. 

From these subjective apparitions let us turn to the 
ghost proper. The belief in ghosts has come to us, as 
has been indicated, from the remotest antiquity, and 
innumerable theories have been formulated to account 
for it, from the primitive animistic conception of the 
apparition as an actual soul to the modern theories enumer- 
ated above, of which the chief are telepathy and spirit 
materialisation. Apparitions of the living also offer a wide 
field for research, perhaps the most favoured hypothesis 
at the present day being that of the telepathic hallucination. 
A peculiarly weird type of apparition is the wraith (q.v.) 
or double, of which the Irish fetch is a variant. The 
wraith is an exact facsimile of a living person, who may 
himself see it ; Goethe, Shelley, and other famous men 
are said to have seen their own wraiths. The fetch makes 
its appearance shortly before the death of the person it 
represents, either to himself or his friends, or both. An- 
other Irish spirit which foretells death is the banshee (q.v.), 
a being which attaches itself to certain ancient families, 
and is regularly seen or heard before the death of one of its 
members. To the same class belong the omens of death, 
in the form of certain animals or birds, which fdllow some 
families. Hauntings or localised apparitions are dealt 
with under the heading " Haunted Houses." The pol- 
tergeist (q.v.), whose playful manifestations must cer- 
tainly be included among apparitions, suggests another 
classification of these as visual, auditory, tactile, etc., since 
poltergeist hauntings — or indeed hauntings of any kind — 
are not confined to apparitions touching any one sense. For 
apparitions of fairies, brownies, and others of the creatures 
of folk-lore, see Fairies. 

In this article an attempt has been made to show as 
briefly as possible the universality of the belief in appara- 
tions, and the varied forms under which this belief ex- 
hibits itself in various times and countries among savage 



and civilised peoples ; and to indicate the basic principles 
on which it rests — -namely, the existence of a spiritual 
world capable of manifesting itself in the sphere of matter, 
and the survival of the human soul after the dissolution 
of the body. While the beliefs in this connection of savage 
races and of Europeans in early and mediaeval times may 
arouse interest and curiosity for their own sakes, the 
scientific investigator of the present day values them 
chiefly as throwing light on modern beliefs. The belief 
in apparitions is a root principle of spiritualism. Many 
who are not spiritualists in the accepted sense have had 
experiences which render the belief in apparitions almost 
inevitable. A subject which touches so nearly a consider- 
able percentage of the community, including many people 
of culture and education, and concerning which there is a 
vast quantity of evidence extending back into antiquity, 
cannot be a matter of indifference to science, and the 
investigations made by scientific men within recent years 
arouse surprise that such investigation has been so 
long delayed. The Society for Psychical Research has 
gathered many well attested instances of coincidental 
apparitions, clairvoyance, and apparitions of the dead. 
As yet, however, the problem remains unsolved, and the 
various hypotheses advanced are conflicting and sometimes 
obscure. The theory of telepathic hallucination offered 
by Mr. Podmore seems on the whole to be the most con- 
formable to known natural laws, while at the same time 
covering the ground with fair completeness. But perhaps 
the best course to take at the present stage of our know- 
ledge is to suspend judgment in the meanwhile, until further 
light has been cast on the subject. 

Apports : The name given to various objects, such as flowers, 
jewellery, and even live animals, materialised in the presence 
of a medium. The production of these apports have always 
been, and still are, one of the most prominent and effective 
features of spiritualistic seances. Sometimes they fly 
through the air and strike the faces of the sitters ; some- 
times they appear on the table, or in the laps of those 
present. A favourite form is the scattering of perfume 
on the company. Recent systematic experiments con- 
ducted in a purely scientific spirit have exposed fraud in 
numerous instances where ordinary precautions would not 
have sufficed for its detection. Frequently it has been 
found that the medium had skilfully concealed the apports 
in the room or about her person. Nevertheless, though 
the result is often produced by obviously unscrupulous 
means, it does not follow that all materialisations are per- 
formed with fraudulent intent. In cases where, so far as 
can be judged, the character of the medium is beyond 
reproach, as in the case of Helene Smith, the idea has been 
advanced that any preparations made beforehand, such as 
the secreting of flowers, etc., must result from a process 
of activity of the sublinimal consciousness. Other ex- 
planations are, that the apports are actually conveyed to 
the seance by spirits, or that they are drawn thither by 
magnetic power. Branches of trees, armfuls of fruit and 
flowers, money, jewels, and live lobsters are among the 
more extraordinary apports. 

Apprentice : (See Adept.) 

Apuleius : (See Greece.) 

Aquin (Mardochee d') : A learned rabbi of Carpentras, who 
died in 1650. He became a Christian, and changed his 
name of Mardochee into Philip. He was the author of an 
Interpretation of the Tree of the Hebrew Kabala. 

Aquinas (Thomas) who has been under the imputation of 
magic, was. one of the profoundest scholars and subtlest 
logicians of his day. He was a youth of illustrious birth, 
and received the rudiments of his education under the 
monks of Monte Cassino, and in the University of Naples. 



Aquinas 



34 



Arabs 



But, not contented with these advantages, he secretly 
entered himself in the Society of Preaching Friars, or 
Dominicans, at seventeen years of age. His mother, being 
indignant that he should thus take the vow of poverty, and 
sequester himself from the world for life, employed every 
means in her power to induce him to alter his purpose, but 
all in vain. The friars, to deliver him from her impor- 
tunities, removed him from Naples to Terracina, from 
Terracina to Anagnia, and from Anagnia to Rome. His 
mother followed him in all these changes of residence, but 
was not permitted so much as to see him. At length she 
induced his two elder brothers to seize him by force. They 
waylaid him on his road to Paris, whether he was sent to 
complete his course of instruction, and carried him off to 
the castle of Aquino, where he had been born. Here he 
was confined for two years, but he found a way to corres- 
pond with the superiors of his order, and finally escaped 
from a window in the castle. St. Thomas Aquinas (for he 
was canonised after his death) exceeded perhaps all men 
that ever existed in the severity and strictness of his meta- 
physical disquisitions, and thus acquired the name of the 
Seraphic Doctor. 

It was to be expected that a man, who thus immersed 
himself in the depths of thought, should be an enemy to 
noise and interruption. He dashed to pieces an artificial 
man of brass that Albertus Magnus, who was his tutor, 
had spent thirty years in bringing to perfection, being 
impelled to this violence by its perpetual and unceasing 
garrulity. It is further said, that his study being placed 
in a great thoroughfare, where the grooms were all day 
long exercising their horses, he found it necessary to apply 
a remedy to this nuisance. He made by the laws of magic 
a small horse of brass, which he buried two or three feet 
under ground in the midst of this highway, and, having 
done so, no horse would any longer pass along the road. 
It was in vain that the grooms with whip and spur sought 
to conquer the animals' repugnance. They were finally 
compelled to give up the attempt, and to choose another 
place for their daily exercises. 

It has further been sought to fix the imputation of magic 
upon Thomas Aquinas by referring to him certain books 
written on that science ; but these are now acknowledged 
to be spurious. 
Arabs : The heyday of occultism among the Arab race was 
reached at the epoch when that division of them known 
as the Moors established their empire in the Spanish 
peninsula. 

We first emerge from cloud and shadow into a precise and 
definite region in the eighth century, when an Arabian 
mystic revived the dreams and speculations of the alche- 
mists, and discovered some important secrets. Geber (q.v.) , 
who flourished about 720-750, is reputed to have written 
upwards of five hundred works upon the Philosophers' 
Stone and elixir vita. His researches after these desider- 
ata proved fruitless, but if he did not bestow upon mankind 
immortal life and boundless wealth, he gave them nitrate 
of silver, corrosive sublimate, red oxide of mercury, and 
nitric acid. 

Among his tenets were a belief that a preparation of 
gold would heal all diseases in animals and plants, as well 
as in human beings ; that the metals were affected with 
maladies, except the pure, supreme, and precious one of 
gold ; and that the Philsophers' Stone had often been 
discovered, but that its fortunate discoverers would not 
reveal the secret to blind, incredulous, and unworthy man. 

His Summa Perjectionis — a manual for the alchemical 
student — has been frequently translated. A curious 
English version, of which there is a copy in the British 
Museum, was published by an English enthusiast, one 
Richard Russell, at " the Star, in New Market, in Wapping, 



near the Dock," in 16S6. Geber's true name was Abou 
Moussah Djafar, to which was added Al So5, or " The 
Wise," and he was a native of Houran, in Mesopotamia. 

He was followed by Avicenna (q.v.), Averroes (q.v.} 
and others equally gifted and fortunate. 

According to Geber and his successors the metals were 
not only compound creatures,- but they were also all com- 
posed of the same two substances. Both Prout and Davy 
lent their names to ideas not unlike this. " The improve- 
ments," says the latter, " taking place in the methods of 
examining bodies, are constantly changing the opinions 
of chemists with respect to their nature, and there is no 
reason to suppose that any real indestructible principle 
has yet been discovered. Matter may ultimately be found 
to be the same in essence, differing only in the arrangement 
of its particles ; or two or three simple substances may 
produce all the- varieties of compound bodies." The 
ancient ideas, therefore, of Demetrius the Greek physicist, 
and of Geber, the Arabian polypharmist, are still hovering 
about the horizon of chemistry. 

The Arabians taught, in the third place, that the metals 
are composed of mercury and sulphur in different pro- 
portions. They toiled away at the art of making many 
medicines out of the various mixtures and reactions of 
the few chemicals at their command. They believed in 
transmutation, but they did not strive to effect it.. It 
belonged to their creed rather than to their practice. They 
were a race of hard-working, scientific artisans, with their 
pestles and mortars, their crucibles and furnaces, their 
alembics and aludels, their vessels for infusion, for decoc- 
tion, for cohobation, sublimation, fixation, lixiviation, 
filtration and coagulation. They believed in transmuta- 
tion, in the first matter, and in the correspondence of the 
metals with the planets, to say nothing of potable gold. 

Whence the Arabians derived the sublimer articles of 
their scientific faith, is not known to any European histor- 
ian. Perhaps they were the conjectures of their ancestors 
according to the faith. Perhaps they had them from tha 
Fatimites of Northern Africa, among whose local pre- 
decessors it has been seen that it is just possible the doctrine 
of the four elements and their mutual convertibility may 
have arisen. Perhaps they drew them from Greece, 
modifying and adapting them to their own specific forms 
of matter, mercury, sulphur and arsenic. 

Astrology. — Astrology was also employed by the oracles 
of Spain. Albatgni was celebrated for his astronomical 
science, as were many others ; and in geometry, arithmetic, 
algebraical calculations and the theory of music, we have 
a long list, Asiatic and Spanish, but only known by 
their lives and principal writings. The works of Ptolemy 
also exercised the ingenuity of the Arabians ; while 
Alchindi, as far as we may be allowed to judge from his 
multifarious volumes, traversed the whole circle of the 
sublimer sciences. But judicial astrology, or the art of 
foretelling future events from the position and influences 
of the stars, was with them a favourite pursuit ; and many 
of their philosophers, incited by various motives, dedicated 
all their labours to this futile but lucrative inquiry. They 
often speak with high commendation of the iatro-mathe- 
matical discipline, which could control the disorders to 
which man was subject, and regulate the events of life. 

The tenets of Islamisiri, which inculcate an unreserved 
submission to the over-ruling destinies of heaven, are 
evidently adverse to the lessons of astrology ; but this 
by no means hindered the practitioners of old Spain and 
Arabia from attaining a high standard of perfection in the ■ 
art, which they perhaps first learned from the peoples of 
Chaldcsa, the past masters of the ancient world in astro- 
nomical science, in divination, and the secrets of prophecy. 
But in Arab Spain, where the tenets of Islam, were per- 




Group of Arabian magicians repenting of their sorceries 



[face p. 34 



Aradia 



35 



Aristseus 



haps more lightly esteemed than in their original home, 
magic unquestionably reached a higher if not more thought- 
ful standard. 

From the Greeks, still in search of science, the Arabs 
turned their attention to the books of the sages who are 
esteemed the primitive instructors of mankind, among 
whom Hermes was deemed the first. They mention the 
works written by him, or rather by them, as they suppose, 
like other authors, that there were three of the name. 
To one the imposing appellation of Trismegistus has been 
given ; and the Arabians, from some ancient records, 
we may presume, minutely describe his character and 
person. They also published, as illustrative of their 
astrological discipline, some writings ascribed to the 
Persian Zoroaster. 

For Sorcery, etc., see Semites. 

Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches of Italy : (See Italy.) 

Aracl : One of the spirits which the rabbis of the Talmud 
made princes and governors over the people of the birds. 

Arariel : An angel who, according to the rabbis of the Talmud, 
takes charge of the waters of the earth. Fishermen invoke 
him so that they may take large fish. 

Ararita : The verbum inenarrabile of the sages of the Alex- 
andrian School, " which Hebrew Kabalists wrote Javeh, and 
interpreted by the sound Ararita, thus expressing the 
triplicity of the secondary kabalistic principle, the dualism 
cf the means and the equal unity of the first and final 
principle, as well as the alliance between the triad and the 
triad and the tetrad Tn a word composed of four letters, 
which form seven by means of a triple and double repeti- 
tion." 

Arbatel : A magical ritualpublished at Basle in 1575. The 
text is in Latin, and it appears to have been influenced by 
Paracelsus. It is of Christian, not Jewish origin, and 
although the authorship is unknown it is probably the 
work of an Italian. Only one of its nine volumes has come 
down to us. It deals with the institutions of magic, and is 
entitled Isagoge, which means essential or necessary 
instruction. In it we are introduced to the ritual of the 
Olympic spirits dwelling in the air and among the stars, 
who govern the world. There are, we are told, one hundred 
and ninety-six Olympic provinces in the universe : thus 
Aratron has forty-nine, Bethor forty-two, Phaleg thirty- 
five, Och twenty-eight, Hagith twenty-one, Ophiel fourteen, 
and Phul seven. Each of the Olympic spirits rule alter- 
nately for four hundred and ninety years. They have 
natural sway over certain departments of the material 
world, but outside these departments they perform the 
same operations magically. Thus Och, the ruler of solar 
affairs, presides over the preparation of gold naturally 
in the soil. At the same time, he presides magically over 
the preparation of that metal by means of alchemy. The 
Arbatel proceeds to say that the sources of occult wisdom 
are to be found in God, spiritual essences and corporeal 
creatures, as well as in nature, but also in the apostate 
spirits and in the ministers of punishment in Hell and 
the elementary spirits. The secrets of all magic reside in 
these, but magicians are born, not made, although they are 
assisted by contemplation and the love of God. It will 
be sufficient to describe the powers and offices of one of 
these spirits. Aratron governs those things which are 
ascribed astrologically to Saturn. He can convert any 
living thing into stone, can change coals into treasure, 
gives familiar spirits to men, teaches alchemy, magic and 
medicine, the secret of invisibility, and long life. He 
should be invoked on a Saturday in the first hour of the day. 
The A rbatel is one of the best authorities extant on spiritual 
essences, their powers and degrees. 

Arcanum, Great : The great secret which was supposed to 
lie behind all alchemical and magical striving. " God 



and Nature," says Eliphas Levi (q.v.), " alike, have closed 
the Sanctuary of Transcendent Science. ... so that the 
revelation of the great magical secret is happily impossible." 
Elsewhere he states that it makes the magician " master of 
gold and light." 

Ardat-Ule : (Semitic Spirit). She is a female spirit or demon 
who weds human beings and works great harm in the 
dwellings of men. 

Argentum, Potafcile : A marvellous remedy for which the al- 
chemists had a recipe. It was composed of sulphur, spirits 
of wine, and other ingredients, prepared according to 
specified direction, and was (if we credit these authorities) 
a sovereign remedy for all manner of ailments. 

Ariel : A spirit. (See Beaumont, John.) 

Arignote : Lucian relates that at Corinth, in the Cranaiis 
quarter, there was a certain house which no one would 
inhabit, because it was haunted by a spectre. A man 
named Arignote, well versed in the lore of the Egyptian 
magical books, shut himself in the house to pass the night 
and began to read peacefully in the court. Soon the 
spectre made its appearance, and in order to frighten 
Arignote, it first of all took the form of a dog, then that of 
a bull, and finally that of a lion. But Arignote was not at 
all disturbed. He conjured the spectre in formulae which 
he found in his books, and obliged it to retire to a corner 
of the court, where it disappeared. On the following day 
the spot to which the spectre had retreated was dug up, 
and a skeleton was found. When it was properly buried, 
the ghost was not seen again. This anecdote is an adapta- 
tion of the adventure of Athenodorus, which Lucian had 
read in Pliny. 

Arioch : Demon of vengeance, according to some demono- 
logists. He is different from Alastor, and occupies him- 
self only with vengeance in particular cases where he is 
employed for that purpose. 

Ariolists : Ancient diviners, whose special occupation was 
called ariolatio, because they divined by means of the altars. 
They consulted demons on their altars, says Dangis ; they 
observed whether the altar trembled or performed any 
marvel, and predicted what the Devil inspired them with. 
According to Francois de la Tour Blanche, these people 
ought to have been put to death as idolators. He based 
his opinion on Deuteronomy, chap, xviii., and on Revela- 
tion, chap, xxi., where it is said that idolators and liars 
shall be cast into the lake of fire and sulphur, which will 
be their second death. Deuteronomy orders only the first. 

AristsellS : A charlatan who lived in the time of Crcesus. 
He said that his soul would leave his body whenever he 
wished, and then return to it. Some maintain that it 
escaped in the sight of his wife and children in the figure 
of a stag. Wierius said that it took the shape of a crow. 
However that may be, Herodotus relates in his fourth 
book that Arist&us entering one day into a fuller's shop, 
fell dead therein, that the fuller ran to break the news to 
his parents, who came to bury him. But no corpse was 
to be found. The whole town was astonished, when some 
men returning from a voyage assured them that they had 
met Aristaus on the way to Crotona. It appeared that 
he was a species of vampire. Herodotus adds that he 
reappeared at the end of seven years, composed a poem 
and died anew. Leloyer, who regarded Aristceus as a 
sorcerer or ecstatic, quoted a certain Apollonius, who said 
that at the same hour as the vampire disappeared for the 
second time, he was transported to Sicily, where he became 
a schoolmaster.. He is again heard of three hundred and 
forty years afterwards in the town of Metapontus, where 
he caused to be raised certain monuments which were to be 
seen in the time of Herodotus. So many wonderful hap- 
penings inspired the Sicilians with awe, and they raised a 
temple to him and worshipped him as a demi-god. 



Arithmancy 



36 



Ash Tree 



Arithmancy : (Sometimes called wrongly Arithmomancy). 
Divination by means of numbers. The Greeks examined 
the number and value of the letters in the names of two 
combatants, and predicted that he whose name contained 
most letters, or letters of the greatest value, would be the 
victor. It was by means of this science that some diviners 
foretold that Hector would be overcome by Achilles. The 
Chaldeans, who also practised it, divided their alphabet 
into three parts, each composed of seven letters, which they 
attributed to the seven planets, in order to make predictions 
from them. The Platonists and the Pythagoreans were 
also strongly addicted to this method of divination, which 
comprehends also a part of the Jewish Kabala. 

Armida : The episode of Armida, in Tasso, is founded on a 
popular tradition related by Pierre Delancre. This skil- 
ful enchantress was the daughter of Arbilan, King of 
Damascus. She was brought up by an uncle, a great 
magician, who taught his niece to become a powerful 
sorceress. Nature had so well endowed her that for per- 
sonal attractions she far surpassed the most beautiful 
women of the East. Her uncle sent her as a worthy foe 
against the powerful Christian army that Pope Urban XT. 
had collected under the leadership of Godfrey de Bouillon. 
And there, says Delancre, she made such havoc with her 
beautiful eyes, and so charmed the principal leaders of 
the crusaders, that she almost ruined the hopes of the 
Christians. She kept the valiant knight Renaud for a long 
time in an enchanted castle, and it was not without great 
difficulty that he was disenchanted.' 

Armomancy : A method of divination which is effected by 
the inspection of the shoulders. The ancients judged by 
this means whether a victim was suitable for sacrifice to the 
gods. 

Arnaud, Guillaume : (See France.1 

Arnoux : Author of a volume published at Rouen, in 1630, 
with the title of On the Wonders of the Other World, a work 
written in a bizarre style, and calculated to disturb feeble 
imaginations with its tales of visions and apparitions. 

Arnuphis : An Egyptian sorcerer who, seeing Marcus Aurelius 
and his army engaged in a pass whose entrance had been 
closed by their enemies, and dying of thirst under a burning 
sky, caused a miraculous rain to fall, which allowed the 
Romans to quench their thirst, while the thunder and hail 
obliged the enemy to give up their arms. 

Arphaxat : A Persian sorcerer, who was killed by a thunder- 
bolt, according to Abdias of Babylon, at the same hour 
as the martyrdom of St. Simon and St. Jude. In tha 
account of the possession of the nuns of Loudun there is a 
demon Arphaxat, who took possession of the body of 
Louise de Pinterville. 

Ars Aurifera : (See Avicenna.) 

Ars Chimiea : (See Avicenna.) 

Ars Notoria : The science of the Tarot (q.v.) signs and their 
application to the divination of all secrets, whether of 
nature, of philosophy, or even of the future. 

Art Transmutatoire : (See Pope John XXII.) 

Artephius : A well-known exponent of the hermetic philo- 
sophy, who died in the twelfth century, and is said to have 
lived more than a thousand years by means of alchemical 
secrets. Francois Pic mentions the opinion of certain savants 
who affirm that Artephius is identical with Appolonius of 
Tyana, who was born in the first century under that name, 
and who died in the twelfth century under that of Artep- 
hius. Many extravagant and curious works are attributed 
to him : De Vita Propaganda (The Art of Prolonging Life) 
which he claims, in the preface, to have written at the age 
of a thousand and twenty-five years ; The Key to Supreme 
, Wisdom ; and a work on the character of the planets, on 
the significance of the songs of birds, on things past and 
future, and on the Pilhosophers' Stone. Cardan spoke 



of these books, and believed that they were composed by 
some practical' j oker who wished to play on the credulity 
of the partisans of alchemy. 
Arthur, King : The character of Arthur is strongly identified 
with the occult. Not only do we find his Court a veritable 
centre of happenings more or less supernatural, but his 
mysterious origin and the subsequent events of his career 
have in them matter of considerable interest from an 
occult standpoint. This is not the place to dispute re- 
garding his reality, but merely to deal with the romances 
which cluster around him, and their contents from the 
supernatural point of view. We find him first of all 
connected with one of the greatest magical names of early 
times — that of Merlin the Enchanter. The possibilities 
are that Merlin was originally a British deity, who in later 
times degenerated from his high position in the popular 
imagination. We possess many accounts concerning him, 
one of which states that he was the direct offspring of 
Satan himself, but that a zealous priest succeeded in 
baptising him before his infernal parent could carry him 
off. From Merlin, Arthur received much good advice both 
magical and rational. He was present when the King 
was gifted with his magic sword Excalibur, which endowed 
him with practical invulnerability, and all through his 
career was deep in his counsels. His tragic imprisonment 
by the Lady Viviana, who shut him up eternally in a rock 
through the agency of one of his own spells, removed him 
from his sphere of activity at the Arthurian Court, and 
from that time the shadows may be seen to gather swiftly 
around Arthur's head. Innumerable are the tales con- 
cerning the Knights of his Court who met with magical 
adventures, and as the stories grew older in the popular 
mind, additions to these naturally became the rule. Notably 
is this the case in that off-shoot of the Arthurian epic, which 
is known as the Holy Grail (q.v.), in which we find the 
knights who go in quest of it constantly encountered by 
every description of sorcery for the purpose of retarding 
their progress. Arthur's end is as strange as his origin, 
for we find him. wafted away by faery hands, or at least by 
invisible agency, to the Isle of Avillion, which probably 
is one and the same place with the Celtic other- world across 
the ocean. As a legend and a tradition, that of Arthur 
is undoubtedly the most powerful and persistent in the 
British imagination. It has employed the pens and 
enhanced the dreams of many of the giants in English lit- 
erature from the time of Geoffrey of Monmouth, to the pre- 
sent day ; and with the echoes of the poetry of Tennyson and 
Swinburne still ringing in their ears, the present generation 
is quite as justified in regarding the history of Arthur as a 
living reality as were the Britons of the twelfth century. 
Artois, Countess of : (See France.) 

Asal : Known as the King of the Golden Pillars, in Irish 
Celtic Myth. He was the owner of seven swine, which might 
be killed and eaten every night, yet were found alive every 
morning. 
Asbestos : Asbestos is so called from being inextinguishable 
even by showers and storms, if once set on fire. The Pagans 
made use of it for lights in their temples. It is of woolly 
texture, and is sometimes called the Salamander's feather. 
Leonardus says : " Its fire is nourished by an inseparable 
unctuous humid flowing from its substance ; therefore, 
being once kindled, it preserves a constant light without 
feeding it with any moisture." 
Asclepius : A hermetic book. (See Hermes Trismegistus.) 
Ash Tree : The Ash had a wonderful influence. The old 
Christmas log was of ash wood, and the use of it at this 
time was helpful to the future prosperity of the family. 
Venomous animals, it was said, would not take shelter 
under its branches. A carriage - with its axles made of 
ash wood was believed to go faster than a carriage with its 



Ashipu 



37 



Ass 



axles made of any other wood ; and tools with handles 
made of this wood were supposed to enable a man to do 
more work than he could do with tools whose handles 
were not of ash. Hence the reason that ash wood is gener- 
ally used for tool handles. It was upon ash branches that 
witches were enabled to ride through the air ; and those 
who ate on St. John's eve the red buds of the tree, were 
rendered invulnerable to witches' influence. 

Ashipu : (See Babylonia.) 

Ashtabula Poltergeist, The : The supposed cause of the 
extraordinary disturbances which took place about the 
middle of the nineteenth century in the presence of a lady 
of Ashtabula County, Ohio. First of all she became a 
medium on the death of her husband, and produced spirit- 
rappings and other manifestations. Then for a time she 
studied anatomy in Marlborough, and afterwards returned 
to her home in Austinburg, where an alarming outbreak 
of weird manifestations occurred. Stair-rods moved after- 
her when she went to her room, light articles flew about 
the house, and uncanny sounds were heard. At Marl- 
borough, when she resumed her anatomical studies, the 
disturbances increased in violence, and she and her room- 
mate had a ghastly vision of a corpse they had been dis- 
secting in the day-time. Dr. Richmond, a sceptic of the 
day, maintained that these phenomena were the result 
of magneto-odylic emanations from the medium. 

Asiah : According to the Kabala, the first of the three classes 
or natural ranks among the spirits of men, who must ad- 
vance from the lower to the higher. 

Asipu : Caste of priests. (See Semites.) 

Aspects, Planetary : (See Astrology.) 

Aspidomaney : A little known form of divination practised 
in the Indies, as we are told by some travellers. Del- 
ancre says that the diviner or sorcerer traces a circle, takes 
up his position therein seated on a buckler, and mutters 
certain conjurations. He becomes entranced and falls 
into an ecstasy, from which he only emerges to tell things 
that his client wishes to know, and which the devil has 
revealed to him. 

Aspilette (Marie d') : Witch of Andaye, in the country of 
Labour, who lived in the reign of Henry IV. She was 
arrested at the age of nineteen years, and confessed that 
she had been led to the " sabbath," and there made to 
perform divers horrible rites. 

Ass : The Egyptians traced his image on the cakes they 
offered to Typhon, god of evil. The Romans regarded 
the meeting of an ass as an evil omen, but the animal was 
honoured in Arabia and Judea, and it was in Arabia that 
the ass of Silanus spoke to his master. Other talking asses 
were Balaam's ass, which Mahomet placed in his paradise 
with Alborack ; the ass of Aasis, Queen of Sheba ; and 
the ass on which Jesus Christ rode into Jerusalem. 

Some people have found something sacred and mysterious 
in the innocent beast, and there was practised formerly a 
species of divination in which the head of an ass was 
employed. 

At one time a special festival was held for the ass, during 
which he was led into the church while mass was sung. 
This reverence in which he was held by Christians was 
doubtless due to the black cross which he wears on his back, 
and which, it is said, was given him because of the ass of 
Beth phage, who carried Christ into Jerusalem. But 
Pliny, who was almost contemporary with that ass, and 
who has carefully gathered all that related to the animal, 
has made no mention concerning the colour of its coat ! 
So we can only believe that the ass of to-day is as he always 
was. 

It is not only the devout who respect the ass, for the 
wise Agrippa offered him an apology in his book, On the 
Vanity of the Sciences. Among the Indians of Madras, 



one of the principal castes, that of the Cavaravadonques, 
claim to be descended from an ass. These Indians treat 
the ass as a brother, take his part, and prosecute those who 
over-burden or ill-treat him in any way. In rainy weather 
they will often give him shelter when they deny it to his 
driver. 

An old fable gives us but a poor idea of the ass. Jupiter 
had just taken possession of Olympus. On his coming, 
men asked of him an eternal springtime, which he accord- 
ingly granted, charging the ass of Silenus to bear the 
precious treasure to earth. The ass became thirsty, and 
approached a fountain guarded by a snake, who refused 
to let the ass drink unless he parted with the treasure. 
The stupid animal thereupon bartered the gift of heaven 
for a skin of water, and- since that time snakes, when they 
grow old, can change their skin and become young again, 
for they have the gift of perpetual spring-time. 

But all asses were not so stupid as that. In a village 
about half a league from Cairo, there dwelt a mountebank, 
who possessed a highly trained ass, so clever that the 
country people took it to be a demon in disguise. One 
day the mountebank mentioned in the ass's hearing that 
the Soldan wished to construct a beautiful building, and 
had resolved to employ all the asses in Cairo to carry the 
lime, mortar and stones. The ass immediately lay down 
and pretended to be dead, and his master begged for money 
to buy another. When he had collected some he returned 
to his old ass. " He is not dead," he said, " he only pre- 
tended to die because he knew I had not the wherewithal 
to buy him food." Still the ass refused to rise, and the 
mountebank addressed the company, telling them that 
the Soldan had sent out the criers commanding the people 
to assemble on the morrow outside Cairo to see the most 
wonderful sights in the world. He further desired that 
the most gracious ladies and the most beautiful girls should 
be mounted on asses. The ass raised himself and pricked 
up his ears. " The governor of my quarter," added the 
mountebank, " has begged me to lend my ass for his wife, 
who is old and toothless, and very ugly." The ass began 
to limp as though he were old and lame. " Ah, you like 
beautiful ladies ? " said his master. The animal bowed 
his head. " Oh, well," said the man, " there are many 
present ; show me the most beautiful." Which command 
the ass obeyed with judgment and discretion. 

These marvellous asses, said the demonologists, were, 
if not demons, at least men metamorphosed, like Apuleius, 
who was, it is said, transformed into an ass. Vincent de 
Beauvais speaks of two women who kept a little inn near 
Rome, and who sold their guests at the market, after having 
changed them into pigs, fowls, or sheep. One of them, he 
adds, changed a certain comedian into an ass, and as he 
retained his talents under his new skin, she led him to the 
fairs on the outskirts of the city, gaining much money 
thereby. A neighbour bought this wise ass at a good price, 
and in handing it over the sorcerers felt obliged to warn the 
purchaser not to let the ass enter water. Its new master 
attended to the warning for some time, but one day the 
poor ass managed to get free and cast itself into a lake, 
when it regained its natural shape, to the great surprise 
of its driver. The matter was brought to the ears of the 
Pope, who had the two witches punished, while the comed- 
ian returned to the exercise of his profession. 

Many stories are told of the ass which carried Jesus 
Christ into Jerusalem, and which is said to have died at 
Verona, where its remains are still honoured. The rabbis 
make quite as much ado over Balaam's ass, which has 
already been mentioned. It is, they say, a privileged 
animal whom God formed at the end of the sixth day. 
Abraham employed it to carry the wood for the sacrifice 
of Isaac ; it also carried the wife and son of Moses in the 



Assassins 



38 



Assassins 



desert. They also maintain that Balaam's ass is carefully 
nourished and kept in a secret place until the coming of 
the Jewish Messiah, who will mount it when He subdues all 
the earth. 
Assassins : (Hashishin, so-called from their use of the drug 
hashish, distilled from the hemp plant). A branch of that 
sect of Mahomedans known as Ismaelites, founded in the 
latter part of the eleventh century by Hassan Sabah, in 
Syria and Persia. Driven from Cairo, Hassan spread a 
modified form of the Ismaelite doctrine throughout Syria, 
and in 1090 he became master of the mountain stronghold, 
Alamut, in Persia, where he founded a society known as 
the Assassins, and from which he ostensibly promulgated 
the principles of the Ismaelite sect. The difference, how- 
ever, between the Assassins and other Ismaelites, was that 
they employed secret assassination against all the enemies 
of the sect. Their organisation was founded upon that 
of the Western Lodge at Cairo, and at the head of their 
sect was the Sheik- Al-Gebel, or " Old Man of the Mountain," 
as the name has been rather absurdly translated by Europ- 
eans authors, the more correct translation being " Chief 
of the mountain." The other officers of the society were 
the grand priors, lesser priors, initiates, associates, and the 
fedavi or " devoted ones," who were the assassins proper. 
These latter were young men from whose ranks those who 
were selected for the various deeds of blood for which the 
Assassins became notorious, were chosen. They were 
not initiated into the secret circle of the cult, and blind 
obedience was expected from them. When their services 
were required they were intoxicated with hashish, and in 
this condition were taken into the magnificent gardens of 
the Sheik, where they were surrounded by every pleasure. 
This they were told was a foretaste of what they might 
expect in Paradise, to which they would instantly proceed 
were they to lose their lives in the Sheik's service. Con- 
sequently these young men, for the most part ignorant 
peasants, displayed a degree of fanaticism which made them 
the fitting instruments of Hassan's policy. But the 
initiated amongst the Assassins were convinced of the 
worthlessness of religion and morality, held no belief, and 
sneered covertly at the Prophet and his religion. 

The early history of the society is one of romantic and 
absorbing interest. Hassan had been a member of a 
secret Ismaelite society at Cairo, the head of which was 
the Caliph, " and of which the object was the dissemination 
of the doctrines of the sect of the Ismaelites. . . . 

" This society, we are told, comprised both men and 
women, who met in separate assemblies, for the common 
supposition of the insignificance of the latter sex in the 
east, is erroneous. It was presided over by the Chief 
Missionary (Dai-al-Doat) who was e.lways a person of 
importance in the state, and not infrequently Supreme 
Judge (Kadhi-al-Kodhat). Their assemblies, called Societies 
of Wisdom (Mejalis-al-Hie;nel) , were held twice a week, on 
Mondays and Wednesdays. All the members appeared 
clad in white. The president, having first waited on the 
Caliph, and read to him the intended lecture, or, if that 
could not be done, having got his signature on the back 
of it, proceeded to the assembly and delivered a written 
discourse. At the conclusion of it, those present kissed 
his hand and reverently touched with their forehead the 
handwriting of the Caliph. In this state the societjr con- 
tinued till the reign of that extraordinary madman, the 
Caliph Haken-bi-emr-illah (Judge by the Command of 
God), who determined to place it on a splendid footing. 
He erected for it a stately edifice, styled the House of 
Wisdom (Dar-al-hicmct) , abundantly furnished with books 
and mathematical instruments. Its doors were open to 
all, and paper, pens and ink were profusely supplied for 
the use of those who chose to frequent it. " Professors of 



law, mathematics, logic, and medicine were appointed to 
give instructions ; and at the learned disputations which 
were frequently held in presence of the Caliph, these 
professors appeared in their state caftans (Khalaa), which, 
it is said, exactly resembled the robes worn at the English 
universities. The income assigned to this establishment 
by the munificence of the Caliph, was 257,000 ducats an- 
nually, arising from the tenths paid to the crown. 

" The course of instruction in this university proceeded, 
according to Macrisi, by the following nine degrees. (1) 
The object of the first, which was long and tedious, was to 
infuse doubts and difficulties into the mind of the aspirant, 
and to lead him to repose a blind confidence in the know- 
ledge and wisdom of his teacher. To this end he was 
perplexed with captious questions ; the absurdities of the 
literal sense of the Koran and its repugnance to reason, 
were studiously pointed out, and dark hints were given 
that beneath this shell lay a kernel sweet to the taste and 
nutritive to the soul. But all further information was 
most rigorously withheld till he had consented to bind 
himself by a most solemn oath to absolute faith and blind 
obedience to his instructor. (2) When he had taken the 
oath he was admitted to the second degree, which in- 
culcated the acknowledgement of the imams appointed 
by God as the sources of all knowledge. (3) The third 
degree informed him what was the number of these blessed 
and holy imams ; and this was the mystic seven ; for, 
as God had made seven heavens, seven earths, seas, planets, 
metals, tones, and colours, so seven was the number of 
these noblest of God's creatures. (4) In the fourth de- 
gree the pupil learned that God had sent seven lawgivers 
into the world, each of whom was commissioned to alter 
and improve the system of his predecessor ; that each of 
these had seven helpers, who appeared in the interval 
between him and his successor ; these helpers, as they 
did not appear as public teachers, were called the mute 
(samit), in contradistinction to the speaking lawgivers. 
The seven lawgivers' were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, 
Jesus, Mohammed, and Ismael, the son of Jaaffer ; the 
seven principal helpers, called Seats (soos) were Seth, Shem. 
Ishmael (the son of Abraham), Aaron, Simon, Alt, and 
Mohammed, the son of Ismael. It is justly observed that, 
as this last personage was not more than a century dead, 
the teacher had it in his power to fix on whom he would as 
the mute prophet of the present time, and inculcate the 
belief in, and obedience to, him of all who had not got 
beyond this degree. (5) The fifth degree taught that 
each of the seven mute prophets had twelve apostles for 
the dissemination of his faith. The suitableness of this 
number was also proved by analogy. There are twelve 
signs of the Zodiac, twelve months, twelve tribes of Israel, 
twelve joints in the four fingers of each hand, and so forth. 
(6) The pupil being led thus far, and having shown no 
symptoms of restiveness, the precepts of the Koran were 
once more brought under consideration, and he was told 
that all the positive portions of religion must be subordinate 
to philosophy. He was consequently instructed in the 
systems of Plato and Aristotle during the long space of 
time ; and (7) when esteemed fully qualified, he was ad- 
mitted to the seventh degree, when instruction was com- 
municated in that mystic Pantheism, which is held and 
taught by the sect of the Soofees. (8) The positive 
precepts of religion were again considered, the veil was 
torn from the eyes of the aspirant, all that had preceded 
was now declared to have been merely scaffolding to raise 
the edifice of knowledge, and was to be flung down. 
Prophets and teachers, heaven and hell, all were nothing ; 
future bliss and misery we're idle dreams ; all act.ons were 
permitted. (9) The ninth degree had only to inculcate 
that nought was to be believed, everything might be done." 



Assassins 



39 



Assassins 



It is worthy of mention that one of Hassan's early 
intimates was the famous Omar Khayyam, with whom he 
and another friend contracted a bargain that the most 
successful of the three would share his good fortune with 
the others. It is likely that the practical mystic and the 
astrologer would feel drawn to each other by many com- 
mon tastes, but we do not learn that Omar profited much 
from the bargain so far as Hassan was concerned. The 
third of the friends, Nizam-al-Melk, achieved an exalted 
position as vizier to the second of the Seljuk monarchs, 
and calling to mind his promise offered Omar a post under' 
the government, but the author of the Rubaiyat was too 
addicted to pleasure to accept active employment, and 
in lieu of the dazzling position offered him, was content 
with a pension of 1,200 ducats, with which he went into 
retirement. 

Hassan clearly perceived that the plan of the society at 
Cairo was defective as a means of acquiring temporal power. 
The Dais might exert themselves and proselytes might be 
gained, but till possession was obtained of some strongholds, 
and a mode of striking terror into princes devised, nothing 
effectual could be achieved. 

With this object in view he instituted the Fedavi, 
who unhesitatingly obeyed their chief, and, without 
inquiry or hesitation, plunge their daggers into the bosom 
of whatever victim was pointed out to them, even though 
their own lives should be the immediate sacrifice. The 
ordinary dress of the Fedavi was (like that of all the sects 
opposed to the house of Abbas), white ; their caps, girdles, 
or boots, were red. Hence they were named the White 
(Mubeiyazah) , and the Red (Muhammere) ; but they could 
with ease assume any guise, even that of the Christian 
monk, to accomplish their murderous designs. 

Hassan was perfectly aware that without the compressing 
power of positive religion, no society can well be held to- 
. gether. Whatever, therefore, his private opinions may 
have been, he resolved to impose on the bulk of his fol- 
lowers the most rigid obedience to the positive precepts of 
Islam, and, actually put his own son to death, for a breach 
of one of them. 

Hassan is said to have rejected two of the degrees of the 
Ismaelite society at Cairo, and to have reduced them to 
seven, the original number in the plan of Abdallah Maimoon, 
the first projector of this secret society Besides these 
seven degrees, through which the aspirants gradually 
rose to knowledge, Hassan, in what Hammer terms the 
breviary of the order, drew up seven regulations ■ or rules 
for the conduct of the teachers in his society. (1) The 
first of these, named Ashinai-Risk (Knowledge of Duty), 
inculcated the requisite knowledge of human nature for 
selecting fit persons for admission. To this belong the 
proverbial expressions said to have been current among 
the Dais, similar to those used by the ancient Pythagoreans, 
such as " Sow not on barren ground " (that is, " Waste 
not your labour on incapable persons), " Speak not in a 
house where there is a lamp " (that is, " Be silent in the 
presence of a lawyer "). (2) The second rule was called 
TeSnis (Gaining of Confidence), and taught to win the 
candidates by flattering their passions and inclinations. 

(3) The third, of which the name is not given, taught 
to involve them in doubts and difficulties by pointing out 
the absurdities of the . Koran, and of positive religion. 

(4) When the aspirant had gone thus far, the solemn 
•oath of silence and obedience, and of communicating his 
doubts to his teacher alone was to be imposed on the 
disciple ; and then (5) he was to be informed that the 
•doctrines and opinions of the society were those of the 
greatest men in church and state. (6) The Tessees 
^Confirmation) directed to put the pupil again through all 
he had learned, and to confirm him in it. And, (7) finally, 



the TeSvil (Instruction in Allegory) gave the allegorical 
mode of interpreting the Koran, and drawing whatever 
sense might suit their purposes from its pages. Any one 
who had gone through this course of instruction, and was 
thus become perfectly imbued with the spirit of the society, 
was regarded as an accomplished Dai, and employed in 
the important office of making proselytes and extending 
its influence. 

Soofeism, a doctrine of this society, which is a kind of 
mystic Pantheism, viewing God in all and all in God, may 
produce, like fatalism, piety or its opposite. In the eyes 
of one who thus views God, all the distinctions between 
vice and virtue become fleeting and uncertain, and crime 
may gradually lose its atrocity, and be regarded as only 
a means for the production of a good end. That the 
Ismaelite Fedavi murdered innocent persons without 
compunction, when ordered so to do by his superiors, is 
an undoubted fact, and there is no absurdity in supposing 
that he and they may have thought that in so doing they 
were acting rightly and promoting the cause of truth. 

The followers of Hassan Sabah were called the Eastern 
Ismaelites, to distinguish them from those of Africa. 
They were also named the Baiiniyeh (Internal or Secret), 
from the secret meaning which they drew from the text 
of the Koran, and Moblhad, or Moolahid (Impious) on 
account of the imputed impiety of their doctrines — names 
common to them with most of the preceding sects. It 
is under this last appellation that they were known to 
Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller. The name, however, 
by which they are best known in Europe, and which we 
employ, is that of Assassins. This name is very generally 
derived from that of the founder of their society ; but 
M. De Sacy has made it probable that the Oriental term 
Hashiskin, of which the Crusaders made Assassins, comes 
(as already noted) from Hashish, a species of hemp, from 
which intoxicating opiates were made, which the Fedavi 
were in the habit of taking previously to engaging in their 
daring enterprises, or employed as a medium of procuring 
delicious visions of the paradise promised to them by 
the Sheikh-al-Gebel. 

It is a curious question how Hassan contrived to infuse 
into the Fedavi the recklessness of life, joined with the 
spirit of implicit obedience to the commands of their 
superiors, which they so invariably displayed. We are 
told that the system adopted for this purpose was to obtain, 
by purchasing or otherwise, from their parents, stout and 
healthy children. These were reared up in implicit 
obedience to the will of the Sheik, and, to fit them for their 
future office, carefully instructed in various languages. 

The Assassins soon began to make themselves felt as a 
power in Persia and Syria. Their first victim was that 
very Nizam with whom Hassan and Omar had completed 
their youthful bargain. His son speedily followed him, 
as did the Sultan of Persia. That monarch's successor 
made war with them, but was so terror-stricken by their 
murderous tactics, that he speedily cemented a peace. 
Hassan died at an advanced age in 1124, having assassin- 
ated both his sons, and left as^nis successor his chief prior, 
Hia-busurg-Omid, during the reign of whom the Assassins 
were far from fortunate. The list of their victims had by 
this time become a long and illustrious one. The fourth 
Sheik of the Mountain — another Hassan — made public 
the secret doctrines of the society, announcing that the 
religion of Islam was abolished and that the people might 
give themselves up to feasting and pleasure. He further 
stated that he was the promised Caliph of God upon earth ; 
but some four years after this announcement he was 
assassinated and succeeded by his son, Mahomed II. whose 
rule of forty-six years was marked by deeds of revolting 
cruelty. But he had several implacable enemies, one of 



Assassins 



40 



Assassins 



whom was the famous Saladin, and the Syrian branch of 
the society seceded from his sway, and became independent. 
This branch it was with whom the Crusaders came so 
much into contact, and whose emissaries slew Raymond 
of Tripoli, and Conrad of Montferrat. Mahomed's son, 
Hassan III., restored the old form of doctrine— that is, 
the people were strictly confined to the practice of Islam, 
whilst the initiates were as before, superior and agnostic. 
His was the only reign in which no assassinations occurred 
and he was regarded with friendship by his neighbours. 
But after a reign of twelve years, he was poisoned, and 
during the minority of his son assassination was greatly 
in vogue. After a reign of thirty years, Mahomed III., the 
son in question, was slain by his successor, Rukneddin ; 
but vengeance quickly followed, for only a year later the 
Tartars swept into Persia, took Alamut and other Assassin 
strongholds, and captured the reigning monarch, who 
was slain because of his treachery. Over 12,000 Assassins 
were massacred, and their power was completely broken. 
The like fate overtook the Syrian branch, which was 
nearly extirpated by the Egyptian Mamelukes. But in 
the more isolated valleys of Syria, many of them lingered 
on and are believed still to exist there. At all events, 
doctrines similar in character to theirs are occasionally 
to be met with in Northern Syria. An account of the 
manner in which the Assassins aroused the lust of slaughter 
in the Fedavis is given in Siret-al-Hahen, or Memoirs of 
Hakin — an Arabic historic romance, as follows : — 

" Our narrative now returns to Ismael the chief of the 
Ismaelites. He took with him his people laden with gold, 
silver, pearls, and other effects, taken away from the in- 
habitants of the coasts, and which he had received in the 
island of Cyprus, and on the part of the King of Egypt, 
Dhaher, the son of Hakem-biemr-Illah. Having bidden 
farewell to the Sultan of Egypt at Tripolis, they proceeded 
to Massyat, when the inhabitants of the castles and 
fortresses assembled to enjoy themselves, along with the 
chief Ismael and his people. They put on the rich dresses 
with which the Sultan had supplied them, and adorned 
the castle of Massyat with everything that was good and 
fine. Ismael made his entry into Massyat with the Devoted 
(Fedavi), as no one has ever done at Massyat before him 
or after him. He stopped there some time to take into 
his service some more persons whom he might make 
devoted both in heart and body. 

" With this view he had caused to be made a vast garden, 
into which he had water conducted. In the middle of this 
garden he built a kiosk raised to the height of four stories. 
On each of the four sides were richly-ornamented windows 
joined by four arches, in -which were painted stars of gold 
and silver. He put into it roses, porcelain, glasses, and 
drinking-vessels of gold and silver. He had with him 
Mamlooks (i.e., slaves), ten males and ten females, who 
were come with him from the region of the Nile, and who 
had scarcely attained the age of puberty. He clothed 
them in silks and in the finest stuffs, and he gave unto them 
bracelets of gold and of silver. The columns were over- 
laid with musk, and with amber, and in the four arches 
of the windows he set four caskets, in which was the purest 
musk. The columns were polished, and this place was 
the retreat of the slaves. He divided the garden into four 
parts. In the first of these were pear-trees, apple-trees, 
vines, cherries, mulberries, plums, and other kinds of 
fruit-trees. In the second were oranges, lemons, olives, 
pomegranates, and other fruits. In the third were cucum- 
bers, melons, leguminous plants, etc. In the fourth were 
roses, jessamine, tamarinds, narcissi, violets, lilies, 
anemonies, etc., etc. 

" The garden was divided by canals of water, and the 
kiosk was surrounded with ponds and reservoirs. There 



were groves in which were seen antelopes, ostriches, asses, 
and wild cows. Issuing from the ponds, one met ducks, 
geese, partridges, quails, hares, foxes, and other animals. 
Around the kiosk the chief Ismael planted walks of tall 
trees, terminating in the different parts of the garden. 
He built there a great house, divided into two apartments, 
the upper and the lower. From the latter covered walks- 
led out into the garden, which was all enclosed with walls, 
so that no one could see into it, for these walks and buildings 
were all void of inhabitants. He made a gallery of cool- 
ness, which ran from this apartment to the cellar, which 
was behind. This apartment served as a place of assembly 
for the men. Having placed himself on a sofa there 
opposite the door, the chief made his men sit down, and 
gave them to eat and drink during the whole length of 
the day until evening. At nightfall he looked around him, 
and, selecting those whose firmness pleased him, said to- 
them, ' Ho ! such-a-one, come and seat thyself near me.* 
It is thus that Ismael made those whom he had chosen 
sit near him on the sofa and drink. He then spoke to 
them of the great and excellent qualities of the imam Aii, 
of his bravery, his nobleness, and his generosity, untiL 
they fell asleep, overcome by the power of the benjeh which 
he had given them, and which never failed to produce its 
effects in less than a quarter of an hour, so that they fell 
down as if they were inanimate. As soon as the man had 
fallen the chief Ismael arose, and, taking him up, brought 
him into a dormitory, and then, shutting the door, carried 
him on his shoulders into the gallery of coolness, which 
was in the garden, and thence into the kiosk, where he 
committed him to the care of the male and female slaves, 
directing them to comply with all the desires of the can- 
didate, on whom they flung vinegar till he awoke. When 
he was come to himself the youths and maidens said to- 
him. ' We are only waiting for thy death, for this place 
is destined for thee. This is one of the pavilions of Para- 
dise, and we are the houries and the children of Paradise. 
If thou wert dead thou wouldest be for ever with us, -but 
thou art only dreaming, and wilt soon awake.' Mean- 
while, the chief Ismael had returned to the company as 
soon as he had witnessed the awakening of the candidate, 
who now perceived nothing but youths and maidens of 
the greatest beauty, and adorned in the most magnificent 
manner. 

" He looked around the place, inhaled the fragrance of 
musk and frankincense, and drew near to the garden, where 
he saw the beasts and the birds, the running water, and 
the trees. He gazed on the beauty of the kiosk, and the 
vases of gold and silver, while the youths and maidens 
kept him in converse. In this way he remained confounded, 
not knowing whether he was awake or only dreaming. 
When two hours of the night had gone by, the chief Ismael 
returned to the dormitory, closed to the door, and thence 
proceeded to the garden, where his slaves came around him 
and rose before him. When the candidate perceived him, 
he said unto him, ' O, chief Ismael, do I dream, or am I 
awake ? ' The chief Ismael then made answer to him . 
' O, such-a-one. beware of relating this vision to any one 
who is a stranger to this place ! Know that the Lord Ali 
has shown thee the place which is "destined for thee in 
Paradise. Know that at this moment the Lord Ali and I 
have been sitting together in the regions of the empyrean. 
So do not hesitate a moment in the service of the imam 
who has given thee to know his felicity.' Then the chief 
Ismael ordered supper to be served. It was brought in 
vessels of gold and of silver, and consisted of boiled meats 
and roast meats, with other dishes. While the candidate 
ate, he was sprinkled with rose-water ; when he called for 
drink there were brought to him vessels of gold and silver 
filled with delicious liquors, in which also had been mingled 



Asteroids 



41 



Astral World 



some benjeh. When he had fallen asleep, Ismael carried 
him through the gallery back to the dormitory, and, leaving 
him there, returned to his company. After a little time 
he went back, threw vinegar on his face, and then, bringing 
him out, ordered one of the Mamlooks to shake him. On 
awaking, and finding himself in the same place among the 
guests, he said . ' There is no god but God, and Mohammed 
is the Prophet of God ! ' The chief Ismael then drew near 
and caressed him, and he remained, as it were, immersed 
in intoxication, wholly devoted to the service of the chief, 
who then said unto him . ' O, such-a-one, know that what 
thou hast seen was not a dream, but one of the miracles 
of the imam Ali. Know that he has written thy name 
among those of his friends. If thou keep the secret thou 
art certain of thy felicity, but if thou speak of it thou wilt 
incur the resentment of the imam. If thou die thou art a 
martyr ; but beware of relating this to any person what- 
ever. Thou hast entered by one of the gates to the friend- 
ship of the imam, and art become one of his family ; but 
if thou betray the secret, thou wilt become one of his 
enemies, and be driven from his house.' Thus this man 
became one of the servants of the chief Ismael. who in this 
manner surrounded himself with trusty men, until his 
reputation was established. This is what is related to 
the chief Ismael and his Devoted." 

To these romantic tales of the Paradise of the Old Man of 
the Mountain we must add to another of an even more 
mystical character, furnished by the learned and venerable 
Sheik Agd-ur-Rahman (Servant of the Compassionate, 
i.e., of God) Ben Ebubekr Al-Jeriri of Damascus, in the 
twenty-fourth chapter of his work entitled, A Choice Book 
for Discovering the Secrets of the Art of Imposture. 

Asteroids : (See Astrology.) 

Astolpho : A hero of Italian romance. He was the son of 
Otho, King of England. He was transformed into a 
myrtle by Alcina, a sorceress, but later regained his human 
form through Melissa. He took part in many adventures, 
and cured Orlando of his madness. Astolpho is the alle- 
gorical representation of a true man lost through sensuality. 

Astral Body is in Theosophy that body which functions 
in the Astral World. Like the rest of man's five bodies, it 
is composed of matter, relatively, however, much finer 
than that which composes the ordinary physical body. It 
is the instrument of passions, emotions, and desires, and, 
since it interpenetrates and extends beyond the physical 
body, it is the medium through which these are conveyed 
to the latter. When it separates from the denser body- — ■ 
as it does during sleep, or by the influence of drugs, or 
as the result of accidents — it takes with it the capacity 
for feeling, and only with its return can pain or any other 
such phenomena be felt. During these periods of separa- 
tion the astral body is;an exact replica of the physical, and 
as it is extremely sensitive to thought, the apparitions of 
dead and dying — of which so much is heard in the new 
science of the Borderland — resemble even to the smallest 
details the physical bodies which they have lately left. 
The Astral World is, of course, easily attainable to clair- 
voyants of even moderate powers, and the appropriate 
body is therefore clearly visible. In accordance with 
theosophic teaching on the subject of thought, the latter 
is not the abstraction it is commonly considered to be, 
but built up of definite forms the shape of which depends 
on the quality of the thought, and it also causes definite 
vibrations, which are seen as colours. Hence, clairvoyants 
are able to tell the state of a man s development from the 
appearance of his astral body. A nebulous appearance 
betokens imperfect development, while an ovoid appearance 
betokens a more perfect development. As the colours 
are indicative of the kind of thought, the variety of these 
in the astral body indicates the possessor's character. 



Inferior thoughts beget loud colours, so that rage, for 
instance, will be recognised by the red appearance of the 
astral body, and on the contrary, higher thoughts will be 
recognisable by the presence of delicate colours, religious 
thought for instance, causing a blue colour. This teaching 
holds true for the bodies higher than the astral, but, the 
coloration of the astral body is much more familiar to 
dwellers in the physical world than is the coloration of the 
higher bodies, with the feelings of which they are relatively 
unacquainted. There is a definite theory underlying the 
emotional and other functions of the astral body. The 
matter of which the latter is composed is not, of course, 
alive with an intelligent life, but it nevertheless possesses 
a kind of life sufficient to convey an understanding of its 
own existence and wants. The stage of evolution of this 
life is that of descent, the turning point not having yet, 
so far as it is concerned, been reached. He who possesses 
the body has, on the other hand, commenced to ascend, 
and there is, therefore, a continual opposition of forces 
between him and his astral body. Hence, his astral body 
accentuates in him such of grosser, retrograde thoughts 
as he may nourish since the direction of these thoughts 
coincides with its own direction. If, however, he resists the 
opposition of his astral body, the craving of the latter gradu- 
ally becomes weaker and weaker till at last it disappears al- 
together. And the constitution of the astral body is thereby 
altered, gross thoughts demanding for their medium gross 
astral matter, pure thoughts demanding fine astral matter. 
During physical life the various kinds of matter in the 
astral body are intermingled, but at physical death the ele- 
mentary life in the matter of the astral body seeks in- 
stinctively after self-preservation, and it therefore causes 
the matter to rearrange itself in a series of seven concen- 
tric sheaths, the densest being outside and the finest 
inside. Physical vision depends on the eyes, but astral 
vision depends on the various kinds of astral matter being 
in a condition of receptiveness to different undulations. 
To be aware of fine matter, fine matter in the astral body 
is necessary, and so with the other kinds. Hence, when 
the rearrangement takes place, vision only of the grossest 
kinds of matter is possible since only that kind is repre- 
sented in the thick outer sheath of the astral body. Under 
these circumstances, the new denizen of the astral sphere 
sees only the worst of it, and also only the worst of his 
fellow denizens, even though they are not in so low a state 
as himself. This state is not, of course eternal, and in 
accordance with the evolutionary process, the gross sheath 
of astral matter wears slowly away, and the man remains 
clothed with the six less gross sheaths. These also, with 
the passage of time, wear away, being resolved into their 
compound elements, and at last when the final disintegra- 
tion of the least gross sheath of all takes place, the in- 
dividual leaves the Astral World and passes into the Mental. 
This rearrangement of the astral body is not, however, in- 
evitable, and those who have learned and know, are able 
at physical death to prevent it. In such cases the change 
appears a very small one, and the so-called dead continue 
to live their lives and do their work much as they did in 
the physical body. (See Astral World, Aviehi Theosophy.) 
Astral World. (Plane or Sphere) : Kama World is, in 
Theosophy, the second lowest of the seven worlds, the 
world of emotions, desires, and passions. Into it man 
passes at physical death, and there he functions for periods 
which vary with the state of his development, the primitive 
savage spending a relatively short time in the Astral 
World, the civilised man spending relatively longer. The 
appropriate body is the astral (q.v.), which though com- 
posed of matter as is the physical body, is nevertheless of 
a texture vastly finer than the latter. Though it is in its 
aspect of the after-death abode that this world is of most 



Astral World 



42 



Astrology 



importance and most interest, it may be said in passing, 
that even during physical life, man — not only clairvoyants 
who attain it easily, but also ordinary men — may and do 
temporarily inhabit it. This happens during sleep, or 
by reason of the action of anaesthetics or drugs, or accidents, 
and the interpenetrating astral body then leaves its denser 
physical neighbour, and taking with it the sense of pleasure 
and pain, lives for a short time in its own world. Here 
again the state of the savage differs from that of his more 
advanced fellows, for the former does not travel far from 
his immediate surroundings, while the latter may perform 
useful, helpful work for the benefit of humanity. Further, 
it may in passing be noted that disembodied mankind are 
not the only inhabitants of the Astral World, for very many 
of its inhabitants are of an altogether non-human nature — 
lower orders of the devas or angels, and nature-spirits or 
elementals, both good and bad, such including fairies 
which are just beyond the powers of human vision, and 
the demons present to the vision of delirium tremens. It 
will however be sufficient now to turn attention to the 
Astral World as the state immediately following physical 
death and containing both heaven and hell as these are 
popularly conceived. 

There are seven divisions which correspond to the seven 
divisions of matter, the solid, liquid, gaseous, etheric, 
super-etheric, subatomic and atomic, and, as mentioned 
in the article on the Astral Body, this plays a most im- 
portant part in the immediate destiny of man in it. If 
through ignorance, he has permitted the rearrangement 
of the matter of his astral body into sheaths, he is cognisant 
only of part of his surroundings at a time, and it is not till 
after experience, much of which may be extremely painful, 
that he is able to enjoy the bliss which the higher divisions 
of the Astral World contain. The lowest of these divisions, 
the seventh, is the environment of those of gross and 
unrestrained passions, since it and most of the «natter of 
their astral bodies is of the same type, and it constitutes a 
very hell, and the only hell which exists. This is 
Avichi, the place of desires which cannot be satisfied 
because of the absence of the physical body, which was 
the means of their satisfaction. The tortures of these 
desires are the analogue of the torments of hell-fire in the 
older Christian orthodoxy. Unlike that orthodoxy, how- 
ever, theosophy teaches that the state of torment is- not 
eternal, but passes away in time when the desires through 
long gnawing without fulfilment, have died at last, and it 
is therefore more correct to look on Avichi as a purgatorial 
state. The ordinary man, however, does not experience 
this seventh division of the Astral World, but according 
to his character finds himself in one or other of the three 
next higher divisions. The sixth division is very little 
different from his physical existence, and he continues 
in his old surroundings among his old friends, who are, 
of course, unaware of his presence, and indeed, often does 
not realise that he is dead so far as the physical world is 
concerned. The fifth and fourth divisions are in most 
respects quite similar to this, but their inhabitants become 
less and less immersed in the activities and interests which 
have hitherto engrossed them, and each sheath of their 
astral bodies decays in turn as did the gross outer sheath 
of the sensualist's body. The three higher divisions are 
still more removed from the ordinary material world, and 
their inhabitants enjoy a state of bliss of which we can have 
no conception ; worries and cares of earth are altogether 
absent, the insistence of lower desires has worn out in the 
lower divisions, and it is now possible to live continually 
in an environment of the loftiest thoughts and aspirations. 
The third division is said to correspond to the spiritual- 
istic " summerland," where the inhabitants live in a world 
of their own creation — of the creation of their thoughts. 



Its cities and all their contents, scenery of life, are all 
formed by the influence of thought. The second division 
is what is properly looked on as heaven, and the inhabi- 
tants of different races, creeds, and beliefs, find it each 
according to his belief. Hence, instead of its being the 
place taught of by any particular religion, it is the region 
where each and every religion finds its own ideal. Christ- 
ians, Mohammedans, Hindus, and so on, find it to be just 
as they conceived it would be. Here, and in the first and 
highest division, the inhabitants pursue noble aims freed 
from what of selfishness was mingled with these aims on 
earth. The literary man, his thoughts of fame ; the artist, 
the scholar, the preacher, all work without incentive of 
personal interest, and where their work is pursued long 
enough, and they are fitted for the change, they leave the 
Astral World and enter one vastly higher — the Mental. 
It was, however, mentioned that the rearrangement of the 
matter of the astral body at physical death, was the result 
of ignorance, and those who are sufficiently instructed do 
not permit this rearrangement to take. They are not, 
therefore, confined to any one division, and have not to 
progress from division to division, but are able to move 
through any part of the Astral World, labouring always in 
their various lines of action to assist the great evolutionary 
scheme. (See Astral Body, Worlds, Planes or Spheres, 
Theosophy, Avichi, Summerland.) 
Astrology : The art of divining the fate or future of persons 
from the juxtaposition of the sun, moon and planets. 
Judicial astrology foretells the destinies of individuals and 
nations, while natural astrology predicts changes of jveather 
and the operation of the stars upon natural things. 

History. — In Egyptian tradition, we find its invention 
attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, or Thoth, by whom, 
under different names, is represented the various revela- 
tions of truth, both theological and natural ; for he is the 
Mercury of the Romans, the eloquent deliverer of the 
messages of the gods. The name of Ptolemy, the greatest 
of which astrology can boast, belongs also to Egypt, but 
to the comparatively recent period when Imperial Rome 
flourished. In Imperial Rome astrology was held in great 
repute, especially under the reign of Tiberius, who himself 
obtained that knowledge of] the science from Thrasyllus, 
which enabled him to foretell the destiny of Galba, then 
consul. When Claudius was dying from the effects of 
Locusta s poison, Agrippina cautiously dissembled his 
progressive illness ; nor would she announce his decease 
till the very moment arrived, which the astrologers had 
pronounced fortunate for the accession of Nero. Augustus 
had discouraged the practice of astrology by banishing its 
professors from Rome, but the favour of his successors 
recalled them, and though occasional edicts, in subsequent 
reigns, restrained, and even punished all who divined 
by the stars ; and though Vitellius and Domitian revived 
the edict of Augustus, the practices of the astrologers were 
secretly encouraged, and their predictions extensively 
believed. Domitian himself, in spite of his hostility, was 
in fear of their denouncements. They prophesied the 
year, the hour, and the manner of his death, and agreed 
with his father in foretelling that he should perish not by 
poison, but by the dagger. 

After the age of the Antonines and the work of Censorinus, 
we hear little of astrology for some generations. In the 
eighth century the venerable Bede and his distinguished 
scholar, Alcuin, are said to have pursued this mystic study. 
In that immediately following, the Arabians revived and 
encouraged it. Under the patronage of Almaimon, the 
Mirammolin, in the year 827, the Megale Syntaxis of 
Ptolemy was translated under the title of Almagest," 
by Al. Hazen Ben Yusseph. Albumasar added to this 
work, and the astral science continued to receive new force 



Astrology 



43 



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from the labours 01 Alfraganus, Ebennozophim, Alfaragius, 
and Geber. 

The conquest of Spain by the Moors carried this know- 
ledge, with all their other treasures of learning into Spain, 
and before their cruel expulsion it was naturalized among 
the Christian savants. Among these the wise Alonzo 
(or Alphonso) of Castile, has immortalized himself by his 
scientific researches, aDd the Jewish and Christian doctors, 
who arranged the tables which pass under his name, were 
•convened from all the accessible parts of civilized Europe. 
Five years were employed in their discussion, and it has 
been said that the enormous sum of 400,000 ducats was 
disbursed in the towers of the Alcazar of Galiana, in the 
adjustment and correction of Ptolemy's calculations. 
Nor was it only the physical motions of the stars which 
occupied this grave assembly. The two kabalistic volumes, 
yet existing in cipher, in the royal library of the kings of 
Spain, and which tradition assigns to the hand of Alonzo 
himself, betoken a more visionary study, and in spite of 
-the denunciations- against his orthodoxy, which were 
thundered in his ears on the authority of Tertullian, Basil 
and Bonaventure, the fearless monarch gave his sanction 
to such masters as practised truly the art of divination 
by the stars, and in one part of his code enrolled astrology 
among the seven liberal sciences. 

In Germany many eminent men have been addicted 
to this study ; and a long catalogue might be made of 
those who have considered other sciences with reference 
to astrology, and written on them as such. Faust has, of 
course, the credit of being an astrologer as well as a wizard, 
and we find that singular but splendid genius, Cornelius 
Agrippa, writing with as much zeal against astrology as 
on behalf of other occult sciences. 

To the believers in astrology, who flourished in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, must be added the 
name of Albert von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland. He 
was indeed an enthusiast in the cause, and many curious 
anecdotes are related of this devotion. That he had 
himself studied astrology, and under no mean instructors, 
is evidenced by his biography and correspondence. 

Of the early progress of astrology in England, little is 
known. Bede and Alcuin we have already mentioned 
as addicted to its study. Roger Bacon could scarcely 
escape the contagion of the art. But it was the period 
of the Stuarts which must be considered as the acme of 
astrology among us. Then Lilly employed the doctrine 
of the magical circle, and the evocation of spirits from the 
Ars Notoria of Cornelius Agrippa, and used the form of 
prayer prescribed therein to the angel Salmonceus, and 
entertained among his familiar acquaintance the guardian 
spirits of England, Saimael and Malchidael. His ill 
success with the divining rod induced him to surrender 
the pursuit of rhabdomancy, in which he first engaged, 
though lie still perserved in asserting that the operation 
■demanded secrecy and intelligence in the agents, and, 
above all, a strong faith, and a competent knowledge of 
their work. The Dean of Westminster had given him 
permission to search for treasure in the cloisters of the 
abbey in the dead of the night. On the western side, 
the rods turned over each other with inconceivable rapidity, 
yet, on digging, nothing but a coffin c >uld be discovered. 
He retired to the abbey, and then a storm arose which 
nearly destroyed the west end of the church, extinguished 
all the candles but one, and made the rods immovable. 
Lilly succeeded at length in charming away the demon, 
but no persuasion could induce him to make another 
experiment in that species of divination. 

The successor of Lilly was Henry Coley, a tailor, who 
had been his amanuensis, and traded in prophecy with 
success almost equal to that of his master. 



While astrology flourished in England it was in high repute 
with its kindred pursuits of magic, necromancy, and al- 
chemy, at the court of France. Catherine de Medici her- 
self was an adept in the art. At the revolution, which 
commenced a new era in this country, astrology declined, and 
notwithstanding the labours of Partridge, and those of 
Ebenezer Sibley, it has only in recent years recovered- its 
importance. 

Signs. — There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, divided 
in astrology into " Northern and " Commanding " 
(the first six), and " Southern ' and " Obeying " (last six). 
They are as follow : — 

Aries, the house of Mars, and exaltation of the sun, or 
the first sign of the zodiac, is a vernal, dry, fiery, masculine, 
cardinal, equinoctial, diurnal, movable, commanding, 
eastern, choleric, violent, and quadrupedian sign. These 
epithets will be presently e.\plained. The native, that is, 
the person born under its influence, is tall of stature, of a 
strong but spare make, dry constitution, long face and neck, 
thick shoulders, piercing eyes, sandy or red hair, and brown 
complexion. In disposition he will be warm, hasty and 
passionate. The aspects of the planets may, however, 
materially alter these effects. This sign rules the head 
and face. Among diseases, it produces small-pox, and 
epilepsy, apoplexy, headache, hypochondriasis, baldness, 
ringworm, and all diseases of the head and face, paralysis, 
fevers, measles, and convulsions. It presides over the 
following countries : England, France, Germany, Syria, 
Switzerland, Poland and Denmark ; and over the cities of 
Naples, Capua, Padua, Florence, Verona, Ferrara, Bruns- 
wick, Marseilles, Cssarea, and Utrecht. Its colours are 
red and white. 

Now to explain this terminology, before examining 
another sign, there are said to be four triplicities among 
the signs, viz. : the earthly triplicity, including Taurus, 
Virgo, and Capricorn ; the airy, which includes Gemini, 
Libra and Aquarius ; the fiery, under which are reckoned 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius ; and the watery, which claims 
Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces. The signs are further divided 
into diurnal and nocturnal : Aries diurnal, Taurus noctur- 
nal, and so on alternately, the diurnal signs being all 
masculine, and the nocturnals feminine. The terms tropi- 
cal, equinoctial, vernal, etc., need no comment. Fixed, 
common, movable, refer to the weather. Signs which 
are named after quadrupeds are, of course, quadrupedal. 
Such as are called after human states of occupations as 
humane. A person born under a fiery masculine diurnal 
sign, is hot in temper, and bold in character. If it be a 
quadrupedal sign, he is somewhat like to the animal after 
which the sign is called. Thus in Taurus, the native is 
bold and furious ; in Leo, fierce and cruel. Cardinal signs 
are those occupying the four cardinal points. The first 
six from Aries are termed commanding, and the latter six, 
obeying- signs. Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces are called 
fruitful or prolific ; and Gemini, Leo, and Virgo, barren. 
Sagittarius, because usually represented as a centaur, is 
said to be humane, and productive of humane character 
in the former fifteen degrees, but of a savage, brutal and 
intractable disposition in the latter. 

We shall now proceed with the signs. Taurus is cold 
and dry, earthly, melancholy, feminine, fixed and noctur- 
nal, southern, the night-house of Venus. When influential 
in a nativity, it usually produces a person with a broad 
forehead, thick lips, dark curling hair, of quality rather 
brutal, melancholy, and slow in anger, but when once 
enraged, violent, furious, and difficult to be appeased. 
The diseases under this sign are all such as attack the 
throat, scrofula, quinsey, imposthumes and wens. The 
sign rules the neck and throat. Places subject to it are 
stables, cowhouses, cellars and low rooms, and all places 



Astrology 



a 



Astrology 



used for or by cattle. Of kingdoms, Russia, Ireland, 
Sweden, Persia and Parthia, and of cities, Leipsic, Parma, 
Mantua, Novogorod, and eleven others. 

Gemini is masculine and diurnal, aerial, hot and moist. 
The native is tall, and straight of body, with long arms ; 
the hands and feet well formed, the complexion rather 
dark, the hair brown, the eye hazel ; strong and active in 
person, sound and acute in judgment ; lively, playful, 
and generally skilful in business. Diseases under this sign 
are those to which the arms, hands and shoulders are 
subject, with aneurisms, frenzy and insanity. Places : 
hilly and high grounds, the tops of houses, wainscoted 
rooms, halls and theatres, barns, storehouses and stairs ; 
kingdoms, Armenia, Brabant, Lombardy, Sardinia and 
Egypt ; cities : London, Bruges, Cordova, Metz and seven 
others. It is the day-house of Mercury, and rules the 
colours red and white. 

Cancer is the only house of the moon, and the first 
sign of the watery northern triplicity. It is a watery, 
cold, moist, phlegmatic, feminine, movable nocturnal, sol- 
stitial, and exceedingly fruitful sign, more so than any 
other. The native is fair and pale, short and small ; the 
upper part of the body larger in proportion to the lower ; 
a round face, light hair., and blue or grey eyes ; phlegmatic, 
and heavy in disposition ; weak in constitution, and of a 
small voice. Diseases : All disorders of the breast and 
stomach over which parts the sign rules ; cancers, con- 
sumption, asthma, dropsy and surfeits. Kingdoms : 
Scotland, Holland, Zealand, Burgundy, Numidia and 
Carthage ; places : the sea and all rivers, swamps, ponds, 
lakes, wells, ditches, and watery places. Cities : Constanti- 
nople, Tunis, York and New York, Genoa, Venice, Algiers, 
Amsterdam, Cadiz, and sixteen others. The colours ruled 
by this sign are green and russet. 

Leo is a sign of a very different nature. It is the only 
house of the sun ; fiery, hot, dry, masculine, choleric, com- 
manding, eastern, and a very barren sign. When this 
sign ascends in a nativity, the individual will be of a tall 
arid powerful frame, well-shaped, of an austere countenance, 
of light, yellowish hair, large piercing eyes, commanding 
aspect, and ruddy complexion. The character will be 
fierce and cruel, but yet open, generous and courteous. 
Such was Richard Coeur-de-Lion. But the latter part of 
the sign is weaker and more brutal. This sign is even more 
modified by planetary influences than any others. Among 
diseases it causes all affections of the heart, over which 
together with the back and the vertebrae of the neck, it 
rules ; fevers, plague, jaundice and pleurisy. Of places, 
it governs woods, forests, deserts and hunting-grounds, fire- 
places and furnaces ; of kingdoms : Italy, CmUcUea, Turkey 
and Bohemia ; of cities : Bath, Bristol, Taunton, Rome, 
Damascus, Prague, Philadelphia, and nineteen others. 
Its colours are red and green. 

Virgo is an earthy, cold, dry, barren, feminine, southern, 
melancholy, commanding sign. It is the house and 
exaltation of Mercury. The native is handsome and well- 
shaped, slender, of middle stature, and of a clear, ruddy 
or brown complexion, dark hair and eyes, the face rather 
round, and the voice sweet and clear, but not strong ; the 
character amiable and benevolent, witty and studious, 
but not persevering ; and if not opposed by planetary 
aspects, apt to oratory. This sign rules the viscera, and 
is answerable for all diseases affecting them. Of places : 
cornfields and granaries, studies and libraries ; of kingdoms : 
Greece, Crete, Mesopotamia and Assyria ; of cities : 
Jerusalem, Paris, Corinth, and twelve others. Its colours 
are blue and black. 

Libra is a sign aerial, sanguine, hot, moist, equinoctial 
cardinal, movable, masculine, western and diurnal, humane, 
and the day-house of Venus. The native is tall and well- 



made, very handsome, of a fine ruddy complexion in youth, 
but which changes to a deep red with advancing years. 
The hair long and flaxen, the eyes grey, the disposition 
courteous, and the character just and upright. Of king- 
doms it governs Ethiopia, Austria, Portugal, and Savoy ; 
and of cities, Antwerp, Frankfort, Vienna, Charlestown in 
America, and twenty-seven others. The colours which 
it rules are crimson and tawny ; and of places, mountains, 
saw-pits and woods newly felled. 

Scorpio, the night-house of Mars, is a cold, phlegmatic, 
feminine, nocturnal, fixed, northern, and watery sign. 
The native is of a strong, robust, corpulent body, of a 
middle stature, broad visage, dark but not clear com- 
plexion, dark grey eyes or light brown, black hair or very 
dark brown, short, thick legs and thick neck. Of places 
it governs swampy grounds and stagnant waters, places 
which abound in venomous creatures, orchards and 
ruinous houses, especially near water. Of kingdoms : 
Fez, Bavaria, Norway and Mauritania ; of cities : Mes- 
sina, and others ; of colours : brown. 

Sagittarius is a fiery, hot, dry, masculine, diurnal, 
eastern, common, bicorporeal, obeying sign, the day- 
house and joy of Jupiter. The native is well-formed and 
rather above the middle stature, with fine chestnut hair,- 
but inclined to baldness, a visage somewhat long but ruddy 
and handsome ; the body strong, stout and hardy. He is 
inclined to horsemanship and field-sports, careless of 
danger, generous and intrepid,- but hasty and careless. 
This sign rules the hips, and is the cause of gout, rheu- 
matism and disorders which affect the muscles. Accidents 
and disorders occasioned by intemperance come under 
the government of this sign. Of kingdoms : Spain, Hun- 
gary, Sclavonia and Arabia ; of places : stables and parks ; 
and of colours, green and red. 

Capricornus is an earthy, cold, dry, feminine, nocturnal, 
movable, cardinal, solstitian, domestic, southern, quad- 
rupedal sign ; the house of Saturn, and the exaltation. 
The native is of slender stature, long thin countenance, 
small beard, dark hair and eyes, long neck, narrow chest 
and chin, tall usually, though not always ; in disposition, 
cheerful and collected ; talented and upright. Ruling 
the knees and hips, it governs all diseases which afflict 
them, and also all cutaneous diseases, such as leprosy, 
etc., and melancholy diseases such as hypochondriasis 
and hysteria. The kingdoms which it rules are India, 
Thrace, Mexico and Saxony ; and the cities, Oxford, 
Bradenburg and nineteen others. The places over which 
it has power are workshops -and fallow grounds, and its 
colours, black and brown. 

Aquarius is an airy,hot, moist, rational, fixed, humane, 
diurnal, sanguine, masculine, western, obeying sign, the 
day-house of Saturn. The native is a well-made and 
robust person, rather above the middle stature, long face, 
but of a pleasing and delicate countenance, clear, bright 
complexion, with flaxen hair, often sandy ; of a disposition 
fair open and honest. As this sign rules the legs and 
ankles, it causes all diseases which affect them : lameness, 
white swelling, cramp, and gout. Of places it denotes mines 
and quarries, aeroplane machines, roofs of houses, wells, 
and conduits. Of kingdoms : Tartary, Denmark and 
Westphalia ; and of cities : Hamburg, Bremen, and fifteen 
more. Its colours are grey and sky-blue. 

Lastly, Pisces is a watery, cold, moist, feminine, phleg- 
matic, nocturnal, common, bicorporeal, northern, idle, 
effeminate, sickly, and extremely fruitful sign, only less so- 
than Cancer ; the house of Jupiter, and the exaltation 
of Venus. The native is short and ill-shaped, fleshy, if 
not corpulent, with thick, round shoulders, light hair and 
eyes, the complexion pale, and the head and face large ; 
of a weak and vacillating disposition, well-meaning, but 



Astrology 



45 



Astrology 



devoid of energy. This sign rules the feet, and causes 
lameness and every kind of disorder occasioned by watery 
humours. Of places : all such as are under Cancer, save 
the sea and rivers ; of kingdoms : Lydia, Calabria, Pamphy- 
lia and Normandy ; of cities : Compostella, Alexandria, 
Rheims. Ratisbon, and eleven others ; and of colours, it 
rules white. 

Planets. The influence and effects of the planets are 
still more important than those of the signs, and they are- 
as follow : We commence with the most remote of the 
planets, Uranus. The days and hours are, as we have seen 
divided among the planets, but as none were left vacant, 
the appropriation of any to Uranus would, of course, throw 
out almost all the ancient calculations. If these then are 
to be preserved, the newly-discovered planet has no in- 
fluence ; but if this be the case, by what analogy can any be 
assigned to the others ? However, when this question was 
likely to be debated, Uranus was rolling on in its far-off 
orbit, and occasioning no uneasiness whatever to astro- 
logers or magicians. Leaving out all mention of the 
astronomical elements, we proceed to notice that Uranus 
is by nature extremely cold and dry, melancholy, and one 
of the infortunes. The native is of small stature, dark or 
pale complexion, rather light hair, of a highly nervous 
temperament, sedate aspect, but having something singular 
in his appearance ; light grey eyes, and delicate constitu- 
tion. If the planet be well dignified, he is a searcher into 
science, particularly chemistry, and remarkably attached 
to the wonderful He possesses an extraordinary magnani- 
mity and loftiness of mind, with an uncontrollable and 
intense desire for pursuits and discoveries of an uncommon 
nature. If ill-dignified, then- the native is weak, sickly, 
and short-lived, treacherous, and given to gross imposture, 
unfortunate in his undertakings, capricious in his tastes, 
and very eccentric in his conduct. No planet, save Saturn, 
is so actively and powerfully malevolent as this. His 
effects are truly malefic. They are, however of a totally 
unexpected, strange and unaccountable character. He 
rules over places dedicated to unlawful arts, laboratories, 
etc. . The regions under his immediate governance are 
Lapland, Finland, and the Poles. Professions : necro- 
mancers and Goetic magicians ; cities : Upsala and Mexico. 
The name of his angel has not been found out, but he is 
known to be very hostile to the female sex, and when his 
aspects interfere in the period of marriage, the result is 
anything but happiness. 

Saturn is by nature cold and dry ; is a melancholy, 
earthy, masculine, solitary, diurnal, malevolent planet, 
and the great infortune. When he is lord of the ascendant, 
the native is of a middle stature, the complexion dark 
and swarthy, or pale ; small black eyes, broad shoulders, 
black hair, and ill-shaped about the lower extremities. 
When well dignified, the native is grave and wise, studious 
and severe, of an active and penetrating mind, reserved 
and patient, constant in attachment, but implacable in 
- resentment, upright and inflexible ; but if the planet be 
ill-dignified at the time of birth, then the native will be 
sluggish, covetous, and distrustful ; false, stubborn, 
malicious, and ever discontented. This planet is said to be 
well dignified in the horoscope of the Duke of Wellington, 
and to have been ill-dignified, but singularly posited in 
that of Louis XL of France. The diseases he signifies are 
quartan agues, and such as proceed from cold and melan- 
choly ; all impediments in the sight, ear, and teeth ; 
rheumatism, consumption, disorders affecting the memory, 
the spleen, and the bones. Saturn, in general, signifies 
husbandmen, day-labourers, monks, Jesuits, sectarians, 
sextons, and such as have to do with the dead ; gardeners, 
dyers of black, and thirty-three other professions, which 
Lilly enumerates. He mentions also forty-eight plants, 



including all anodynes and narcotic poisons, which are 
under the rule of this planet. Among animals, the cat, 
the' ass, hare, mole, mouse, wolf, bear, and crocodile ; all 
venomous creatures. Among fishes, the eel, tortoise and 
shell-fish ; among the birds, the bat, and the owl ; among 
metals and minerals, lead, the loadstone, and all dross of 
metals ; over the sapphire, lapis lazuli, and all stones that 
are not polishable, and of a leaden or ashy colour. 

" He causetli the air to be dark and cloudy, cold and 
hurtful, with thick and dense vapours. He delighteth in 
the eastern quarter, causing eastern winds ; and in gather- 
ing any plant belonging to him the ancients did observe to 
turn their faces to the east in his hour. Those under him 
do rarely live beyond fifty-seven years ; and if he be well 
placed, seldom less than thirty. But his nature is cold 
and dry, and these qualities are destructive to man. Black 
is the colour which he ruleth. Of countries under his 
influence are Bavaria, Saxony, and Styria ; Ravenna, 
Constance and Ingoldstadt among cities. His friends are 
Jupiter, Mars and Mercury ; his enemies, the Sun and 
Venus. We call Saturday his day, for then he begins to 
rule at sunrise, and rules the first hour and the eighth of 
that day. His angel is Cassel." 

The next planet is Jupiter. He is a diurnal, masculine 
planet, temperately hot and moist, airy, and sanguine ; 
the greater fortune and lord of the airy triplicity. The 
native, if the planet be well dignified, will be of an erect 
carriage and tall stature ; a handsome ruddy complexion, 
high forehead, soft, thick brown hair ; a handsome shape 
and commanding aspect ; his voice will be strong, clear 
and manly, and his speech grave and sober. If the planet 
be ill dignified, still the native will be what is called a good- 
looking person, though of smaller stature, and less noble 
aspect. In the former case, the understanding and char- 
acter will be of the highest possible description ; and in the 
latter case, though careless and improvident, immoral and 
irreligious, he will never entirely lose the good opinion of 
his friends. Yet he will be, as Sancho Panza expresses it : 
" Haughty to the humble, and humble to the haughty." 
The diseases it rules are apoplexy and inflammation of the 
lungs ; disorders affecting the left ear, cramps, and pal- 
pitations of the heart. Plants : the oak, spice, apples, 
and one hundred and seventy-two others ; gems : topaz, 
amethyst, hyacinth and bezoar ; minerals : tin, pewter 
and firestone ; animals : the ox, horse, elephant, stag, 
and all domestic animals ; weather : pleasant, healthful, 
and serene west-north and north-west winds ; birds : the 
eagle, peacock, pheasant, etc. Of fishes, he rules the 
whale and the dolphin ; of colours : blue, when well 
posited ; of professions : the clergy, the higher order of 
law students, and those who deal in woollen goods ; when 
weak, the dependents on the above, with quacks, common 
cheats, and drunkards. Places : all churches, palaces, 
courts, and places of pomp and solemnity. He rules the 
lungs and blood, and is friendly with all the planets, save 
Mars. Countries : Spain, Hungary and Babylon ; his 
angel is Zadkiel. 

The next planet is Mars ; a masculine, nocturnal, hot, 
and dry planet ; of the fiery triplicity ; the author of 
strife, and the lesser infortune. The native is short, but 
strongly made, having large bones, ruddy complexion, red 
or sandy hair and eyebrows, quick, sharp eyes, round, 
bold face, and fearless aspect. If well dignified, courageous 
and invincible, unsusceptible of fear, careless of life, reso- 
lute and unsubmissive. If ill dignified, a trumpeter of 
his own fame, without decency or honesty ; fond of quarrels, 
prone to fightings, and given up to every species of fraud, 
-violence and oppression. Nero was an example of this 
planet's influence, and the gallows is said to terminate 
most generally the career of those born in low life under 



Astrology 



46 



Astrology 



its government. This plant rules the head, face, gall, 
left ear, and the smell. Disease : plague, fevers, and all 
complaints arising from excessive heat ; all wounds by 
iron or steel, injuries by poison, and all evil effects from 
intemperate anger. Herbs and plants : mustard, radish, 
with all pungent and thorny plants ; gems . the bloodstone, 
jasper, ruby and garnet ; of minerals . iron, arsenic, 
antimony, sulphur and vermilion ; animals . the mastiff 
wolf, tiger and all savage beasts ; birds . the hawk, kite, 
raven, vulture, and generally birds of prey ; weather : 
thunder and lightning, fiery meteors, and all strange pheno- 
mena ; kingdoms : Lombardy and Bavaria ; cities : 
Jerusalem and Rome. He signifies soldiers, surgeons, 
barbers and butchers. Places : smiths' shops, slaughter- 
houses, fields of battle, and brick-kilns. His friends are 
all the planets, save the Moon and Jupiter. His colour is 
red, and his angel is Samael. 

We now come to the Sun, a masculine., hot. and dry 
planet, of favourable effects. The native is very like one 
born under Jupiter, but the hair is lighter, the complexion 
redder, the body fatter, and the eyes larger. When well 
dignified, the solar man is affable, courteous, splendid 
and sumptuous, proud, liberal, humane, and ambitious. 
When ill dignified, the native is arrogant, mean, loquacious, 
and sycophantic ; much resembling the native under 
Jupiter, ill dignified, but still worse. Diseases : all those 
of the heart, mouth and throat ; epilepsy, scrofula, tym- 
panitif, and brain -fevers. Herbs and plants: laurel, 
vervain, St. John's wort, orange, hyacinth, and some 
hundreds beside ; gems : carbuncle, the diamond, the 
a?tites ; minerals : gold ; animals : the lion, the boar, the 
horse ; birds : the lark, the swan, the nightingale, and all 
singing birds ; fish : the star-fish and all shell-fish ; coun- 
tries : Italy, Bohemia, Chaldaea and Sicily ; of cities : 
Rome ; colour yellow ; weather, that -which is most 
seasonable ; professions : kings, lords and all dignified 
persons, braziers, goldsmiths, and persons employed in 
mints ; places : kings' courts, palaces, theatres, halls, 
and places of state. His friends are all the planets, save 
Saturn ; and his angel is Michael. 

The influence of the asteroids, Juno, Pallas, Ceres, and 
Vesta, have never been calculated, and they are said by 
modern astrologers to act beneficially, but feebly. 

The Moon is a far more important planet ; feminine, 
nocturnal, cold, moist, and phlegmatic. Her influence 
in itself is neither fortunate nor unfortunate. She is 
benevolent or otherwise, according to the aspects of other 
planets towards her ; and under these circumstances she 
becomes more powerful than any of them. The native is 
short and stout, with fair, pale complexion, round face, 
grey eyes, short arms, thick hands and feet, very hairy, 
but with light hair ; phlegmatic. If the Moon be affected 
by the Sun at the time of birth, the native will have a 
blemish on or near the eye. When the Moon is well 
dignified the native is of soft, engaging manners, imagina- 
tive, and a lover of the arts, but wandering, careless, 
timorous, and unstable, loving peace, and averse from 
activity. When ill dignified, then the native will be of an 
ill shape, indolent, worthless and disorderly. Diseases : 
palsy, epilepsy, scrofula and lunacy, together with all 
diseases of the eyes ; herbs : lily, poppies, mushrooms, 
willow, and about two hundred others ; minerals and gems ; 
pearls, selenite, silver and soft stones ; colour, white ; 
animals : the dog, the cat, the otter, the mouse, and all 
amphibious creatures ; birds : the goose, duck, bat and 
waterfowl in general ; fish : the eel, the crab, and the 
lobster ; weather : she increases the effect of other planets ; 
countries : Denmark, Holland, Flanders, and North 
America ; cities : Amsterdam, Venice, Bergen-op-Zoon, 
and Lubeck ; places : fountains, baths, the sea, and in 



watery places ; professions : queens and dignified women 
midwives, nurses, all who have to do with water, 
sailors. Her angel is Gabriel. 

Venus is a feminine planet, temperately cold and moist, 
the author of mirth and sport. The native is handsome, 
well-formed, but not tall ; clear complexion, bright hazel or 
black eyes, dark brown or chestnut hair, thick, soft, and 
shining ; the voice soft and sweet, and the aspect very 
prepossessing. If well dignified, the native will be cheerful, 
friendly, musical, and fond of elegant accomplishments ; 
prone to love, but frequently jealous. If ill dignified, the 
native is less handsome in person and in mind, altogether 
vicious, given up to every licentiousness ; dishonest and 
atheistical. Herbs and plants : the fig-tree, myrrh, 
myrtle, pomegranate, and about two hundred and twenty 
more ; animals : the goat, panther, hart, etc. ; birds : 
the sparrow, the dove, the thrush, and the wren ; gems : 
the emerald, chrysolite, beryl, chrysoprasus ; countries : 
Spain, India and Persia ; cities : Florence, Paris and 
Vienna ; mineral : copper ; colour : green ; occupations : 
all such as minister to pomp and pleasure ; weather : 
warm, and accompanied with showers. Her angel is 
Hanael. 

Mercury is the last of the planets which we nave to 
consider. He is masculine, melancholy, cold, and dry. 
The native is tall, straight, and thin, with a narrow face 
and high forehead, long straight nose, eyes black or grey, 
thin lips and chin, scanty beard, with brown hnir ; the 
arms, hands and fingers, long and slender ; this last is 
said to be a peculiar mark of a nativity under Mercury. 
If the planet be oriental at the time of birth, the native 
will be very likely to be of a stronger constitution, and with 
sandy hair. If occidental, sallow, lank, slender, and of a. 
dry habit. When well dignified, he will be of an acute and 
penetrating mind, of a powerful imagination, and a retentive- 
memory ; eloquent, fond of learning, and successful in 
scientific investigation. If engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
enterprising and skilful. If ill dignified, then the native- 
is a mean, unprincipled character, pretending to knowledge, 
but an imposter and a slanderer, boastful, malicious, and. 
addicted to theft. Diseases : all that affect the brain, 
head, and intellectual faculties ; herbs and plants: the 
walnut, the valerian, the trefoil, and about one hundred 
more ; animals : the dog, the ape, the weasel, and the fox ; 
weather : rain, hailstones, thunder and lightning, parti- 
cularly in the north ; occupations : all literate and learned 
professions ; when ill dignified, all pretenders, quacks, 
and mountebanks. Places : schools, colleges, markets, 
warehouses, exchanges, all places of commerce and learning ; 
metal, quicksilver ; gems : cornelian, sardonyx, opal, onyx, 
and chalcedony ; his colour is purple. His friends are- 
Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn ; his enemies Mars, the Sun, 
and the Moon. His angel is Raphael. 

The Aspects of the Planets are five, thus distinguished: 
i. Conjunction, when two planets are in the same degree 
and minute of a sign, which may be of good or evil- 
import, according to the nature of the planets, and 
their relation to each other as friendly or the contrary. 
2. Sectile, when two planets are 6o c distant from each 
other, it is called the aspect of imperfect love or friendship, 
and is generally a favourable omen. 3. Quartile, when 
two planets are 90° distant from each other, making the 
aspect of imperfect hatred, and inclining to enmity and 
misfortune. 4. Trine, when the distance is 120°, promis- 
ing the most perfect unanimity and peace. 5. Opposition, 
when two planets are 180° apart, or exactly opposite each 
other, which is considered an aspect of perfect hatred, and 
implies every kind of misfortune. 

The Planets are said to be in their joys when situated in 
the houses where they are most strong and powerful, thus ~ 



Astrology 



47 



Astrology 



Saturn in Aquarius, Jupiter in Sagittarius, Mars in Scorpio, 
the Sun in Leo, Venus in Taurus, Mercury in Virgo, and 
the Moon in Cancer. Cogent reasons are given why the 
planets should joy in these houses rather than others. 

The Dragon s Head and Dragon's Tail are the points, 
called nodes, in which the ecliptic is intersected by the 
orbits of the planets, particularly by that of the mopn. 
These points are, of course, shifting. The Dragon's Head 
is the point where the moon or other planet commences its 
northward latitude ; it is considered masculine and bene- 
volent in its influence. The Dragon's Tail is the point 
where the planets' southward progress begins ; it is femi- 
nine and malevolent. 

. The Part of Fortune is the distance of the moon's place 
from the sun, added to the degrees of the ascendent. 

The Twelve Planetary Houses are determined by drawing 
certain great circles through the intersection of the horizon 
and meridian, by which the whole globe or sphere is ap- 
portioned into twelve equal parts. In practice these lines 
are projected by a very simple method on a plane. The 
space in the centre of the figure thus described may be 
supposed to represent the situation of the earth, and is 
generally used to write down the exact time when the 
figure was erected, and for whose nativity, or for what 
question. Each division or house rules certain events 
in this order, reckoned from the east : i, life or person ; 2, 
riches ; 3, brethren or kindred ; 4, parents ; 5, children ; 
6, servants and sickness ; 7, marriage ; 8, death ; 9, 
religion; 10, magistracy; n, friends; 12, enemies. 
These categories are made to comprehend all that can 
possibly befall any individual, and the prognostication is 
drawn from the configuration of the planets in one or 
more of these " houses." 

The Horoscope denotes the configuration of the planets 
in the twelve houses ascertained for the moment of nativity, 
or the hour of the question. The Ascendent (a term 
sometimes used instead of horoscope) is the planet rising 
in the east or first house, which marks the general character 
of the child then born. Hyleg is another term for the 
lord of life ; Anareta for the destroyer of life, which are 
considered the chief places in a horoscope. 

The Characters used in astrology, to denote the twelve 
signs, the planets, etc., are as follows : 

Signs of the Zodiac. 



T b 




J7ries 

the ram. 



7aurus 

the ball. 



Q W 



Leo 
the lion. 



the virgin. 



S h> 



Gemini 

the twins. 



-TV 

L/6ra 

thedalance. 






^9 

Cancer 

the crab.. 



Jcorp/o 
the scorpion. 



X 



Jagiffar/us Capricornus Aquarius faces 

the archer. the goat. t/iewatercarrier the fishes. 



Planetary Signs. 

h % k D 

Saturn Jup/ter M ar s Moon 

9 <3 o * 

Venus Mercury 5(//7 j ec/ . //e 

U A (P & 

Quarfiie Trine Oppasrf/on Conjunction 

These characters represent natural object?, but they 
have also a hieroglyphic or esoteric meaning that has been 
lost. The figure of Aries represents the head and horns 
of a ram ; that of Taurus, the head and horns of a bull ; 
that of Leo, the head and mane of a lion ; that of Gemini, 
two persons standing together, and so of the rest. The- 
physical or astronomical reasons for the adoption of these 
figures have been explained with great learning by the 
Abbe Pluche, in his Histoire du Ciel, and Dupuis, in his 
Abrege de I'Origine de tous les Cultes, has endeavoured to 
establish the principles of an astro-mythology, by tracing 
the progress of the moon through the twelve signs, in a 
series of adventures, which he compares with the wander- 
ings of Isis. This kind of reasoning is suggestive, cer- 
tainly, but it only establishes analogies, and proves nothing. 

Nativities. — The cases in which astrological predictions 
were chiefly sought, were in Nativities ; that is. in ascer- 
taining the fate and fortunes of any individual from the 
positions of the stars at the time of his birth ; and in 
questions called horary, which comprehended almost every 
matter which might be the subject of astrological inquiry. 
The event of sickness, the success of any undertaking, 
the reception of any suit, were all objects of horary questions. 
A person was said to be born under that planet 
which ruled the hour of his birth. Thus two hours every 
day are under the control of Saturn. The first hour after 
sunrise on Saturday is one of them. A person therefore 
born on Saturday in the first hour after sunrise, has Saturn 
for the lord of his ascendant ; those born in the next hour, 
Jupiter ; and so on in order. Venus rules the first hour 
on Friday ; Mercury on Wednesday Jupiter on Thursday, 
the sun and moon on Sunday and Monday, and Mars on 
Tuesday. The next thing is to make a figure divided into- 
twelve portions, which are called houses, as directed above. 
The twelve houses are equal to the twelve signs, and the 
planets, being always in the zodiac, will therefore all fall 
within these twelve divisions or houses. The line, which 
separates any house from the preceding, is called the cusp 
of the house. The first house is called the ascendant, 
and the east angle ; the fourth the imum cceli, or the north 
angle ; the seventh, the west angle ; and the tenth, the 
medium coeli, or the south angle. Having drawn this 
figure, tables and directions are given for the placing of 
the signs, and as one house is equal to one sign when one 
is given, the rest are given also. When the signs and 



Astrology 



48 



Astrology 



planets are all placed in the houses, the next thing is to 
augur, from their relative position, what influence they 
will have on the life and fortunes of the native. 

The House of Life implies all that affects, promotes, or 
endangers life. Saturn or Mars in this house denotes a 
short or unfortunate life, while Jupiter and Venus have, 
when free from evil aspects, an exactly contrary effect. 
The sign ascending will considerably modify the person 
and character of the native, so that to form an astrological 
judgment of this it will be necessary to combine the indi- 
cations of the sign and the planet. In what are called 
horary questions, this house relates to all questions of life, 
health, and appearance, such as stature, complexion, 
shape, accidents and sickness. It shows the events of 
journeys and voyages, with respect to the life and health 
of those engaged in them. When the question is of a 
political nature, it signifies the people in general, and being 
of the same nature as Aries, all that is said of that sign 
may be transferred to this house. The second house, 
which is of the same nature as the sign Taurus, is called 
the house of riches. It signifies the advancement in the 
world with respect to opulence of the querent ; and here 
the operations of the planets are, as in other cases, accord- 
ing to their own nature, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and the 
Sun being fortunate, if well aspected, only denoting different 
causes of wealth ; Saturn, Mars, the Moon, and Uranus, 
unfortunate. In horary questions, it signifies the money 
of the querent, or the success in a pecuniary point of view 
of any expedition of undertaking. It concerns loans, law- 
suits, and everything by which riches may be gained or 
lost. In political questions it signifies the treasury, public 
loans, taxes, and subsidies ; the younger branches of the 
blood-royal, and the death of national enemies. The third 
house is the house of kindred, particularly of brothers, 
and was probably so designated on account of the third 
sign Gemini, of which nature it is said to be. It denotes 
kindred, and the planets in this house are full of signifi- 
cation. Saturn signifies coldness and distrust ; Mars, 
sudden, violent and hasty quarrels ; Herschel, all un- 
accountable estrangements ; Jupiter denotes steady 
friendships, Venus great love between brothers and sisters, 
and good fortune by means of the latter ; the Sun, warm 
attachment ; the Moon, indifference. In horary questions, 
this house signifies the health, fortune and happiness of 
the querent's parents, his own patrimony and inheritance, 
and the ultimate consequences, either good or bad, of any 
undertaking in which he may be engaged. In political 
cases it denotes the landed interest of a nation ; the ancient 
and chartered rights of all classes, which have been handed 
down to them from their ancestors ; and all public advo- 
cates and defenders of these interests and rights. 

The fifth house, which has the same government, and 
partakes of the same character as Leo, is called the House 
of Children. In nativities, therefore, it denotes the children 
of the native, and their success and also his own success by 
means of them. It also has some reference to women. 
The health and welfare of children, whether present or 
absent, are determinable by the planets in this house. 
It also denotes all questions relative to amusement, simply, 
as it would seem, on account of the fondness of youth for 
such pursuits. In political questions consequently, we 
find this house taken to signify the rising generation, 
theatres, exhibitions, public festivals, and all national 
amusements ; all increase in the population ; music and 
musical taste, sculpture, painting, and the advancement 
of the fine arts in general. The sixth house is that of 
servants, but it also denotes sickness and private enemies. 
It is usually considered an evil house, and but few con- 
figurations of the planets which can take place in it are 
fortunate. It is of the nature, and shares the government 



of Virgo. When the lord of the ascendant is placed in this 
house, it denotes a low station, and if in addition to this 
he be ill dignified, the native will not rise above menial 
employments. In horary astrology it points out servants 
and cattle, dependents, and small shopkeepers ; uncles 
and aunts by the father's side ; tenants, stewards, shepherds 
and farmers. If, however, the question be political, then 
this house indicates the under-servants of the government ; 
the common seamen in the navy, private soldiers in the 
army, and the general health of the nation. This last 
refers chiefly to contagious and epidemic disorders. 

The seventh house, which is of the same nature as Libra, 
and has the same government, is the House of Marriage. 
If Saturn be found here, he denotes unhappiness from 
constitutional causes ; Mars from difference of temper ; 
Herschel, as usual, from some strange and unaccountable 
dislike. The other planets are mostly causers of good, 
unless exception be made in the case of the Moon. In 
horary questions, this house denotes love, speculations in 
business, partners in trade, lawsuits, and' litigation ; it is 
the House of Thieves, and sets forth thier conduct and 
character. In queries of a political nature, it signifies the 
event of any war, and the consequences of a treaty ; it 
personates the victorious nation, army, or navy, and in- 
dicates outlaws and fugitives, with the places in which 
they have taken their retreat. 

The eighth house is the House of Death. It denotes 
wills, legacies, and all property depending upon the death 
of others ; the power, means, and influence of adversaries ; 
the opposing parties in lawsuits. It is of the nature of 
Scorpio, and has the same government. If Mars be un- 
fortunately placed in this house, it portends a violent 
death to the native. Saturn is often productive of suicide, 
and Herschel of the mysterious disappearance of the un- 
happy individual, whose horoscope is so marked. Jupiter, 
on the contrary, and Venus, point out a late and quiet 
departure. In horary questions its significance has been 
already noticed, but it also denotes the portion or dowry 
of women, and seconds in duels. In political questions it 
has a signification of a very different character, viz., the 
privy council of a king or queen, their friends, and secrets 
of state. It does, however, bear some mark of its appro- 
priation to death, by being made to denote the rate of 
mortality among the people. The ninth house is that of 
religion, science, and learning. It has the same govern- 
ment and nature as Sagittarius. Jupiter is the most 
fortunate planet in it, and if joined with Mercury, then the 
native is promised a character at once learned, estimable, 
and truly religious. The Sun and Venus are likewise good 
significators here, but the Moon denotes a changeable mind, 
and frequent alterations in religious principles. Mars is 
the worst planet in this house, and portends an indifference, 
or even an active hostility to religion. In horary questions 
the ninth house is appropriated to the church and the 
clergy ; all ecclesiastical matters, dissent, heresy, schism, 
dreams, visions, and religious delusions. It also denotes 
voyages and travels to distant lands, and in questions of 
a political nature, the religion of the nation, and all the higher 
and more solemn courts of justice, such as Chancery, etc. 

The tenth house is one of the most important of all. 
It is the House of Honour, Rank, and Dignity ; of the 
nature and rule of Capricorn. In this house the planets 
are more powerful than in any other, save only the House 
of Life. They point out the employment, success, pre- 
ferment, and authority of the native. Saturn is here the 
worst planet, but the Moon and Herschel are also mis- 
chievous, the latter by preventing the native from attaining 
that rank to which his services, learning, or merit entitle 
him, and doing this by a series of inexplicable disappoint- 
ments. Jupiter and the Sun signify advancement by the 




Old astrological chart of the planets 




Astrological Idea of Marriage 
ASTROLOGICAL ALLEGORIES 



face p. 48 



Astrology 



49 



Atlantis 



favour oi distinguished men, and Venus, of distinguished 
■women. In horary questions, the tenth house signifies the 
mother of the querist ; and politically the sovereign. This 
is a house in which Mars is not unfortunate, if well placed ; 
denoting -war-like achievements and consequent honours. 

The eleventh house is the House of Friends : it is of the 
nature of Aquarius, and has the same rule. It denotes, of 
course, friends, well-wishers, favourites, and flatterers, 
but is said to be a house in which evil planets are increased 
in strength, and good planets diminished. The Sun is 
the best planet in it, and Mars the worst. In horary 
questions it has the same signification as in a nativity, and 
also denotes the expectations and wishes of the querist. 
It is said to be much influenced by the sign which is in it, 
and to signify legacies, if the sign be one of the earthy 
triplicity, and honour with princes, if it be one of the fiery 
triplicity. In political questions, the eleventh house 
signifies the allies of the public; with whom no particular 
treaty is at the same time binding ; and also the general 
council of the nation, and newly acquired rights. 

Lastly, the twelfth house, which, of course, partakes 
the rule and character of Pisces, is the House of Enemies, 
and denotes sorrow, sickness, care, anxiety, and all kinds 
of suffering. Yet evil planets are weaker, according to 
some writers, and good planets stronger than in certain 
other houses. Very few configurations in this house are 
esteemed for the native, but its evil effects are, of course, 
greatly modified by the planetary influences. In horary 
questions it signifies imprisonment, treason, sedition, 
assassination, and suicide ; and in questions which are of 
a political character, it points out deceitful treaties, un- 
successful negotiations, treachery in the offices of state, 
captivity to princes, and general ill furtune. The criminal 
code, and the punishment of culprits, dungeons, and cir- 
cumstances connected with prison discipline are also 
denoted by this house. Saturn is the worst, and Venus the 
best planet to be present in it. 

Having taken notice of the signs, the planets, and the 
houses, it is next necessary for the astrologer to note also 
the aspects of the planets one towards another, which 
aspects decide whether the planet is of good or evil signifi- 
cation. These aspects are as follows — omitting the less 
important : 

1. The Trine, marked >v when two planets are four 

signs, or 1 20 apart. * ■ 

2. The Sectile, marked SL. when two planets are two 

signs, or 6o° apart. 

3. The Quintile, (5-tile) when two planets are . . 72 

apart. 
These are all fortunate aspects, and are here placed 
according to their importance. 

4. The Conjunction, s~4 when two stars or planets are 

of the same sign. \J 
This is a fortunate aspect with the fortunate, and evil 
with evil planets. 

5. The Opposition, f~>yK^J when two planets are six signs 

or 180 apart. V_/ 

6. The Quartile, r"~ I when two planets are three signs 

or 90° apart. I-J 

7. The Semi-quartile 4-f - 1 when the two planets are 

45 apart. ' "— ' 

These three last aspects are evil, and evil in the order 
in which they are here placed. 

Horary questions are subjects of astrological calculations. 
They are so called, because the scheme of the heavens is 



erected for the hour in which the question is put. Thus, 
let a person be sick, and the question be of his recovery, 
the Houses will now signify as follows, says Blagrave : — 
" 1. The patient's person 

2. His estate 

3. His kindred 

4. His father or his grave 

5. His children 

6. His sickness and servants 

7. His wife and his physician 

8. His death 

9. His religion 

10. His mother and his physic 
n. His friends 
12. His enemies." 

And according to the position of the planets the above 
particulars are to be judged of. If the question be of 
stolen goods, a distribution of the houses is again made 
according to similar rules. And here the colour denoted 
by the signs is pertinent ; for let Mercury signify the thief, 
then the sign in which that planet is found will denote 
the personal appearance and complexion of the thief. If 
the question be one concerning marriage, then it points out 
that of the future bride or bridegroom ; and so on. 

For full information on astrology, reference is to be 
made to the works of Ptolemy, Firmicius Maternus, Cen- 
sorinus, Alchabitius, Junctinus, Marcolini da Forli, Fab- 
ricius, Vossius, Cardan, Baptista Porta, Campanella, 
Chavigny, Guynaus, Kottero, Camerarius, Sir G. Wharton, 
William Lilly, Sir C. Haydon, Henry Coley, and Ebenezer 
Sibley. Later compendiums, however, have appeared, 
and we ought not to omit the Diitionnaire Infernal, of 
Collin de Plancy. and the works of Sepharial and Alan Leo. 

For an interesting and most practical course of rhymed 
mnemonic lessons on astrology see The Palace of the King. 
by Isabella M. Pagan, the well-known Theosophist and 
writer on astrological subjects. 
Athanor : This occult hill is surrounded by mist excepting 
the southern side, which is clear. It has a well, which is 
four paces in breadth, from which an azure vapour ascends, 
which is drawn up by the warm sun. The bottom of the 
well is covered with red arsenic. Near it is a basin filled 
with fire from which rises a livid flame odourless and smoke- 
less, and never higher or lower than the edge of the basin. 
Also there are two black stone reservoirs, in one of which 
the wind is kept, and in the other the rain. In extreme 
drought the rain-cistern is opened and clouds escape, which 
water the whole country. The term is also employed 
to denote moral and philosophical alchemy. 
Atlantis : a supposed sunken continent, which, according 
to some accounts, occupied most of the area of the present 
Atlantic Ocean. It is dealt with here because of late years 
several accounts purporting to come from certain spirit 
" controls" have been published which give a more or less 
detailed description of the history, life and manners of its 
inhabitants, and it is of interest to Theosophists. The ques- 
tion regarding the existence of such a continent is a very 
vexed one indeed. It appears to have originated at an early 
date, for Plato in his Timesus states that the Atlantians 
overran Europe and were only repulsed by the Greeks. It 
is stated that the Hindu priesthood believed, and still be- 
lieve that it once existed ; and there are shadowy legends 
among the American native races which would seem to 
assist these beliefs. At the same time definite proof is 
conspicuous by its absence. Brasseur de Bourbourg held 
that Atlantis was an extension of America which stretched 
from Central America and Mexico, far into the Atlantic, 
the Canaries, Madeiras and Azores being the only remnants 
which were not submerged ; and many similar fantastic 
theories have been advanced. Donnelly undertook to 



Atlantis 



50 



Aura 



prove the existence of such a continent by modern scien- 
tific methods, and located the Atlantis of Plato as an island 
opposite the entrance to the Mediterranean — a remnant of 
the lost continent. He thought that Atlantis was the region 
where men first arose from barbarism to civilisation, and 
that all the civilised peoples of Europe and America derived 
their culture thence : that it was indeed the antediluvian 
world of the Garden of Eden ; that the Atlantians founded 
a colony in Egypt ; and that the Phoenician alphabet was 
the Atlantian alphabet : that not only the Aryan but the 
Semitic people, and perhaps the " Turanian " races, emerged 
therefrom : that it perished in a terrible revolution of nature 
in which the whole island sank into the ocean with nearly 
all its inhabitants ; and that only a few persons escaped 
to tell the story of the catastrophe, which has survived to 
our time in the flood and deluge legend? of the Old and New 
worlds. Even some serious scientists have not disdained 
to examine the question, and it is claimed that ocean de- 
posits show remains of what must have been at one time 
a land above the ocean. The theory that the Atlantians 
founded the civilisations of Central America and Mexico 
has been fully proven to be absurd, as that civilisation is 
distinctly of an aboriginal nature, and of comparatively 
late origin. (See Spence. Myths of Mexico and Peru.) 
The late Dr. Augustus le Plongeon and his wife spent many 
years in trying to prove that a certain Queen Moo of Yu- 
catan, founded a colony in Egypt ; but as they professed 
to be able to read hieroglyphs that no one else could de- 
cipher, and many of which were not hieroglyphs at all but 
ornamental designs, and as they placed side by side and 
compared with the Egyptian alphabet a " Mayan " alpha- 
bet, which certainly never originated anywhere but in their 
own ingenuity, we cannot have much faith in their con- 
clusions. We do not learn from Dr. le Plongeon' s works 
by what course of reasoning he came to discover that the 
name of his heroine was the rather uneuphonious one of 
Moo, but probably he arrived at it by the same process 
as that by which he discovered the " Mayan " alphabet. 
He further assumes that his story is taken up where he ends 
it by the Manuscript Troano, which is, however, chiefly 
calendric and not historical. Some years ago a French 
scientist left a large sum of money for research in con- 
nection with the sunken continent of Atlantis, and this 
has been fully taken advantage of by a certain author, 
who is pursuing his investigations in a practical manner. 

The claims of certain spiritualists and occultists to restore 
the history of A llanlis are about as successful as these of the 
pseudo-scientists who have approached the question. They 
claim to have reconstructed almost the entire history of 
the island-continent by means of messages from spirit 
controls, which acquaint us minutely with the polity, life, 
religion and magical system of the Atlantians ; but in the 
face of scientific knowledge and probability these accounts 
fail to convince, and are obviously of the nature of im- 
aginative fiction. There is also a certain body of occult 
tradition concerning Atlantis which may either have orig- 
inated from oriental sources, or else have come into being 
in the imaginations of later occultists ; and this is to some 
extent crystallised in the works in question. It would be 
rash to say that such a continent as Atlantis never existed ; 
but it would be equally foolish to say so dogmatically 
without a backing of much greater proof than we at 
present possess on the subject. 

Atmadhyana : In the Rajah Yoga philosophy of S'rimat 
Sankaracharya, Atmadhyana is one of the stages necessary 
to acquire the knowledge of the unity of the soul with 
Brahman. It is the fourteenth stage and is the condition 
of highest joy arising from the belief, " I am Brahman." 

Atman : translated " Soul," but better rendered " Self," 
and meaning in the Hindu religion the union of the soul 



with God. It is believed that the soul is neither body nor 
mind, nor even thought, but that these are merely conditions 
by which the soul is clouded so that it loses its sense of 
oneness with God. In the Upanishads it is said " The 
Self, smaller than small, greater than great, is hidden in the 
heart of the creature ;" and " In the beginning there was 
Sell." 

Atmic or Nirvanic Plane : {See Spiritual World). 

Attea Society : (See Italy). 

Attic Mysteries : (See Mysteries). 

Attwood, Mrs. : The author of a work entitled, A Sug- 
gestive Inquiry with the Hermetic Mystery, published anony- 
mously at London, in 1850. Owing to the circumstance 
that it was supposed to have revealed certain alchemical 
secrets, it was shortly afterwards withrdawn from 
circulation. 

A tziluth : One of the three.worlds of the Kabala ; the supreme 
circle ; the perfect revelation. According to Eliphas Levi, 
it is represented in the Apocalypse by the head of the 
mighty angel with the face of a sun. 

August Order of Light : An Oriental order introduced 
into this country in 1882 by Mr. Maurice Vidal Portman. 
Its object is the development of practical occultism, and 
it is continued at Bradford, Yorkshire, as "' The Oriental 
Order of Light." It has a ritual of three degrees. Novice. 
Aspirans, Viator. It adopted Kabalistic forms, and is 
governed by a Grand Master of the Sacred Crown or 
Kether of the Kabala. 

August Spirits, the Shelf of the : In the country of 
Japan, every house has a room set apart, called the spirit 
chamber, in which there is a shelf or shrine, with tablets 
bearing the names of the deceased members of the family, 
with the sole addition of the word Mitama (spirit). This 
is a species of ancestor worship, and is known as " home " 
worship. 

Ankh : The Egyptian symbol of life, perhaps the life which 
remains to one after death. It is conjectured that it 
symbolises the union of the male and female principles, 
the origins of life, and that like the American cross, it 
typifies the four winds, the rain-bringers and fertilizers. 
It has been found manufactured in every description of 
material, and is sometimes encountered in combination 
with the dad or tat symbol (q.v.) It is usually carried in 
the right hand by divinities. 

Aura : An emanation said to surround human beings, chiefly 
encircling the head, and supposed to proceed from the 
nervous system. It is described as a cloud of light suf- 
fused with various colours. This is seen clairvoyantly, 
being imperceptible to the physical sight. , 

Some authorities trace the existence of the aura in such 
scriptural instances as the bright light shining about Moses, 
which the children of Israel were unable to look upon, when 
he descended from the mountain bearing the stone tablets 
engraved with the Ten Commandments ; in the exceed- 
ingly brilliant light which shone round about St. Paul's 
vision at the time of his conversion ; and in the trans- 
figuration of Jesus Christ, when his raiment shone so 
brightly that no fuller on earth could whiten it. Many 
of the mediaeval saints were said to be surrounded with a 
cloud of light. Of St. John of the Cross it is told that 
when at the altar or kneeling in prayer, a certain brightness 
darted from his face ; St. Philip Neri was constantly seen 
enveloped in light ; St. Charles Borromeo was similarly 
illuminated. This is said to be due to the fact that when 
a person is engaged in lofty thought and spiritual aspiration, 
the auric colours become for the time being, more luminous 
and translucent, therefore more easily discernible. In 
Christian art, round the heads of saints and the sacred 
characters, is to be found portrayed the halo or nimbus 
which is supposed to represent the aura ; sometimes the 



Aura 



51 



Auspices 



luminous cloud is shown around the whole of the body as 
well as the head, when it is called aureola. It is also 
thought that the colours of the body and clothing in 
mediaeval paintings and stained glass are intended to 
represent the auric colours of the person portrayed. The 
crowns and distinctive head-dresses worn by the kings and 
priests of antiquity, are said to be symbolic of the aura. 
In many of the sacred books of the East, representations 
of the great teachers and holy men are given with the 
light extending round the whole of the body. Instances 
of this may be found in the temple caves of India and 
Ceylon, in the Japanese Buddhistic books, also in Egypt, 
Greece, Mexico and Peru. In occult literature the tradition 
of the aura is an old one, Paracelsus, in the 16th century, 
making mention of it in the following terms : " The vital 
force is not enclosed in man, but radiates round him like a 
luminous sphere, and it may be made to act at a distance. 
In these semi-natural rays the imagination of man may 
produce healthy or morbid effects. It may poison the 
essence of life and cause diseases or it may purify it after 
it has been made impure, and restore the health." Again : 
" Our thoughts are simply magnetic emanations, which, 
in escaping from our brains, penetrate into kindred heads 
and carry thither, with a reflection of our life, the mirage 
of our secrets." A modern theosophical description is as 
follows : " The aura is a highly complicated and entangled 
manifestation, consisting ot many influences operating 
within the same area. Some of the elements composing 
the aura are projected from the body, others from the 
astral principles, and others again from the more spiritual 
principles connected with the " Higher Self," or permanent 
Ego ; and the various auras are not lying one around the 
other, but are all blended together and occupy the same 
place. Guided by occult training the clairvoyant faculty 
may make a complete analysis of the various elements 
in the aura, and can estimate the delicate tints of which it 
is composed — though all blended together — as if each were 
seen separately." 

Classified more exactly, the divisions of the aura are 
stated to be : i, the health aura ; 2, the vital aura ; 3, 
the " Karmic " aura, that of the animal soul in man; 4, 
the aura of character ; 5, the aura of the spiritual nature. 

The " health aura " is thus described : '' It is almost 
colourless, but becomes perceptible by reason of possessing 
a curious system of radial striation, that is to say, it is 
composed of an enormous number of straight lines, radia- 
ting evenly in all directions from the body." The second, 
or "-vital" aura, is said to be to a certain extent under 
the control of the will, when it circulates within the " linga 
charira " or astral body, of a " delicate rosy tint, which it 
loses, becoming bluish as it radiates outward." The third 
aura is " the field of manifestation, or the mirror in which 
every feeling, every desire is reflected." Of this aura the 
colours constantly change, as seen by the clairvoyant 
vision. " An outburst of anger will charge the whole 
aura with deep red flashes on a dark ground, while sudden 
terror will, in a moment, change everything to a ghastly 
grey." The fourth aura is that of the permanent character, 
and is said to contain the record of the past earth -life of 
the personality. The fifth aura is not often seen even by 
clairvoyants, but it is described by those who have seen it, 
only in the cases where the spiritual nature is the most 
powerful factor, as " outshining all the rest of the auras 
with startling brilliancy." The auric colours, it is declared, 
cannot be adequately described in terms of the ordinary 
colours discernible to the physical vision, being very much 
brighter, and of more varied hues and shades. The sym- 
bolic meaning of these is roughly of the following order : 
Rose, pure affection ; brilliant red, anger and force ; dirty 
red, passion and sensuality ; yellow, of the purest lemon 



colour, the highest type of intellectual activity ; orange, 
intellect used for selfish ends, pride and ambition ; brown, 
avarice. Green is a colour of varied significance ; its root 
meaning is the placing of one's self in the position of 
another. In its lower aspects it represents dece ; t and 
jealousy ; higher up in the emotional gamut, it signifies 
adaptability, and at its very highest, when it tells on the 
colour of foliage, sympathy, the very essence of thinking 
for other people. In some shades green stands for the 
lower intellectual and critical faculties, merging into yellow. 
Blue indicates religious feeling and devotion, its various 
shades being said to correspond to different degrees of 
devotion, rising from fetishism to the loftiest religious 
idealism. Purple represents psychic faculty, spirituality, 
regality, spiritual power arising from knowledge, and occult 
pre-eminence. 

Auspices, or College of Diviners : (See Divination). 

Austatikco-Pauligaur : A class of Persian evil spirits. 
They are eight in number,' and keep the eight sides of the 
world. Their names are as follows : — (1) Indiren, the king 
of these genii ; (■:) Augne-Baugauven, the god of fire ; (3) 
Eemen king of death and hell ; (4) Nerudee, earth in the 
figure of a giant ; (5) Vaivoo, god of the air and winds ; 
(6) Varoonon, god of clouds and rain ; (7) Gooberen, god 
of riches ; (8) Essaunien. or Shivven. 

Austral Virtue : (See Fludd). 

Australia : Native Magic. — From birth to death, the 
native Australian or blackfellow is surrounded by magical 
influences. In many tribes the power to perform magic, 
" sympathetic " or otherwise, is possessed by only a few 
people ; but among the central tribes it is practised by both 
men and women — more often, however, by the former, who 
conserve the knowledge of certain forms of their own. 
There is also among them a distinct class of medicine-men, 
whose duty it is to discover whose magic has caused the death 
of anyone. Among the central tribes, unlike many others, 
magic is not made a means of profit or emolument. A 
heavy taboo rests on a great many things that the boy or 
young man would like to do, and this is for the behoof of 
the older men of the tribe, who attach to themselves the 
choicest morsels of food and so forth. Among girls and 
women the same law applies ; and the latter are sternly 
forbidden to go near the places where the men perform 
their magical ceremonies. To terrify them away from 
such spots, the natives have invented an instrument called 
a " bull-roarer " — a thin slip of wood swung round at the 
end of a string, which makes a screaming, whistling noise, 
which the women believe is the voice of the Great Spirit. 
The natives preserve long oval pieces of wood, which they 
call churingas. In these are supposed to remain the spirits 
of their ancestors, so that in reality they are of a fetish 
nature. These are kept concealed in the most secret manner. 
Sympathetic Magic is of course rife amongst such 
a primitive people. Certain ceremonies are employed to 
control nature so as to ensure a plentiful supply of food 
and water, or to injure an enemy. One of the commonest 
forms of these is the use of the pointed stick or bone, which 
is used in one form or another by all Australian tribes. The 
former is a small piece of wood, varying in length from 
three to eighteen inches, resembling a skewer, and tapering 
to a point. At the handle end it is topped with a knob of 
resin, to which is attached a strand of human hair. Magical 
songs are sung over it, to endow it with occult potency. 
The man who wishes to use it goes into the bush singly, 
or with a friend, where he will be free from observation, 
and planting the stick in the ground, mutters over it what 
he desires to happen to his enemy. It is then left in the 
ground for a few days. The evil magic is supposed to pro- 
ceed from the stick to the man, who often succumbs, unless 
a medicine- man, chances to discover the implement. 



Australia 



52 



Australia 



The Australian savage has a special dread of magic con- 
nected with places at a distance, and any magical apparatus 
purchased or obtained from far-away tribes is supposed 
to possess potency of much greater kind than if it had 
been made among themselves. Thus certain little stones 
traded by Northern tribes are supposed to contain a very 
powerful form of evil magic called mauia. These are wrapped 
up in many folds of bark and string, According to their 
traditions this type of magic was first introduced by a Bat- 
man, who dropped it to earth where it made a great ex- 
plosion at a certain spot, whence it can still be procured. 
Sticks procured from a distance, with which the natives 
chastise their wives, aire sufficient by their very sight to 
make the women obey their husbands. Much mystery 
surrounds what are known as " debil-debil " shoes, which 
consist of a pad of emu feathers, rounded at both ends, in 
order that no one should be able to trace in which direction 
the wearer is journeying. These are supposed to be worn 
by a being called kurdaitcha, to whom deaths are attributed. 
Like other savages, the Australian native believes that 
death is always due to evil magic. A man may become a 
kurdaitcha by submitting to a certain ceremony, in which the 
little toe of his foot is dislocated. Dressed up and painted 
grotesquely, he sets out accompanied by a medicine-man 
and wearing the kurdaitcha shoes, when he desires to slay 
an enemy. When he spears him, the medicine-man closes 
up the wound, and the victim returns to consciousness 
oblivious of the fact that he is full of evil magic ; but in 
a while he sickens and dies ; and then it is known that he 
has been attacked by a kurdaitcha. Many long and elab- 
orate ceremonies are connected with the churinga, and these 
have been well described by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen, 
Howitt, Fison, and others. 

Spiritualism in Australia has both a public and private 
representation. The latter is far more general than the 
former in every country except America, but although 
demonstrations of spirit power are more commonly known 
in Australia amongst individuals and families, than on the 
rostrum, or through the columns of the journals, they are 
less available for the purposes of historical record. It 
seems that many Australian colonists had heard of the 
Spiritualist movement before settling in the country, and 
on their arrival, pursuing the customary methods of unfold- 
ment through the spirit circle, a deep interest was 
awakened long before public attention was called to the 
subject. In Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat, Geelong, Bris- 
bane, and numerous other towns and mining districts, 
communion with spirits was successfully practised in cir- 
cles and families, up to about 1867. After that epoch it 
seems to have become the subject of various journalistic 
reports of the usual adverse, eulogistic, or non-committal 
character. At or about that period, a large number of 
influential persons became interested in the matter, and 
not a few whose names were a sufficient guarantee of their 
good faith, began to detail wonderful experiences in the 
columns of the public journals. The debate and denial, 
rejoinder and defence, called forth by these narratives, 
served as propaganda of the movement, and rendered each 
freshly recorded manifestation, the centre of an ever- 
widening circle of interest. 

In Victoria a gentleman of considerable wealth and 
learning, writing under the nom de plume of " Schamlyn," 
entered into a warm controversy with the editor of the 
Collingwood Advertiser,' in defence of Spiritualism. An- 
other influential supporter of the Spiritual cause who was 
an early convert, and for a time became a pillar of strength 
in its maintenance, was a gentleman connected with the 
editorial department of the Melbourve Argus, one of the 
leading journals of Victoria, and an organ well calculated 
to exert a powerful sway over the minds of its readers. 



As the tides of public opinion moved on, doctors, lawyers, 
merchants, and men of eminence began to joins the ranks. 
Tidings of phenomena of the most astounding character 
poured in from distant towns and districts. Members of 
the press began to share the general infection, and though 
some would not, and others could not avow their convic- 
tions, their private prepossessions induced them to open 
their columns for debate and correspondence on the subject. 
To add to the stimulus thus imparted, many of the leading 
colonial journals indulged in tirades of abuse and misrep- 
resentation, which only served to increase the contagion 
without in the least diminishing its force. At length the 
clergy began to arouse themselves and manifest their in- 
terest by furious abuse. Denunciation provoked retort ; 
discussion compelled investigation. In Sydney, many con- 
verts of rank and influence suddenly appeared. The late 
Hon. John Bowie Wilson, Land Minister, and a champion 
' of temperance, became an open convert to Spiritualism, 
and by his personal influence no less than his public de- 
fence of the cause made converts unnumbered. Amongst 
the many others whose names have also been recorded in 
the ranks of Spiritualism in Sydney may be mentioned 
Mr. Henry Gale, Mrs. Wilson and Mrs. Gale, Mrs. Woolley 
and Mrs. Greville, besides a number of other ladies ; Mr. 
Greville, M.P., and several other members of the New South 
Wales Parliament and Cabinet ; Hon. J. Windeyer, .At- 
torney-General of the Colon}', subsequently one of the 
j udges ; Mr. Alfred De Lissa, an eminent barrister ; Mr. 
Cyril Haviland, a literary man ; Mr. Macdonald ; Captain 
Barron ; Mr. Milner Stephen, a barrister of eminence, his 
wife and family, and many others. Another who did more 
to advance the cause of Spiritualism, and crystallize its 
scattered fragments into concrete strength than any other 
individual in the ranks was Mr. Wm. Terry, the well-known 
and enterprising editor of the Melbourne Harbinger of 
Light Spiritual organ, 

" About 1869 " says Mr. H. Tuttle, " the necessity for 
a Spiritualistic journal was impressed deeply on the mind 
of Mr. Terry. He could not cast it off, but pondered over 
the enterprise. At this time, an exceedingly sensitive 
patient described a spirit holding a scroll on which was 
written " Harbinger of Light " and the motto, " Dawn 
approaches, error is passing away ; men arising shall hail 
the day." This influenced him, and in August 1870, he 
set to work to prepare the first number, which appeared 
on the 1st of September of that year. 

" There was no organisation in Australian Spiritualism, 
and Mr. Terry saw the advantage and necessity of associative 
movement. He consulted a few friends, and in November, 
1870, he organised the first Victorian Association of 
Spiritualists. A hall was rented, and Sunday services, 
consisting of essays and reading by members, enlivened 
by appropriate hymns, were held. In October, 1872, 
impressed with the desirability of forming a Lyceum," he 
called together a few willing workers, and held the first 
session on October 20th, 1S72. It is, and has been from the 
first in a flourishing condition, numbering one hundred 
and fifty members, with a very handsome and complete 
outfit, and excellent library. He has remained an officer 
ever since, and conductor four sessions. He assisted in 
the establishment of the Spiritualist and Free-thought 
Association, which succeeded the original one, and was its 
first president. He has lectured occasionally to apprecia- 
tive audiences, and his lectures have been widely circulated. 
His mediumship, which gave such fair promise, both in 
regard to writing and speaking, became controlled, especially 
for the relief of the sick. Without the assistance of ad- 
vertising he has acquired a fine practice. With this he 
combines a trade in Reform and Spiritualistic publications, 
as extensive as the colony, and the publication of the 



Australia 



53 



Australia 



Harbinger of Light, a Spiritual j ournal that is an honour to 
the cause, and well sustains the grand philosophy of im- 
mortality. No man is doing more for the cause, or has 
done more efficient work." 

A short but interesting summary of the rise and progress 
of Spiritualism in Australia is given in the American 
Banner of Light, 1880, in which Mr. Terry's good service is 
again alluded to, and placed in line with that of several 
other pioneers of the movement, of whom mention has not 
yet been made. It is as follows : — 

" The Harbinger of Light, published at Melbourne, 
Australia, furnishes a review of the origin of its publication 
and the work it has accomplished during the ten years just 
closed. At its advent in 1870, considerable interest had 
been awakened in the subject of Spiritualism, by the 
lectures of Mr. Nayler, in Melbourne, and Mr. Leech, at 
Castlemaine. The leaders of the church became dis- 
turbed, and seeing their gods in danger, sought to stay 
the progress of what would eventually lessen their influence 
and possibly their income. But Mr. Nayler spoke and 
wrote with more vigour ; the addresses of Mr. Leech were 
published from week to week in pamphlet form, and widely 
distributed. At the same time, Mr. Charles Bright, who 
had published letters on Spiritualism in the Argus, over 
an assumed name, openly identified himself with the move- 
ment, and spoke publicly on the subject. Shortly after, 
eleven persons met and formed an association, which soon 
increased to eighty members. A hymn-book was compiled, 
and Sunday services began. As elsewhere, the press 
ridiculed, and the pulpit denounced Spiritualism as a 
delusion. A number of articles in the Argus brought some 
of the facts prominently before the public, and the growing 
interest was advanced by a public discussion between 
Messrs. Tyerman and Blair. In 1872, a Sunday school, on 
harmonial principles, was established, Mr. W. H. Terry, 
the proprietor of the Harbinger, being its first conductor. 
Almost simultaneously with this was the visit of Dr. J. M. 
Peebles, whose public lectures and work in the Lyceum 
served to consolidate the movement. A controversy in 
the Age, between Rev. Mr. Potter, Mr. Tyerman and Mr.~ 
Terry, brought the facts and teachings of Spiritualism 
into further notice. 

" Soon came Dr. Peebles, Thomas Walker, Mrs. Britten 
and others, who widened the influence of the spiritualistic 
philosophy, and aided the. Harbinger in its efforts to estab- 
lish Spiritualism on a broad rational basis. Mr. W. H. 
Terry is deserving of all praise for his unselfish and faithful 
exertions in carrying the Harbinger through the years of 
as hard labour as ever befell any similar enterprise, and we 
bespeak for him, in his continued efforts to make known 
the evidences of a future existence, and the illuminating 
truths of Spiritualism, the hearty co-operation and sym- 
pathy of all friends of the cause." 

Writing to the Banner of Light on the subject of Mr. 
Tyerman's accession to the Spiritual ranks, an esteemed 
American correspondent says : — 

" The Rev. J. Tyerman, of the Church of England, 
resident in one of the country districts, boldly declared 
his full reception of Spiritualism as a great fact, and his 
change of religious faith consequent upon the teachings of 
spirits. Of course, he was welcomed with open arms by 
the whole body of Spiritualists in Melbourne, the only city 
where there was any considerable number enrolled in one 
association. He soon became the principal lecturer, though 
not the only one employed by the Association, and well 
lias he wielded the sword of the new faith. He is decidedly 
of the pioneer stamp, a skilful debater, a fluent speaker, 
Teady at any moment to engage with any one, either by 
word of mouth or as a writer. So widely, indeed, did he 
make his influence felt, and so individual was it, that a 



new society grew up around him, called the Free-Thought 
and Spiritualist Propaganda Society, which remained in 
existence till Mr. Tyerman removed to Sydney, when it 
coalesced with the older association, under the combined 
name of Melbourne Spiritualist and Free-Thought Asso- 
ciation." 

Another valuable convert to the cause of Spiritualism, 
at a time when it most needed good service, was Mrs. 
Florence Williams, the daughter of the celebrated English 
novelist, G. P. R. James, and the inheritor of his talent, 
originality of thought, and high culture. This lady for a 
long time officiated at the first Spiritual meetings convened 
for Sabbath Day exercises, as an acceptable and eloquent 
lecturer, and her essays would have formed an admirable 
epitome of spiritual revelations at the time in which they 
were delivered. 

The visits of several zealous propagandists have been 
alluded to in previous quotations, Amongst the first to 
break ground as a public exponent of Spiritualism, was 
the Rev. J. M. Peebles, formerly a minister of Battle 
Creek, Michigan. Mr. Peebles was well known in America 
as a fine writer and lecturer, and as such was justified in 
expecting courteous, if not eulogistic mention from the 
press of a foreign country, with whom his own was on 
terms of amicable intercourse. How widely different was 
the journalistic treatment he experienced may be gathered 
from his own remarks addressed to the Banner of Light 
some five years after his first visit, and describing in 
graphic terms the changed spirit which marked alike the 
progress of the movement and the alteration in the tone 
of public opinion. Mr. Peebles says ■ — 

" Relative to Spiritualism and its divine principles, 
public sentiment has changed rapidly, and for the better, 
during the past five years. Upon my late public appear- 
ance in Melbourne, the Hon. John Mcllwraith, ex-Mayor 
of the city, and Commissioner to our Centennial Exhibition, 
took the chair, introducing me to the audience. On my 
previous visit some of the Spiritualists seemed a little 
timid. They preferred being called investigators, remain- 
ing a good distance from the front. Then my travelling 
companion, Dr. Dunn, was misrepresented, and meanly 
vilified in the city journals ; while I was hissed in the 
market, caricatured in Punch, burlesqued in a theatre, 
and published in the daily press as an ' ignorant Yankee,' 
an ' American trickster,' a ' long-haired apostate,' and 
'a most unblushing blasphemer.' But how changed! 
Recently the secular press treated me fairly. Even the 
usually abusive Telegraph published Mr. Stevenson's 
article assuring the Rev. Mr. Green that I was willing to 
meet him at once in a public discussion. The Melbourne 
Argus, one of the best daily papers in the world, the Aus- 
tralasian, the Herald, and the Age, all dealt honourably by 
me, reporting my lectures, if briefly, with admirable 
impartiality. The press is a reflector ; and those audiences 
of 2,000 and 2,500 in the great Opera House on each Sunday 
for several successive months, were not without a most 
striking moral significance. It seemed to be the general 
opinion that Spiritualism, had never before occupied so 
prominent yet so favourable a position in the eyes of the 
public. ..." 

Efficient service was rendered to the cause of Spiritualism 
by Mr. Thomas Walker, a young Englishman, first intro- 
duced in the Colonies by the Rev. J. M. Peebles. Alleging 
himself to be a " trance speaker " under the control of 
certain spirits, whom he named, Mr. Walker lectured 
acceptably in Sydney, Melbourne, and other places in the 
Colonies on the Spiritual rostrum. In March, 1878, Mr. 
Walker maintained a public debate with a Mr. M. W. 
Green, a minister of a denomination termed " the Church 
of Christ." This gentleman had acquired some reputation 



Australia 



54 



Australia 



in the Colonies as a preacher, and as one who had bitterly- 
opposed, and taken every possible opportunity, to mis- 
represent Spiritualism. The debate, which was held 
in the Temperance Hall, Melbourne, attracted large 
audiences, and been extended for several nights beyond 
the period originally agreed upon. 

The following extracts are taken from the Melbourne 
Age, one of the leading daily journals of the city. They 
are dated August 20th, 1878, and read thus : 

" Spiritualism is just now very much to the front in 
Melbourne. The lectures of Mrs. Emma Hardinge-Britten, 
delivered to crowded audiences at the Opera House every 
Sunday evening, have naturally attracted a sort of wonder- 
ing curiosity to the subject, and the interest has probably 
been intensified by the strenuous efforts that are being 
made in some of the orthodox pulpits to prove that the 
whole thing is an emanation from the devil. The an- 
nouncement that the famous Dr. Slade had arrived to 
strengthen the ranks of the Spiritualists, has therefore 
been made at a very critical juncture, and I should not be 
surprised to find that the consequence will be to infuse 
a galvanic activity into the forces on both sides. Though 
I do not profess to be a Spiritualist, I own to having been 
infected with the fashionable itch for witnessing ' physical 
manifestations,' as they are'called, and accordingly I have 
attended several circles with more or less gratification. 
But Dr. Slade is not an ordinary medium even among 
professionals. The literature of the Spiritualists is full 
of his extraordinary achievements, attested to all appear- 
ance by credible witnesses, who have not been ashamed 
to append their names to their statements. ... I see 
that on one occasion, writing in six different languages was 
obtained on a single slate, and one day, accompanied by 
two learned professors, Dr. Slade had a sitting with the 
Grand Duke Constantine, who obtained writing on a new 
slate held by himself alone. From St. Petersburg, Dr. 
Slade went to Berlin, where he is said to have obtained 
some marvellous manifestations in the house of Professor 
Zollner, and where he was visited by the court conjurer 
to the Emperor, Samuel Bellachini. . . . My object in 
visiting Dr. Slade can be understood when I was intro- 
duced to him with my friend, whom I shall call Omega, 
and who was bent on the same errand. Dr. Slade and Mr. 
Terry constituted the circle of four who sat around the 
table in the centre of the room almost as immediately as 
we entered it. There was nothing in the room to attract 
attention. No signs of confederacy, human or mechanical. 
The hour was eleven in the morning. The window was 
unshuttered, and the sun was shining brightly. The table 
at which we sat was a new one, made especially by Wallach 
Brothers, of Elizabeth Street, of polished cedar, having 
four slight legs, one flap, and no ledges of any kind under- 
neath. As soon as we examined it Dr. Slade took his seat 
on one side, facing the window, and the rest of us occupied 
the other three seats. He was particularly anxious that 
we should see he had nothing about him. It has been said 
that he wrote on the slate by means of a crumb of pencil 
stuck in his finger-nails, but his nails were cut to the quick, 
while his legs and feet were ostentatiously placed away from 
the table in a side position, exposed to view the whole time. 
He first produced a slate of the ordinary school size, with 
a wet sponge, which I used to it. A chip of pencil about 
the size of a grain of wheat was placed upon it on the table ; 
we joined hands, and immediately taps were heard about 
the table, and in answer to a question — ' Will you write ? ' — 
from Dr. Slade, three raps were given, and he forthwith 
took up the slate with the pencil lying on it, and held half 
of it under the table by his finger and thumb, which clasped 
the corner of the half that was outside the table, and was 
therefore easily seen by all present. His left hand re- 



mained near the centre of the table, resting. on those of the 
two sitters on either side of him. Several convulsive jerks 
of his arm were now given, then a pause, and immediately 
the sound of writing was audible to every one, a scratching 
sound interrupted by the tap of the pencil, which indicated, 
as we afterwards found, that the t's were being crossed 
and the i's dotted. The slate was then exposed, and the 
words written were in answer to the question which had 
been put by Omega as to whether he had psychic power 
or not. I pass over the conversation that ensued on the 
subject, and go on to the next phenomenon. To satisfy 
myself that the ' trick ' was not done by means of sym- 
pathetic writing on the slate, I had ten minutes previously 
purchased a slate from a shop in Bourke Street, containing 
three leaves, and shutting up book fashion. This I pro- 
duced, and Dr. Slade readily repeated his performance with 
it. It was necessary to break the pencil down to a mere 
crumb, in order to insert it between the leaves of the slate. 
This done, the phenomenon at once recurred with this 
rather perplexing difference, that the slate, instead of being 
put half under the table, forced itself by a series of jerks 
on to my neck, and reposed quietly under my ear, in the 
eyes of everyone present. The scratching then commenced; 
I heard the t's crossed and the i's dotted by the moving 
pencil, and at the usual signal I opened the slate, and found 
an intelligible reply to the question put. . . . The next 
manifestation was the levitation of one of the sitters in 
his chair about a clear foot from the ground, and the 
levitation of the table about two feet. I ought to have 
mentioned that during the whole of the seance there was a 
good deal of by-play going on. Everyone felt the touch • 
of hands more or less, and the sitters' chairs were twice 
wrenched from under them, or nearly so, but the psychic 
could not possibly have done it. . . . " 

Says Mrs. Emma Hardinge Britten, in her Nineteenth 
Century Miracles : — " As personal details are more graphic 
than the cold narrations of passing events, we deem it 
expedient in this place to give our readers an inside view 
of Spiritualism in Australia, by republishing one of the 
many articles sent by the author to the American Spiritual 
journals during her sojourn in the Colonies. The following 
excerpt was written as the result of personal experience, 
and at a time when Spiritualism, in the usual inflated style 
of journalistic literature, was ' in the zenith of its triumphs.' 
It is addressed to the Editor, of the Banner of Light, and 
reads as follows : — 

" ' Spiritualism in these colonies finds little or no public 
representation outside of Melbourne or Sydney, nevertheless 
warm friends of the cause are scattered all over the land, 
and endeavours are being made to enlarge the numerous 
circles into public meetings,, and the fugitive efforts of 
whole-hearted individuals into associations as powerful 
as that which exists in Melbourne. At present, the at- 
tempt to effect missionary work in any portions of Australia 
outside Sydney or Melbourne, becomes too great a burden 
to the luckless individual, who has not only to do the work, 
but to bear the entire cost of the undertaking, as I have 
had to do in my visits to various towns in Victoria. Ex- 
penses which are cheerfully divided amongst the many in 
the United States, become all too heavy for endurance 
when shouldered upon the isolated workers ; hence the 
paucity of public representation, and the impossibility 
of those who visit the Colonies, as I have done, effecting 
any important pioneer work beyond the two -great centres 
I have named. Mr. Walker at Sydney, and I at Melbourne, 
have been favoured with the largest gatherings ever . 
assembled at Colonial Sunday meetings. 

" ' Having, by desire of my spirit guides, exchanged 
rostrums, he filling my place at Melbourne, and I his at 
Sydney, we find simultaneously at the same time, and on 



Australia 



55 



Austria 



the same Sundays, the lessees of the two theatres we oc- 
cupied raising their rent upon us one hundred and fifty 
per cent. The freethinkers and Spiritualists had occupied 
the theatre in Sydney four years at the rate of f6ur pounds 
per Sunday. For my benefit the landlord raised the rent 
to ten pounds, whilst the same wonderful spirit of accor- 
dance caused the Melbourne manager to increase upon 
Mr. Walker from eight pounds to a demand of twenty. 
With our heavy expenses and small admission fees this 
was tantamount to driving us out altogether. Both of 
us have succeeded after much difficulty, and fighting 
Christian warriors with the Christian arms of subtlety and 
vigilance, in securing other places to lecture in ; and despite 
the fact that the press insult us, the pulpit curse us, and 
Christians generally devote us to as complete a prophecy 
of what they would wish us to enjoy everlastingly as their 
piety can devise, we are each attracting our thousands 
every Sunday night, and making such unmistakable marks 
on public opinion as will not easily be effaced again. ... 

" ' Dr. Slade's advent in Melbourne since last September 
has been productive of an immense amount of good. How 
far his labours here will prove remunerative I am not pre- 
pared to say. Frankly speaking, I do not advise Spirit 
Mediums or speakers to visit these colonies on financial 
advancement intent. There is an abundant crop of Me- 
dium power existing, interest enough in the cause, and 
many of the kindest hearts and clearest brains in the world 
to be found here ; but the lack of organisation, to which 
I have before alluded, and the imperative necessity for 
the workers who come here to make their labours remu- 
nerative, paralyses all attempts at advancement, except 
in the sensation line. Still I feel confident that with united 
action throughout the scattered force of Spiritualistic 
thought in these Colonies, Spiritualism might and would 
supersede every other phase of religious thought in an 
incredibly short space of time. I must not omit to mention 
that the friends in every place I have visited have been 
more than kind, hospitable and appreciative. The public 
have defied both press and pulpit in their unstinted support 
of my lectures." The press have been equally servile, and 
the Christian world equally stirred, and equally active in 
desperate attempts to" crush out the obvious proofs of 
immortality Spiritualism brings. 

" ' In Melbourne, I had to fight my way to comply with 
an invitation to lecture for the benefit of the City Hospital. 
I fought and conquered ; and the hospital committee 
revenged itself for a crowded attendance at the Town Hall 
by taking my money without the grace of thanks, either 
in public or private, and the simply formal acknowledg- 
ment of my services by an official receipt. In Sydney, 
where I now am, I was equally privileged in lecturing for 
the benefit of the Temperance Alliance, and equally 
honoured, after an enthusiastic and successful meeting, 
by the daily press of the city in their utter silence con- 
cerning such an important meeting, and their careful record 
of all sorts of such trash as they disgrace their columns 
with. So mote it be. The wheel will turn some day ! 

During the years 1881 and '82 the Australian colonists 
were favoured with visits from three more well-known 
American Spiritualists. The first of these was Professor 
Denton, an able and eloquent lecturer on geology, and one 
who never failed to combine with his scientific addresses, 
one or more stirring lectures on Spiritualism. The second 
propagandist was Mrs. Ada Foye, one of the best test-writing, 
rapping, and seeing Mediums, who has ever appeared in 
the ranks of Spiritualism ; whilst the third was Mrs. E. L. 
Watson, a trance-speaker. 

Professor Denton's lectures created a wide-spread in- 
terest amongst all classes of listeners. 

It now becomes necessary to speak of one of the most 



arbitrary acts of tyranny on the part of the Victorian 
Government towards Spiritualism which the records of 
the movement can show. This was the interdict promul- 
gated by " the Chief Secretary " against the proprietor of 
the Melbourne Opera House, forbidding him to allow 
Spiritualists to take money at the door for admission to 
their services, and in effect, forbidding them to hold ser- 
vices there at all. A similar interdict was issued in the 
case of Mr. Proctor, the celebrated English lecturer on 
astronomy. The excuse for this tyrannical procedure 
in Mr. Proctor's case, might have been justified on the 
ground, that the Chief Secretary was entirely ignorant 
of the fact, that astronomy had anything to do with religion, 
or that-it was not orthodox to talk about the celestial bodies 
on a Sunday, except in quotations from Genesis, or Revela- 
tions ; but in the case of " the Victorian Association of 
Spiritualists " it was quite another point. Spiritualism 
was their religion, and Spiritual lectures their Sabbath Day 
exercises. Messrs. Walker, Peebles, and Mrs. Britten, 
had occupied the Opera House for months together, and 
admission fees had been charged at each of their Sunday 
services, without let or hindrance. The result of many 
gatherings for the purpose of denouncing their policy may 
be judged by a perusal of the following paragraph published 
in the Harbinger of Light of March, 1882 : — 

" On Friday last a letter was received from the Govern- 
ment by the Executive of the Victorian Association of 
Spiritualists, intimating that the former had no desire to 
suppress the lectures, but endorsed the permit of May 1879. 
The directors of the Opera House Company were inter- 
viewed, and on the understanding that no money be 
taken at the doors, consented to the opening of the House. 
The fact being announced in Saturday's papers drew a 
large audience to hear Mr. Walker's lecture on Sunday, 
' Lord Macaulay on Roman Catholicism.' The services 
will be continued as heretofore. Seats in dress circle or 
stalls may be hired by month or quarter, at W. H. Terry's 
84, Russel Street." 

During Dr. Slade's visit to Sydney, a very able and 
energetic worker in Spiritualism became convinced of its 
truth, in the person of Mr. E. Cyril Haviland, the author 
of two excellent pamphlets and many articles, tracts, and 
good literary contributions on this subject. Mr. Haviland, 
Mr. Harold Stephen, and several other gentlemen of literary 
repute in Sydney, combined during the author's last visit 
to form a " Psychological Society," the members of which 
like the persons above named, represented some of the 
most accomplished writers and advanced thinkers of the 
city. 

Mr. L. E. Harcus, an able and fluent writer, furnished 
a report of the origin and growth of this society for the 
Banner of Light of March 1880. 
Austria : (For ancient magic among the Teutonic people 
of Austria, See Teutons. See also Hungary.) 

In Austria, Spiritualism was first promulgated by M. 
Constantine Delby of Vienna. He was a warm adherent 
of Allan Kardec, and founded a society under legal aus- 
pices, besides starting a Spiritual journal. The society 
numbered but few members, in fact Spiritualism never 
obtained much foothold in Vienna. At Buda-Pesth it 
was quite otherwise. In a short time a considerable amount 
of interest was awakened, and many persons of note began 
to take part in the circles that were being formed there, 
amongst these were Mr. Anton Prohasker and Dr. Adolf 
Grunhut. At length a society was formed, legalised by 
the State, of which Baron Edmund Vay, was elected presi- 
dent. Mr. Lishner, of Pesth. built a handsome seance 
room which the society rented. At that time there were 
one hundred and ten members, many of them being He- 
brews, though all Christians. Baron Vay was the honorary 



Autography 



56 



Avicenna 



president, Dr. Grunhut, was the active president, and 
these and Mr. Prohasker were amongst the most devoted 
and faithful workers. The principles of the society,, indeed 
the basis of it were taken from the .Geist Kraft Stoff of 
Baroness Adelma Von Vay and the works of Mian Kardec 
— purely Christian Spiritism. It never encouraged paid 
Mediumship. All the officers were voluntary and honorary. 
It had no physical Medium, but good trance, writing and 
seeing mediums. 

Autography : A term sometimes used to denote the spirit- 
ualistic phenomenon of " direct " writing (q.v.). 

Auto-Hypnotization : (See Hypnotism.) 

Ansuperomin : A sorcerer of the time of St. Jean de Lus, 
who, according to information supplied by Pierre Delamere, 
a councillor of Henry IV, was seen several times at the 
" sabbath," mounted on a demon in the shape of a goat, 
and playing on the flute for the witches' dance. 

Automatic Writing and Speaking : Writing executed 
or speech uttered without the agent's volition, and some- 
times without his knowledge. The term is used by 
psychical researchers and applied particularly to the trance 
phenomena of the seance-room. By spiritualists, writing 
or speaking produced under these conditions, are said to 
be performed " under control " — that is, under the con- 
trolling agency of the spirits of the dead — and are therefore 
not judged to be truly " automatic." The general con- 
sensus of opinion, however, ascribes such performances to 
the subconscious activity of the agent. Automatic writing 
and speaking necessarily imply some deviation from the 
normal in the subject, though such abnormality need not 
be pronounced, but may vary from a slight disturbance 
of the nerve-centres occasioned by excitement or fatigue to 
hystero-epilepsy or actual insanity. When the phenomena 
are produced during a state of trance or somnambulism the 
agent may be entirely unconscious of his actions. On the 
other hand the automatic writing may be executed while 
the agent is in a condition scarcely varying from the normal 
and quite capable of observing the phenomena in a critical 
spirit, though perhaps ignorant of a word in advance of 
what he is actually writing. Between these states of full 
consciousness or complete unconsciousness there are many 
intermediate stages. The secondary personality, as 
displayed in the writings or utterances, may gain only a 
partial ascendancy over the primary, as may happen in 
dreams or in the hypnotic trance. As a rulejautomatic 
speech and writings display nothing more than a revivifying 
of faded mental imagery, thoughts and conjectures and 
impressions which never came to birth in the upper con- 
sciousness. But at times there appears an extraordinary 
exaltation of memory, or even of the intellectual faculties. 
Cases are on record where lost articles have been recovered 
by means of automatic writing. Foreign languages which 
have been forgotten, or with which the subject has small 
acquaintance, are spoken or written fluently. Helene 
Smith, the subject of Professor Flournoy, even went so far 
as to invent a new language, purporting to be that of the 
Martians, but in reality showing a marked resemblance 
to French — the mother-tongue of the medium. Auto- 
matic writing and speaking have been produced in 
considerable quantities, mainly in connection with spirit- 
ualistic circles, though it existed long before the advent 
of spiritualism in the speaking with " tongues " of the 
early ecstatics. These unintelligible outpourings are still 
to be met with, but are no longer a marked feature of auto- 
matic utterance. But, though the matter and style may 
on occasion transcend the capabilities of the agent in his 
normal state, the great body of automatic productions 
does not show an erudition or literary excellence beyond 
the scope of the natural resources of the automist. The 
style is involved, obscure, inflated, yet possessing a super- 



ficial smoothness and a suggestion of flowing periods and 
musical cadences. The ideas are often shallow and in- 
coherent, and all but lost in a multitude of words. The 
best known of automatic writings are the Spirit Teachings 
of the Rev. Stanton Moses, the works of A. J. Davis, J. 
Murray Spear, and Charles Linton, and, perhaps most 
important of all, the Trance Utterances of Mrs. Piper, these 
last offering no inconsiderable evidence for telepathy. A 
good deal of poetry has been produced automatically, 
notably by the Rev. T. L. Harris. Among those who are 
known to have produced automatic writings are Goethe, 
Victor Hugo, Victorien Sardou, and other eminent men 
of letters. (For the hypothesis of spirit control, see article 
Spiritualism.) 

Avenar : An astrologer who promised to the Jews, on 
the testimony of the planets, that their Messiah should 
arrive without fail in 1444. or at the latest, in 1464. He 
gave, for his guarantors, Saturn, Jupiter, " the crab, and 
the fish." All the Jews kept their windows open to receive 
the messenger of God, who did not arrive. 

Avenir : (Journal) (See France). 

Avicenna : Named Aben Sina by Hebrew writers, but 
properly, Ebor Sina, or — to give his long array of names 
in full — Al-Sheikh Al-Rayis Abu Ali Al-Hossein ben Ab- 
dallah ben Sina, born at Kharmatain, near Bokhara, in 
the year of the Hegira 370, or A.D. 980. He was educated 
at Bokhara, and displayed such extraordinary precocity 
that when he had reached his tenth year, he had completely 

• mastered the Koran, and acquired a knowledge of algebra, 
the Mussulman theology, and the His ab ul-Hind, or arith- 
metic of the Hindoos. Under Abdallah Al- Natheli he 
studied logic, Euclid, and the Almagest, and then, as a 
diversion, devoted himself to the study of medicine. He 
was only twenty-one years old when he composed his Kitab 
al-Majmu or, The Book 0/ the Sum Total, whose mysteries 
he afterwards endeavoured to elucidate in a commentary 
in twenty volumes. His reputation for wisdom and eru- 
dition was so great that on the death of his father he was 
promoted by Sultan Magdal Douleth to the high office of 
Grand Vizier, which he held with advantage to the State 
until a political revolution accomplished the downfall of 
the Samanide dynasty. He then quitted Bokhara, and 
wandered from place to place, increasing his store of know- 
ledge, but yielding himself to a life of the grossest sensu- 
ality. About 1012 he retired to Jorjan, where he began 
his great work on medicine, which is still held in some re- 
pute as one of the earliest systems of that art with any 
pretensions to philosophical completeness. It is arranged 
with singular clearness, and presents a very admirable 
resume of the doctrines of the ancient Greek physicians. 
Avicenna subsequently lived at Rui, Kazwin, and Ispahan, 
where he became physician to the Persian sovereign, Ala- 
eddaulah. He is said to have been dismissed from this 
post on account of his debauched living. He then retired 
to Hamadan, where, worn out with years of sensual indul- 
gence, he died, at the age of 58, in 1038. His works on 
philosophy, mathematics, and medicine, are nearly one 
hundred in number, and include at least seven treatises on 
the Philosopher's Stone. His Book of the Canon of Medicine 
acquired an European celebrity, and has been several 
times translated into Latin. Contemporary with Avicenna 
were numerous votaries of the alchemistical science, 
and almost every professor of medicine was an astrologer 
The influence of the stars upon the conditions of the human 
body was generally accepted as a first principle in medicine ; 
and the possible transmutation of metals engaged the 
attention of every enquiring intellect. At the same time, 
the Arabians were almost the sole depositaries of human 
knowledge ; and in the East glowed that steadily-shining 
light which, never utterly extinct, had withdrawn its 



Avlchi 



57 



Babau 



splendour and its glory from the classic lands of the West. 
" They cultivated with success," says Gibbon, " the sub- 
lime science of astronomy, which elevates the mind of man 
to disdain his diminutive planet and monentary existence." 
The names of Mesua and Geber, of Rhazis and Avicenna, 
are ranked with the Grecian masters ; in the city of Bagdad, 
eight hundred and sixty physicians were licensed to exercise 
their lucrative profession ; in Spain, the life of the Catholic 
princes was entrusted to the skill of the Saracens, and the 
school of Salerno, their legitimate offspring, revived in 
Italy and Europe the precepts of the healing art. 
Avichi : is the Theosophic hell. Though it is a place 
of torment, it differs in great degree from the ordinary 
conception of hell. Its torments are the torments of fleshly 
cravings, which for want of a physical body, cannot be 
satisfied. A man remains after death exactly the same 
■entity as he was before it, and, if in life, he has been ob- 
sessed with strong desires or passions, such obsession still 
continues, though, in the astral plane in which he finds 
Iiimself the satisfaction of these desires or passions is im- 
possible. Of course, the manner of these torments is 
infinite, whether it be the confirmed sensualist who suffers 
them, or more ordinary men who, without being bound 
to the things of the flesh 1 , have nevertheless allowed the 
affairs of the world to bulk too largely in their lives, and 
are now doomed to regret the small attention they have 
bestowed on higher matters. Avichi is a place of regrets 
for things done and things undone. Its torments are not, 
however, eternal, and with the passing of time — of which 
there is no measure in the astral plane — they are gradually 
discontinued, though at the cost of terrible suffering. 
Avidya in Theosophy is the ignorance of mind which 
causes man before starting on the Path to expend vain 
effort and pursue vain courses. It is the antithesis of Vidya. 
(See Path, and Vidya, and Theosophy.) 
Awyntyrs of Arthure at the Tern Wathelyn : an Ar- 
thurian poem of the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries. It 
is believed to be of Scottish origin, but its authorship is 
doubtful. Amongst other adventures, the poem relates 
one which King Arthur and his queen Guinevere, accom- 
panied by their favourite knight Sir Gawane, had whilst 
hunting in the wilds of Cumberland. They were overtaken 
by darkness, while separated from the rest of the party, 
and the ghost of the queen's mother appears to them. The 
apparition tells of the torments to which it is being sub- 
jected, and entreats that prayers will be offered up for its 
release. This the queen and Sir Gawane promise, and on 
their return to Carlisle millions of masses are ordered to 
be sung on its behalf. 
Axinomancy : Divination by means of a hatchet or a 
woodcutter's axe. It is by this form of divination that 
the diviners predicted the ruin of Jerusalem, as is seen 



from Psalm LXXIII. Francois de la Tour-Blanche, who 
remarked upon this, does not tell us how the diviners made 
use of the hatchet. We can only suppose that it was by 
one of the two methods employed in ancient times and 
still practised in certain northern countries. The first is 
as follows : When it is desired to find a treasure, a round 
agate must be procured, the head of the axe must be made 
red-hot in the fire, and so placed that its edge may stand 
perpendicularly in the air. The agate must be placed on 
the edge. If it remains there, there is no treasure, if it 
falls, it will roll quickly away. It must, however, be re- 
placed three times, and if it rolls three times towards the 
same place, there the treasure will be found. If it rolls 
a different way each time, one must seek about for the 
treasure. 

The second method of divination by the axe is for the 
purpose of detecting robbers. The hatchet is cast on the 
ground, head-downwards, with the handle rising perpen- 
dicularly in the air. Those present must dance round it 
in a ring, till the handle of the axe totters and it falls to 
the ground. The end of the handle indicates the direction 
in which the thieves must be sought. It is said by some 
that if this divination is to succeed, the head of the axe 
must be stuck in a round pot, but this, as Delancre says, 
is absurd. For how could an axe be fixed in a round pot, 
any more than the pot could be sewed or patched if the 
axe had broken it to pieces ? 

Ayperor : A count of the infernal empire. (The same 
as Ipes.) 

Azael : One of the angels who revolted against God. 
The rabbis say that he is chained on sharp stones, in an 
obscure part of the desert, awaiting the last judgment. 

Azam, Dr. : (See Hypnotism). 

Azazel : A demon of the second order, guardian of the 
goat. At the feast of expiation, which the Jews celebrate 
on the tenth day of the seventh month, _two goats are led 
to the High Priest, who draws lots for them, the one for 
the Lord, the other for Azazel. The one on which the lot 
of the Lord fell was sacrificed, and his blood served for 
expiation. The High Priest then put his two hands on 
the head of the other, confessed his sins and those of the 
people, charged the animal with them, and allowed him 
to be led into the desert and set free. And the people, 
having left the care of their iniquities to the goat of Azazel 
■ — also kijgwn as the scape-goat — return home with clean 
consciences. According to Milton, Azazel is the principal 
standard-bearer of the infernal armies. It is also the name 
of the demon used by Mark the heretic for his magic spells. 

Azer : An angel of the elemental fire. Azer is also the 
name of the father of Zoroaster. 

Azoth : (See Philosopher's Stone). 

Aztecs : {See Mexico and Central America). 



B 



Ba : The Egyptian conception of the soul, which in the form 
of a man-headed bird left the body after death and winged 
its flight to the gods. It returned at intervals to the 
mummy for the purpose of comforting it and reassuring it 
concerning immortality. Sometimes it grasps the ankh 
(q.v.) and the nif (q.v.) and is occasionally represented 
as flying down the tomb-shaft to the deceased, or perched 
on the breast of the mummy. It was sometimes carved on 
the lid of mummv cases. In the Book oj the Dead a chapter 
promises abundance of food to the Ba, so that the 
conception does not appear to have been entirely 
spiritual. 

Baalberith : According to Wierins, a demon of the second 
order ; master of the Infernal Alliance. He is said to be 
secretary and keeper of the archives of Hell. 



Baalzephon : Captain of the guard and sentinels of Hell, 
according to Wierius. 

Baaras: A marvellous plant known to the Arabs as the 
" Golden Plant," and which is supposed to grow on Mount 
Libanus, underneath the road which leads to Damascus. 
It is said to flower in the month of May, after the melting 
of the snow. At night it can be been by torchlight, but 
through the day it is invisible. It was held to be of great 
assistance to alchemists in the transmutation of metals. 
It is alluded to by Josephus. (Lib. VIII., Chap. 25.) 

Baban : A species of ogre with which the nurses in the central 
parts of France used to frighten their charges. He was 
supposed to devour naughty children in salad. The ending 
" au " suggests a Celtic origin. For example, " Y Mamau," 
the Welsh for " fairies." 



Babiagora 



58 



Babylonia 



Babiagora : Certain lakes of a gloomy nature, which lie be- 
tween Hungary and Poland, which have figured in various 
stories of witchcraft. Pools, such as these, are often used 
for purposes of divination, as by gazing down into clear 
water the mind is disposed to contemplation, often of a 
melancholy character. This form of divination is termed 
" Hydromarrcy " (q.v.) and is similar to crystal-gazing. 

Babylonia : The conservative element in the religion of 
Babylonia was one of its most marked and interesting 
features. All the deities retained, even after they reached 
their highest development, traces of their primitive de- 
moniac characters, and magic was never divorced from 
religion. The most outstanding gods were Ea, Ann and 
Enlil, the eider Bel. These formed a triad at the dawn 
of history, and appear to have developed from an animistic 
group of world spirits. Although Ea became specialised 
as a god of the deep, Anu as a god of the sky, and Enlil 
as an earth god, each had also titles which emphasised 
that they had attributes overlapping those of the others. 
Thus Ea was Enki, earth lord, and as Aa was a lunar deity, 
and he had also solar attributes. In the legend of Etana 
and the Eagle, his heaven is stated to be in the sky. Anu 
and Enlil as deities of thunder, rain and fertility, linked 
closely with Ea, as Dagan, of the flooding and fertilising 
Euphrates. Each of these deities were accompanied by- 
demon groups. The spirits of disease were the " beloved 
sons of Bel " ;. the fates were the seven daughters of Anu ; 
the seven storm demons, including the dragon and serpent, 
were of Ea's brood. In one of the magical incantations 
translated by Mr. R. C. Thompson, occurs the following 
description of Ea's primitive monster form : 

The head is the head of a serpent. 
From his nostrils mucus trickles, 
The mouth is beslavered with water ; 
The ears are those of a basilisk, 
His horns are twisted into three curls, 
He wears a veil in his head-band. 
The body is a sun-fish full of stars. 
The base of his feet are claws, 
The sole of his foot has no heel ; 
His name is Sassu-wunnu, 
A sea monster, a form of Ea. 

Ea was " the great magician of the gods " ; his sway over 
the forces of nature was secured by the performance of 
magical rites, and his services were obtained by mankind, 
who performed requisite ceremonies and repeated appro- 
priate spells. Although he might be worshipped and 
propitiated in his temple at Eridu, he could also be con- 
jured in reed huts. The latter indeed appear to have been 
the oldest holy places. In the Deluge myth, he makes a 
revelation in a dream to his human favourite, Pir-napishtim, 
the Babylonian Noah, of the approaching disaster planned 
by the gods, by addressing the reed hut in which he slept : 
" O, reed hut, hear ; O, wall, understand." The sleeper 
received the divine message from the reeds. The reeds 
were to the Babylonian what rowan branches were to 
northern Europeans : they protected them against demons. 
The dead were buried wrapped in reed mats. 

When the official priesthood came into existence it in- 
cluded two classes of magicians, the " Ashipu," who were 
exorcists, and the " Mashmashu," the " purifiers." The 
Ashipu priests played a prominent part in ceremonies, 
which had for their object the magical control of nature : 
in times of storm, disaster, and eclipse they were especially 
active. They also took the part of " witch doctors." 
Victims of disease were supposed to be possessed of devour- 
ing' demons : 



Loudly roaring above, gibbering below, 

They are the bitter venom of the gods. . . 

Knowing no care, they grind the land like corn ; 

Knowing no mercy, they rage against mankind, 

They spill their blood like rain. 

Devouring their flesh and sucking their veins. 
(Thompson's translation.) 
It was the business of the Ashipu priests to drive out the 
demon. Before he could do so he had to identify it. 
Having done so, he required next to bring it under his 
influence. This he accomplished by reciting its history 
and detailing its characteristics. The secret of the magic- 
ian's power was his knowledge. To cure toothache, for 
instance, it was necessary to know the " Legend of the 
Worm," which, vampire-like, absorbed the blood of victims, 
but specialised in gums. The legend relates that the worm 
came into existence as follows : Anu created the heaven, 
the heavens created the earth, the earth created the rivers, 
and the rivers created the canals, then the canals created 
marshes, and the marshes created the " worm." In due 
time the worm appeared before Shamash, the sun god, and 
Ea, god of the deep, weeping and hungry. " What will 
you give me to eat and drink ? " it cried. The gods 
promised that it would get dried bones and scented wood. 
Apparently the worm realised that this was the " food of 
death," for it made answer : " What are dry bones to me ? 
Set me upon the gums that I may drink the blood of the 
teeth and take away the strength of the gums." When 
the worm heard this legend repeated, it came under the 
magician's power, and was dismissed to the marshes, while 
Ea was invoked to smite it. Different demons were 
exorcised by different processes. A fever patient might 
receive the following treatment : 
Sprinkle this man with water. 
Bring unto him a censer and a torch, 
That the plague demon which resteth in the body of the man, 
Like water may trickle away. 

Another method was to fashion a figure of dough, wax, 
clay or pitch. This figure might be placed on a fire or 
mutilated, or placed in running water to be washed away. 
As the figure suffered, so did the demon it represented. 

By the magic of the word of Ea. 
A third method was to release a raven at the bedside of the 
sick man so that it would conjure the demon of fever to take 
flight likewise. Sacrifices were also offered, as substitutes 
for patients, to provide food for the spirit of the disease. 
A kid was slain and the priest muttered, 

The kid is the substitute for mankind ; 

He hath given the kid for his life, 

He hath given the head of the kid for the head of the 
man. 
A pig might be offered : 

Give the pig in his stead 
And give the flesh of it for his flesh, 
The blood of it for his blood, etc. 
The cures were numerous and varied. After the patient 
recovered the house was purified by the " mashmashu" 
priests. The ceremony entailed the sprinkling of sacred 
water, the burning of incense, and the repetition of magical 
charms. Houses were also protected against attack, by 
placing certain plants over the doorways and windows. 
An ass's halter seems to have been used, as horse-shoes have 
been in Europe, to repel witches and evil spirits. 

The purification ceremonies suggest the existence of 
taboo. For a period a sick man was " unclean " and had 
to be isolated. To each temple was attached a " House 
of Light " in which fire ceremonies were performed, and 
a " House of Washing " where patients bathed in sacred 
water. Oil was also used as anointment to complete the 





Types of Babylonian demons 

The demon was a very real presence in Babylonian life. 
Extraordinary care was taken not to offend the beings 
of the unseen world and nowhere did the art of exorcism 
reach a higher state of evolution than in Babylonia and 
Assyria. The prototypes of European demonology can be 
traced in these figures. 



A Babylonian demon 
(British Museum, No. 22458) 









Bk^'-- ; ' \ 
















Clay model of a sheep's liver 
used in divination (Babylon, c. 2,000 B.C.) 



Exorcizing demons of disease (Babylon) 



BABYLONIAN MAGICAL OBJECTS 



[face p. 58 



Babylonia 



r,9 



Bacon 



release from uncleanness. foods were also tabooed at 
certain seasons. It was unlawful for a man to eat pork 
on the 30th of Ab (July-August) or the 27th of Tisri, and 
other dates. Fish, ox flesh, bread, etc. were similarly 
tabooed on specific dates. A man's luck depended greatly 
on his observance of these rules. But although he might 
observe all ceremonies, he might still meet with ill-fortune 
on unlucky days. On the festival day of Marduk 
(Merodach) a man must not change his clothes nor put on 
white garments, nor offer up sacrifices. Sure disaster 
would overcome a king if he drove out in a chariot, or a 
physician if he laid hands on the sick, or a priest who sat 
in judgment, and so on. On lucky days good fortune was 
the heritage of everyone. Good fortune meant good health 
in many cases, and it was sometimes assured by worship- 
ping the dreaded spirit of disease called Ura. A legend 
related that this demon once made up his mind to destroy 
all mankind. His counsellor Ishun, however, prevailed 
upon him to change his mind, and he said, " Whoever will 
laud my name I will bless with plenty. No one will oppose 
the person who proclaims the glory of my valour. The 
worshipper who chants the hymn of praise to me will not 
be afflicted by disease, and he will find favour in the eyes 
of the King and his nobles." 

Ghosts. — Among the spirits who were the enemies of 
mankind the ghosts of the dead were not the least virulent, 
and especially the ghosts of those who had not been prop- 
erly buried. These homeless spirits (the grave was the 
home of the dead) wandered about the streets searching 
for food and drink, or haunted houses. Not infrequently 
they did real injury to mankind. Of horrible aspect, they 
appeared before children and frightened them to death. 
They waylaid travellers and mocked those who were in 
sorrow. The scritch-owl was a mother who had died in 
childbed and wailed her grief nightly in solitary places. 
Occasionally she appeared in monstrous form and slew 
wayfarers. Adam's " first wife Lilith " was a demon who 
had once been beautiful and was in the habit of deceiving 
lovers, and working ill against them. A hag, Labartu, 
haunted mountains and marshes and children had to be 
charmed against her attacks. She also had a human his- 
tory. The belief that the spirits of the dead could be 
conjured from their graves to make revelations was also 
prevalent in Babylonia. In the Gilgamesh epic, the hero 
visits the tomb of his old friend and fellow-warrior Ea-Bani. 
The ghost rises like a " weird gust " and answers the 
various questions addressed to it with great sadness. 
Babylonian outlook on the future life was tinged by pro- 
found gloom and pessimism. It was the fate of even the 
ghosts of the most fortunate and ceremonially buried dead 
to exist in darkness and amidst dust. The ghost of Ea- 
Bani said to Gilgamesh : 

" Were I to inform thee the law of the underworld 

which I have experienced. 
Thou wouldest sit down and shed tears all day 

long." 
Gilgamesh lamented : 

" The sorrow of the underworld hath taken hold upon 

thee." 
Priests who performed magical ceremonies had to be 
clothed in magical garments. They received inspiration 
from their clothing. Similarly the gods derived power 
from the skins of animals with which they were associated 
from the earliest time. Thus Ea was clad in the skin of 
the fish — probably the fish totem of the Ea tribe. 

The dead were not admitted to the heavens of the gods. 
When a favoured human being, like Utnapishtim, the 
Babylonian Noah, joined the company of the gods, he. 
had assigned to him an island Paradise where Gilgamesh 
visited him. There he dwelt with his wife. Gilgamesh 



was not permitted to land, and held converse with his 
immortal ancestor, sitting in his boat. The deities se- 
cured immortality by eating the " food of life " and 
drinking the " water of life." Donald Mackenzie. 

Bacchic Mysteries : (See Greece). 

Bachelor : The name given to his satanic majesty, when 
he appeared in the guise of a great he-goat, for the purpose 
of love intercourse with the witches. 

Bacis : A famous augur of Beotia. Many persons who 
ventured to predict the future adopted the name of Bacis. 

Bacon, Roger, was born near Ilchester in Somerset, in 
1 2 14. In his boyhood he displayed remarkable precocity, 
and in due time, having entered the order of St. Francis, 
he studied mathematics and medicine in Oxford and Paris. 
Returning to England, he devoted attention to philosophy 
and also wrote Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Grammars. He 
was a pioneer of astronomy and was acquainted with the 
properties of lenses, so that he may have foreshadowed 
the telescope. In the region of the mechanical sciences, 
his prophecies are noteworthy since he not only speaks 
of boats which may be propelled without oars, but of cars 
which may move without horses, and even of machines 
to fly in the air. To him we are indebted for important 
discoveries in the science of pure chemistry. His name 
is for ever associated with the making of gunpowder, and 
if the honour cannot be wholly afforded him, his experi- 
ments with nitre were at least a far step towards the dis- 
covery. His study of alchemical subjects led him, as was 
natural, to a belief in the philosopher's stone by which 
gold might be purified to a degree impossible by any other 
means, and also to a belief in the elixir of life whereby on 
similar principles of purification, the human body might 
be fortified against death itself. Not only might man 
become practically immortal by such means but, by know- 
ledge of the appropriate herbs, or by acquaintance with 
planetary influences, he might attain the same consum- 
mation. As was natural in an ignorant age, Bacon was 
looked on with considerable suspicion which ripened into 
persecution. The brethren of his order practically cast 
him' out, and he was compelled to retire to Paris, and to 
submit himself to a regime of repression. A prolific pen- 
man, he was forbidden to write, and it was not till 1266 
that Guy de Foulques, the papal legate in England — sub- 
sequently Pope Clement TV. — hearing of Bacon's fame, 
invited him to break his enforced silence. Bacon hailed 
the opportunity and in spite of hardship and poverty, 
finished his Opus Majus, Opus Minus and Opus Tertium. 
These works seem to have found favour with Clement, 
for the writer was allowed to return to Oxford, there 
to continue his scientific studies and the composition of 
scientific works. He essayed a compendium of philosophy 
of which a part remains, but its subject-matter was 
displeasing to the ruling powers and Bacon's misfortunes 
began afresh. His books were burned and again he was 
thrown into prison, where he remained for fourteen years, 
and during that period it is probable that he continued to 
write. About 1292 he was again at liberty, and within 
the next few years — probably in 1294 — he died. Bacon's 
works were numerous and, while many still remain in 
manuscript, about a dozen have been printed at various 
times. Many are obscure treatises on alchemy and deserve 
little attention, but the works he wrote by invitation of 
Clement are the most important. The Opus Majus is 
divided into six parts treating of the causes of error, the 
relation between philosophy and theology, the utility of 
grammar, mathematics, perspective and experimental 
science. The Opus Minus, of which only part has been 
preserved, was intended to be a summary of the former 
work. The Opus Tertium though written after the other 
two, is an introduction to them, and also in part supple- 



Bacon 



60 



Bacon 



mentary to them. These works, large though they be, 
seem to have been only the forerunners of a vast work 
treating of the principles of all the sciences, which, however, 
was probably little more than begun. Much of Bacon's 
work and many of his beliefs must, of course, be greatly 
discounted, but judging the man in relation to his time, 
the place he takes is a high one. His devotion to the 
experimental sciences was the point wherein he differed 
from most from his contemporaries, and to this devotion 
is to be accounted the fame which he then possessed and 
still possess. 

But no sketch of Bacon's life would be complete without 
some account of the legendary material which has gathered 
around his name, and by virtue of which he holds rank as 
a, great magician in the popular imagination. When, in 
the sixteenth century, the study of magic was pursued 
with increased zeal, the name of Friar Bacon became 
more popular, and not only were the traditions worked 
up into a popular book, entitled The History of Friar 
Bacon, but one of the dramatists of the age, Robert Green, 
founded upon them a play, which was often acted, and 
of which there are several editions. The greater part of 
the history of Friar Bacon, as far as it related to that cele- 
brated personage, is evidently the invention of the writer, 
who appears to have lived in the time of Queen Elizabeth ; 
he adopted some of the older traditions, and filled up his 
narrative with fables taken from the common story books 
of the age. We are here first made acquainted with two 
other legendary conjurers, Friars Bungay and Vander- 
mast ; and the recital is enlivened with the pranks of 
Bacon's servant Miles. 

According to this legendary history, Roger Bacon was 
the son of a wealthy farmer in the West of England, who 
had placed his son with the parish priest to gain a little 
scholarship. The boy soon showed an extraordinary 
ability for learning, which was encouraged by the priest, 
but which was extremely disagreeable to the father, who 
intended him for no other profession but that of the plough. 
Young Bacon fled from home, and took shelter in a monas- 
tery, where he followed his studies to his heart's content, 
and was eventually sent to complete them at Oxford. 
There he made himself a proficient in the occult sciences, 
and attained to the highest proficiency in magic. At 
length he had an opportunity of exhibiting his skill before 
the court, and the account of his exploits on this occasion 
may be given as a sample of the style of this quaint old 
history. 

" The king being in Oxfordshire at a nobleman's house, 
was very desirous to see this famous friar, for he had heard 
many times of his wondrous things that he had done by 
his art, therefore he sent one for him to desire him to come . 
to the court. Friar Bacon kindly thanked the king by 
the messenger, and said that he was at the king's service 
and would suddenly attend him, 'but, sir,' saith he to 
the gentleman, ' I pray you make haste or else I shall be 
two hours before you at the court.' " For all 3'our learning", 
answered the gentleman, ' I can hardly believe this, for 
scholars, old men, and travellers, may lie by authority.' 
' To strengthen your belief ' said Friar Bacon, ' I could 
presently show you the last wench that you kissed withal, 
but I will not at this time.' ' One is as true as the other,' 
said the gentleman, ' and I would laugh to see either.' 
' You shaD see them both within these four hours,' quoth 
the friar, ' and therefore make what haste you can.' ' I 
will prevent that by my speed,' said the gentleman, and 
with that he rid his way ; but he rode out of his way, as 
it should seem, for he had but five miles to ride, and yet 
was he better than three hours a-riding them, so that Friar 
Bacon by his art was with the king before he came. 

" The king kindly welcomed him, and said that he long 



time had desired to see him, for he had as yet not heard 
of his like. Friar Bacon answered him, that fame had 
belied him, and given him that report that his poor studies 
had never deserved, for h~ believed that art had many 
sons more excellent than himself was. The king com- 
mended him for his modesty, and told him that nothing 
could, become a wise man less than boasting : but yet 
withal he requested him now to be no niggard of his know- 
ledge, but to show his queen and him some of his skill 
' I were worthy of neither art or knowledge,' quoth Friar 
Bacon, ' should I deny your majesty this small request ; I 
pray seat yourselves, and you shall see presently what 
my poor skill can perform.' The king, queen, and nobles 
sat them all down. They having done so, the friar waved 
his wand, and presently was heard such excellent music, 
that they were all amazed, for they all said they had never 
heard the like. ' This is,' said the friar, ' to delight the 
sense of hearing, — I will delight all your other senses ere 
you depart hence.' So waving his wand again, there was 
louder music heard, and presently five dancers entered, 
the first like a court laundress, the second like a footman, 
the third like a usurer, the fourth like a prodigal, the fifth 
like a fool. These did divers excellent changes, so that 
they gave content to all the beholders, and having done 
their dance they all vanished away in their order as they 
came in. Thus feasted two of their senses. Then waved he 
his wand again, and there was another kind of music heard, 
and whilst it was playing, there was suddenly before them 
a table, richly covered with all sorts of delicacies. Then 
desired he the king and queen to taste of some certain rare 
fruits that were on the table, which they and the nobles 
there present did, and were very highly pleased with the 
taste ; they - being satisfied, all vanished away on the 
sudden. Then waved he his wand again, and suddenly 
there was such a smell, as if all the rich perfumes in the 
whole world had been then prepared in the best manner 
that art could set them out. Whilst he feasted thus their 
smelling, he waved his wand again, and there came divers 
nations in sundry habits, as Russians, Polanders, Indians, 
Armenians, all bringing sundry kinds of furs, such as their 
countries yielded, all which they presented to the king 
and queen. These furs were so soft to the touch that they 
highly pleased all those that handled them. Then, after 
some odd fantastic dances, after their country manner, 
they vanished away. Then asked Friar Bacon the king's 
majesty if that he desired any more of his skill. The king 
answered that he was fully satisfied for that time, and that 
he only now thought of something that he might bestow 
on him, that might partly satisfy the kindness he had re- 
ceived. Friar Bacon said that he desired nothing so much 
as his majesty's love, and if that he might be assured of 
that, he would think himself happy in it. ' For that,' 
said the king. ' be thou ever sure, in token of which 
receive this jewel,' and withal gave him a costly jewel 
from his neck. The friar did with great reverence thank 
his majesty, and said, ' As your majesty's vassal you shall 
ever find me ready to do you service ; your time of need 
shall find it both beneficial and delightful. But amongst 
all these gentlemen I see not the man that your grace did 
send for me by ; sure he hath lost his way, or else met with 
some sport that detains him so long ; I promised to be 
here before him, and all this noble assembly can witness 
I am as good as my word — I hear him coming. With 
that entered the gentleman, all bedirted, for he had rid 
through ditches, quagmires, plashes, and waters, that he 
was in a most pitiful case. He, seeing the friar there, 
looked full angrily, and bid a plague on all his devils, for 
they had led him out of his way, and almost drowned him. 
' Be not angry, sir,' said Friar Bacon, ' here is an old friend 
of yours that hath more cause, for she hath tarried these 



Bacon 



61 



Bacon 



three hours for you,' — with that he pulled up the hangings, 
and behind him stood a kitchen-maid with a basting- 
ladle in her hand — ' now am I as good as my word with 
you, for I promised to help you to your sweetheart, — 
how do you like this ? ' ' So ill,' answered the gentleman, 
' that I will be avenged of you.' ' Threaten not,' said 
Friar Bacon, ' lest I do you more shame, and do you take 
heed how you give scholars the lie again ; but because I 
know not how well you are stored with money at this time, 
I will bear your wench's charges home.' With that she 
vanished away." 

This may be taken as a sort of exemplification of the 
class of exhibitions which were probably the result of a 
superior knowledge of natural science, and which were 
exaggerated by popular imagination. They had been 
made, to a certain degree, familiar by the performances 
of the skilful jugglers who came from the east, and who 
were scattered throughout Europe ; and we read not un- 
frequently of such magical feats in old writers. When 
the Emperor Charles IV. was married in the middle of the 
fourteenth century to the Bavarian Princess Sophia in the 
city of Prague, the father of the princess brought a waggon- 
load of magicians to assist in the festivities. Two of the 
chief proficients in the art, Zytho the great Bohemian 
sorcerer, and Gouin the Bavarian, were pitted against 
each other, and we are told that after a desperate trial of 
skill, Zytho, opening his jaws from ear to ear, ate up his 
rival without stopping till he came to his shoes, which he 
spit out, because, as he said, they had not been cleaned. 
After having performed this strange feat, he restored the 
unhappy sorcerer to life again. The idea of contests like 
this seems to have been taken from the scriptural narrative 
of the contention of the Egyptian magicians against Moses. 

The greater number of Bacon's exploits are mere adapta- 
tions of mediaeval stories, but they show, nevertheless, 
what was the popular notion of the magician's character. 
Such is the story of the gentleman who, reduced to poverty 
and involved in debt, sold himself to the evil one, on 
condition that he was to deliver himself up as soon as his 
debts were paid. As may be imagined without much 
difficulty, he was not in haste to satisfy his creditors, but 
at length the time came when he could put them off no 
longer, and then, in his despair, he would have committed 
violence on himself had not his hand been arrested by 
Bacon. The latter, when he had heard the gentleman's 
story, directed him to repair to the place appointed for his 
meeting with the evil one, to deny the devil's claim, and to 
refer for judgment to the first person who should pass 
" In the morning, after that he had blessed himself, he 
went to the wood, where he found the devil ready for him. 
So soon as he came near, the devil said : ' Now, deceiver, 
are you come ? Now shall thou see that I can and will 
prove that thou hast paid all thy debts, and therefore thy 
soul belongest to me.' ' Thou art a deceiver,' said the 
gentleman, ' and gavest me money to cheat me of my soul, 
for else why wilt thou be thine own judge ? — let me have 
some others to judge between us.' ' Content,' said the 
devil, ' take whom thou wilt.' ' Then I will have,' said 
the gentleman, ' the next man that cometh this way.' 
Hereto the devil agreed. No sooner were these words 
ended, but Friar Bacon came by, to whom this gentleman 
spoke, and' requested that he would be judge in a 
weighty matter between them two. The friar said he 
was content, so both parties were agreed ; the devil told 
Friar Bacon how the case stood between them in this 
manner. ' Know, friar, that I seeing this prodigal like 
to starve for want of food, lent him money, not only to buy 
him victuals, but also to redeem his lands and pay his 
debts, conditionally that so soon as his debts were paid, 
that he should give himself freely to me ; to this, here is 



his hand ' — showing him the bond. ' Now, my time is- 
expired, for all his debts are paid, which he cannot deny.' 
' This case is plain, if it be so that his debts are paid.' 
' His silence confirms it,' said the devil, ' therefore give 
him a just sentence.' ' I will,' said Friar Bacon, ' but 
first tell me,' — speaking to the gentleman — ' didst thou 
never yet give the devil any of his money back, nor requite 
him in any ways ? ' ' Never had he anything of me as yet,' 
answered the gentleman. ' Then never let him have 
anything of thee, and thou art free. Deceiver of man- 
kind,' said he, speaking to the devil, ' it was thy bargain 
never to meddle with him so long as he was indebted to 
any ; now how canst thou demand of him anything when 
he is indebted for all that he hath to thee ? When he- 
payeth thee thy money, then take him as thy due ; till, 
then thou hast nothing to do with him, and so I charge 
thee to be gone.' At this the devil vanished with great 
horror, but Friar Bacon comforted the gentleman, and 
sent him home with a quiet conscience, bidding him never 
to pay the devil's money back, as he valued his own 
safety." 

Bacon now met with a companion, Friar Bungay, whose 
tastes and pursuits were congenial to his own, and with his 
assistance he undertook the exploit for which he was most 
famous. He had a fancy that he would defend England 
against its enemies, by walling it with brass, preparatory 
to which they made a head of that metal. Their intent 
was to make the head speak, for which purpose they raised 
a spirit in a wood, by whose directions they made a fumi- 
gation, to which the head was to be exposed during a month, 
and to be carefully watched, because if the two friars did 
not hear it before it had ceased speaking, their labour 
would be lost. Accordingly, the care of watching over 
the head while they slept was entrusted to Bacon's man 
Miles. The period of utterance unfortunately came while 
Miles was watching. The head suddenly uttered the two- 
words, " Time is." Miles thought it was unnecessary to 
disturb his master for such a brief speech, and sat still. 
In half an hour, the head again broke silence with the 
words, " Time was." Still Miles waited until, in another 
half hour, the head said, " Time is past," and fell to the 
ground with a terrible noise. Thus, through the negligence 
of Miles, the labour of the two friars was thrown away. 

The king soon required Friar Bacon's services, and the 
latter enabled him, by his perspective and burning-glasses, 
to take a town which he was besieging. In consequence 
of this success, the kings of England and France made 
peace, and a grand court was held, at which the German 
conjurer, Vandermast, was brought to try his skill against 
Bacon. Their performances were something ■ in the style 
of Bacon's former exhibition before the king and queen. 
Vandermast, in revenge, sent a soldier to kill Bacon, but 
in vain. Next follow a series of adventures which consist 
of a few mediaeval stories very clumsily put together among 
which are that known as the Friar and the Boy, that 
which appeared in Scottish verse, under the title of The 
Friars of Berwick, a tale taken from the Gesta Romanorum, 
and some others. A contention in magic between Vander- 
mast and Bungay, ended in the deaths of both. The 
servant Miles next turned conjurer, having got hold of 
one of Bacon's books, and escaped with a dreadful fright, 
and a broken leg. Everything now seemed to go wrong. 
Friar Bacon " had a gla c s which was of that excellent 
nature that any man might behold anything that he 
desired to see within the compass of fifty miles round about 
him." In this glass he used to show people what their 
relations and friends were doing, or where they were. 
One day two young gentlemen of high birth came to look 
into the glass, and they beheld their fathers desperately 
fighting together, upon which they drew their swords and 



Bacoti 



62 



Banshee 



slew each other. Bacon was so shocked that he broke his 
glass, and hearing about the same time of the deaths of 
Vandermast and Bungay, he became melancholy, and at 
length he burnt his books of magic, distributed his wealth 
among poor scholars and others, and became an anchorite. 
Thus ended the life of Friar Bacon, according to " the 
famous history," which probably owed most of its incidents 
to the imagination of the writer. 

Bacoti : A common name for the augurs and sorcerers of 
Tonquin. They are often consulted by the friends of 
deceased persons for the purpose of holding communication 
with them. 

Backstrom, Dr. Sigismund : (See Rosierucians). 

Bad : A Jinn of Persia who is supposed to have command 
over the winds and tempests. He presides over the 
twenty-second day of the month. 

Badger : To bury the foot of a badger underneath one's 
sleeping-place is believed by the Voodoo worshippers and 
certain Gypsy tribes to excite or awaken love. 

Bael : A demon cited in the Grand Grimoire (q.v.), and head 
of the infernal powers. It is with him that Wierius com- 
mences his inventory of the famous Pseudonomarchia 
Daemonum. He alludes to Bael as the first monarch of hell, 
and says that his estates are situated on the eastern regions 
thereof. -He has three heads, one, that of a crab, another 
that of a cat, and the third that of a man. Sixty-six legions 
obey him. 

Bagoe : A pythoness, who is believed to have been the 
Erithryean sibyl. She is said to have been the first woman 
to have practised the diviner's art. She practised in 
Tuscany, and judged all events by the sound of thunder. 

Bagommedes : a knight mentioned by Gautier in the 
Conte du Graal. It is said that he was fastened to a tree 
by Kay and left hanging head downwards, until released 
by Perceval. On Bagommede's return to the court he 
challenged Kay, but was prevented by Arthur from 
slaying him. 

Bahaman : A jinn who, according to Persian tradition, 
appeased anger, and in consequence governed oxen, sheep, 
and all animals of a peaceful disposition. 

Bahir : (" Brightness.") A mystical Hebrew treatise of 
the twelfth or thirteenth century, the work of a French 
rabbi, by name Isaac ben Abraham of Posquieres, com- 
monly called " Isaac the Blind." {See Kabala). 

Baian : son of Simeon, King of the Bulgarians, and a 
mighty magician, who could transform himself into a wolf 
whenever he desired. He could also adopt other shapes 
and render himself invisible. He is alluded to by Ninauld 
in his Lycanthropie (page 100). 

Balan : A monarch great and terrible among the infernal 
powers, according to Wierius. He has three heads, those 
of a bull, a man, and a ram. Joined to these is the tail 
of a serpent, the eyes of which burn with fire. He be- 
strides an enormous bear. He commands forty of the 
infernal legions, and rules over finesse, ruses and middle 
courses. 

BalasiUS : To describe this stone in fewer words than 
Leonardus has used would be impossible. It is " of a 
purple or rosy colour, and by some is Galled the placidus 
or pleasant. Some think it is the carbuncle diminished 
in its colour and virtue ; just as the virtue of the female 
differs from that of the male. It is often found that the 
external part of one and the same stone appears a balasius, 
and the internal a carbuncle, from whence comes the saying 
that the balasius is the carbuncle's house. The virtue of 
the balasius is to overcome and repress vain thoughts and 
luxury ; to reconcile quarrels among friends ; and it be- 
friends the human body with a good habit of health. Being 
bruised and drunk with water, it relieves infirmities in the 
eyes, and gives help in disorders of the liver ; and what 



is still more surprising, if you touch the four corners of a 
house, garden or vineyard, with the balasius, it will preserve 
them from lightning, tempest, and worms." 

Baleoin, Marie : a sorceress of the country of Labour, 
who attended the infernal Sabbath in the reign of Henry IV 
of France. In the indictment against her it was brought 
forward that she had eaten at the Sabbatic meeting the 
ear of a little child. For her numerous sorceries she was 
condemned to be burnt. 

Balkan Peninsula : See Slavs ; Greece, Modern ; Vampire, etc. 

Ballou, Adin : A Universalist minister who in 1842 
formed the Hopedale Community (q.v.). He was one of 
those whose doctrines prepared the way for spiritualism 
in America, and who, after that movement had been in- 
augurated, became one of its most enthusiastic protago- 
nists (See America, U.S. of). 

Balor : a mighty King of the Formorians, usually styled 
" Balor of the Evil Eye," in Irish mythical tales. It was 
believed that he was able to destroy by means of an angry 
glance. When his eyelid became heavy with years, it is 
said that he had it raised by means of ropes and pulleys, 
so that he might continue to make use of his magical gift : 
but his grandson, Lugh, the Sun-god, crept near him one 
day when his eyelid had drooped momentarily, and slew 
him with a great stone which sank through his eye and 
brain. 

Balsa mo, Peter : (See Cagliostro). 

Baltazo : One of the demons who possessed a young woman 
of Laon, Nicole Aubry, in the year 1566. He went to sup 
with her husband, under the pretext of freeing her from 
demon-possession, which he did not accomplish. It was 
observed that at supper he did not drink, which shows that 
demons are averse to water. 

Baltus, Jean Francois : A learned Jesuit who died in 1743. 
In his Reply to the History of the Oracles of Fontenelle, pub- 
lished in Strasbourg in 1709, he affirmed that the oracles 
of the ancients were the work of demons, and that they 
were reduced to silence during the mission of Christ upon 
the earth. 

Banshee : An Irish supernatural being of the wraith type. 
The name implies " female fairy." She is usually the 
possession of a specific family, to a member or members 
of whom she appears before the death of one of them. 
Mr. Thistleton Dyer, writing on the Banshee says : 

" Unlike, also, many of the legendary beliefs of this kind, 
the popular accounts illustrative of it are related on the 
evidence of all sections of the communit3', many an en- 
lightened and well-informed advocate being enthusiastic 
in his vindication of its reality. It would seem, however, 
that no family which is not of an ancient and noble stock 
is honoured with this visit of the Banshee, and hence its 
non-appearance has been regarded as an indication of 
disqualification in this respect on the part of the person 
about to die. ' If I am rightly informed,' writes Sir Walter 
Scott, ' the distinction of a Banshee is only allowed to 
families of the pure Milesian stock, and is never ascribed 
to any descendant of the proudest Norman or the boldest 
Saxon who followed the banner of Strongbow, much less 
to adventurers of later dates who have obtained settlements 
in the Green Isle.' Thus, an amusing story is contained 
in an Irish elegy to the effect that on the death of one of 
the Knights of Kerry, when the Banshee was heard to 
lament his decease at Dingle — a seaport town, the property 
of those knights — all the merchants of this place were 
thrown into a state of alarm lest the mournful and ominous 
wailing should be a forewarning of the death of one of them, 
but, as the poet humorously points out, there was no 
necessity for them to be anxious on this point. Although, 
through misfortune, a family may be brought down from 
high estate to the rank of peasant tenants, the Banshee 



Banshee 



63 



Eaphomet 



never leaves nor forgets it till the last member has been 
gathered to his fathers in the churchyard. The Mac- 
Carthyn, O'Flahertys, Magraths, O'Neils, O'Rileys, O'Sulli- 
vans, O'Reardons, have their Banshees, though many 
representatives of these names are in abject poverty. 

" ' The Banshee,' says Mr. McAnally, ' is really a dis- 
embodied soul, that of one who in life was strongly at- 
tached to the family, or who had good reason to hate all 
its members. Thus, in different instances, the Banshee's 
song may be inspired by different motives. When the 
Banshee loves those she calls, the song is a low, soft chant, 
giving notice, indeed, of the close proximity of the angel 
of death, but with a tenderness of tone that reassures the 
one destined to die and comforts the survivors ; rather a 
welcome than a warning, and having in its tones a thrill 
of exultation, as though the messenger spirit were bringing 
glad tidings to him summoned to join the waiting throng 
of his ancesters.' To a doomed member of the family of 
the O'Reardons the Banshee generally appears in the form 
of a beautiful woman, ' and sings a song so sweetly solemn 
as to reconcile him to his approaching fate.' But if, during 
his lifetime, the Banthee was an enemy of the family, the 
cry is the scream of a fiend, howling with demoniac delight 
over the coming death agony of another of his foes. 

" Hence, in Ireland, the hateful 'Banshee ' is a source 
of dread to many a family against which she has an enmity. 
' It appears,' adds McAnally, ' that a noble family, whose 
name is still familiar in Mayo, is attended by a Banshee 
of this description — -the spirit of a young girl, deceived, and 
afterwards murdered by a former head of the family. With 
her dying breath she cursed her murderer, and promised 
she would attend him and his forever. After many years 
the chieftain reformed his ways, and his youthful crime 
was almost forgotten even by himself, when one night, as 
he and his family were seated by the fire, the most terrible 
shrieks were suddenly heard outside the castle walls. All, 
ran out, but saw nothing. During the night the screams 
continued as though the castle were besieged by demons, 
and the unhappy man recognised in the cry of the Banshee 
the voice of the young girl he had murdered. The next 
night he was assassinated by one of his followers, when 
again the wild unearthly screams were heard exulting over 
his fate. Since that night the ' hateful Banshee ' has, it 
is said, never failed to notify the family, with shrill cries 
of revengeful gladness, when the time of one of their number 
has arrived." 

" Among some of the recorded instances of the Banshee's 
appearance may be mentioned one related by Miss L?frau, 
the niece of Sheridan, in the Memoirs of her grandmother, 
Mrs. Frances Sheridan. From this account we gather that 
Miss Elizabeth Sheridan was a firm believer in the Banshee, 
and firmly maintained that the one attached to the Sheri- 
dan family was distinctly heard lamenting beneath the 
windows of the family residence before the news arrived 
from France of Mrs. Frances Sheridan's death at Blois. 
She added that a niece of Miss Sheridan made her very 
angry by observing that as Mrs. Frances Sheridan was by 
birth a Chamberlaine, a family of English extraction, she 
had no right to the guardianship of an Irish fairy, and that 
therefore the Banshee must have made a mistake. Then 
there is the well-known case related by Lady Fanshawe 
who tells us how, when on a visit in Ireland, she was a- 
wakened. at midnight by a loud scream outside her window. 
On looking out she saw a young and rather handsome 
woman, with dishevelled hair, who vanished before her 
eyes with another shriek. On communicating the circum- 
stance in the morning, her host replied, ' A near relation 
of mine died last night in the castle, and before such an 
event happens, the female spectre whom you have seen 
is always visible." 



" This weird apparition is generally supposed to assume 
the form of a woman, sometimes young, but more often 
old. She is usually attired in a loose white drapery, and 
her long ragged locks hang over her thin shoulders. As 
night time approaches she occasionally becomes visible, 
and pours forth her mournful wail — a sound said to re- 
semble the melancholy moaning of the wind. Oftentimes 
she is not seen but only heard, yet she is supposed to be 
always clearly discernible to the person upon whom she 
specially waits. Respecting the history of the Banshee, 
popular tradition in many instances accounts for its pres- 
ence as the spirit of some mortal woman whose destinies 
have become linked by some accident with those of the 
family she follows. It is related how the Banshee of the 
family of the O'Briens of Thomond was originally a woman 
who had been seduced by one of the chiefs of that race — 
an act of indiscretion which ultimately brought about 
her death." 

Bantu Tribes : (See Africa). 

Baphomet : The goat-idol of the Templars (q.v.) and the 
deity of the sorcerers' Sabbath. The name is composed 
of three abbreviations : Tern. ohp. Ab, Templi omnium 
hominum pads abhas, " the father of the temple of uni- , 
versal peace among men." Some authorities hold that 
the Baphomet was a monstrous head, others that it was 
a demon in the form of a goat. An account of a veritable 
Baphometic idol is as follows : " A pantheistic and magical 
figure of the Absolute. The torch placed between the two 
horns, represents the equilbrating intelligence of the triad. 
The goat's head, which is synthetic, and unites some char- 
acteristics of the dog, bull, and ass, represents the exclusive 
responsibility of matter and the expiation of bodily sins 
in the body. The hands are human, to exhibit the sanctity 
of labour ; they make the sign of esotericism above and 
below, to impress mystery on initiates, and they point at 
two lunar crescents, the upper being white and the lower 
black, to explain the correspondences of good and evil, 
mercy and justice. The lower part of the body is veiled, 
portraying the mysteries of universal generation, which 
is expressed solely by the symbol of the caduceus. The 
belly of the goat is scaled, and should be coloured green, 
the semicircle above should be blue ; the plumage, reaching 
to the breast, should be of various hues. The goat has 
female breasts, and thus its only human characteristics 
are those of maternity and toil, otherwise the signs of 
redemption. On its forehead, between the horns and 
beneath the torch, is the sign of the microcosm, or the 
pentagram with one beam in the ascendant, symbol of 
human intelligence, which, placed thus below the torch, 
makes the flame of the latter an image of divine revelation. 
This Pantheos should be seated on a cube, and its foot- 
stool should be a single ball, or a ball and a triangular 
stool." 

Wright (Narratives of Sorcery and Magic), writing on 
the Baphomet says : — " Another charge in the accusation 
of the Templars seems to have been to a great degree proved 
by the depositions of witnesses ; the idol or head which 
they are said to have worshipped,' but the real character 
or meaning of which we are totally unable to explain. 
Many Templars confessed to having seen this idol, but as 
they described it differently; we must suppose that it was 
not in all cases represented under the same form. Some 
said it was a frightful head, with long beard and sparkling 
eyes ; others said it was a man's skull ; some described 
it as having three faces ; some said it was of wood, and 
others of metal ; one witness described it as a painting 
(tabula picta) representing the image a man (imago 
hominis) and said that when it was shown to him, he was 
ordered to ' adore Christ, his creator.' According to some 
it was a gilt figure, either of wood or metal ; while others 



Baphomet 



64 



Bassantin 



described it as painted black and white. According to 
another deposition, the idol had four feet, two before and 
two behind ; the one belonging to the order at Paris, was 
said to be a silver head, with two faces and a beard. The 
novices of the order were told always to regard this idol 
as their saviour. Deodatus Jaffet, a knight from the south 
of France, who had been received at Pedenat, deposed 
that the person who in his case performed the ceremonies 
of reception, showed him a head or idol, which appeared 
to have three faces, and said, ' You must adore this as your 
saviour, and the saviour of the order of the Temple ' and 
that he was made to worship the idol, saying, ' Blessed 
be he who shall save my soul.' Cettus Ragonis, a knight 
received at Rome in a chamber of the palace of the Lateran, 
gave a somewhat similar account. Many other witness s 
spoke of having seen these heads, which, however, were, 
perhaps, not shown to everybody, for the greatest number 
of those who spoke on this subject, said that they had 
heard speak of the head, but that they had never seen it 
themselves ; and many of them declared their disbelief 
in its existence. A friar minor deposed in England that 
an English Templar had assured him that in that country 
the order had four principal idols, one at London, in the 
Sacristy of the Temple, another at Bristelham, a third at 
Brueria (Bruern in Lincolnshire), and a fourth beyond 
the Humber. 

" Some of the knights from the south added another 
circumstance in their confessions relating to this head. 
A templar of Florence, declared that, in the secret meetings 
of the chapters, one brother said to the others, showing 
them the idol, ' Adore this head. This head is your God 
and your Mahomet.' Another, Gauserand de Montpesant, 
said that the idol was made in the figure of Baffomet {in 
figuram Baffometi) ; and another, Raymond Rubei, de- 
scribed it as a wooden head, on which was painted the 
figure of Baphomet, and he adds, ' that he worshipped it 
by kissing its feet, and exclaiming Xalla,' which he des- 
cribes as ' a word of the Saracens ' (verbum Saracenorum). 
This has been seized upon by some as a proof that 
the Templars had secretly embraced Mahometanism, as 
Baffomet or Baphomet is evidently a corruption of Mahomet ; 
but it must not be forgotten that the Christians of the West 
constantly used the word Mahomst in the mere signification 
of an idol, and that it was the desire of those who. conducted 
the prosecution against the Templars to show their intimate 
intercourse with the Saracens. Others, especially Von 
Hammer, gave a Greek derivation of the word, and assumed 
it as a proof that gnosticism was the secret doctrine of 
the temple. ..." 

Baptism : It was said that at the witches' Sabbath 
children and toads were baptised with certain horrible 
rites. This was called the baptism of the devil. 

Baptism of the Line : A curious rite is performed on 
persons crossing the equator for the first time. The sailors 
who are to carry it out dress themselves in quaint costumes. 
The Father of the Line arrives in a cask, accompanied by 
a courier, a devil, a hair-dresser, and a miller. The un- 
fortunate passenger has his hair curled, is liberally sprinkled 
with flour, and then has water showered upon him, if he 
is not ducked. The origin of this custom is not known, 
nor is it quite clear what part the devil plays in it. It 
is said, however, that it may be averted by tipping the 
sailors. 

Baquet : A large circular tub which entered largely into 
the treatment which D'Eslon, the friend and follower of 
Mesmer, prescribed for his patients. Puysegur tells ns 
in his book Du Maqnetisme Animal, that in the baquet 
were placed some bottles, arranged in a particular manner, 
and partly covered with water. It was fitted with a lid 
in which were several holes, through which paesed iron 



rods, connecting the patients, who sat round the contri- 
vance, with the interior of the tub. The operator was 
armed with a shorter iron rod. While the patients waited 
for the symptoms of the magnetic treatment, someone- 
played upon a pianoforte, a device which is frequently 
adopted at seances. The symptoms included violent con- 
vulsions, cries, laughter, and vomiting. This state they 
called the crisis, and it was supposed to hasten the healing, 
process. A commission appointed in 1784 by the French 
government through the Faculte de Medecine and the- 
Sociste royale de Medecine, reported that such practices 
were exceedingly dangerous, and in nowise proved the 
existence of the magnetic fluid. Di. Bell a " professor of 
animal magnetism " set up a similar institution in England 
in 1785, using a large oak baquet. 

Bar-Lgura : (Semitic demon ) : Sits on the roofs of houses 
and leaps on the inhabitants. People so afflicted are 
called d'baregara. 

Barqu : A demon in whose keeping was the secret of the 
Philosophers' stone. 

Barguest, the : A goblin or phantom of a mischievous 
character, so named from his habit of sitting on bars or 
gates. It is said that he can make himself visible in the 
day time. Rich in the Encyclopedia Metropolitana relates 
a story of a lady, whom he knew, who had been brought 
up in the country. She had been passing through the 
fields one morning, when a girl, and saw, as she thought, 
someone sitting on a stile : however, as she drew near, 
it vanished. 

Barnaud, Nicholas : A medical doctor of the sixteenth 
century who claimed to have discovered the Philosophers' 
Stone. He published a great number of short treatises 
on the subject of Alchemy, which are contained in the 
third volume of the Theatrum Chimicum of Zetzner, pub- 
lished at Strasburg, in 1659. 

Baron Chacs : {See Busardiar). 

Bartholomew : {See Dee). 

Baru : Caste of priests. {See Semites.) 

Basil : an astrologer. {See Italy). 

Basilideans : A gnostic sect founded by Basilides of 
Alexandria, who claimed to huve received his esoteric 
doctrines from Glaucus, a disciple of the Apostle Peter. 
The system had three grades — material, intellectual, and 
spiritual, and possessed two allegorical statues, male and 
female. The doctrine had many points of resemblance- 
to that of the Ophites (q.v.), and ran on the lines of Jewish 
Kabalism. 

Bassantin, James : a Scottish astrologer, the son of the 
Laird of Bassantin, in the Merse, was born in the reign 
of James IV. ; and, after studying mathematics at the 
University of Glasgow, he travelled for farther information 
on the Continent. He subsequently went to Paris, where 
for some years he taught mathematics in the University. 
He returned to Scotland in 1562. The prevailing belief 
of that age, particularly in France, was a belief in judicial 
astrology. In his way home through England, as we 
learn from Sir James Melville's Memoirs, he met with his 
brother, Sir Robert Melville, who was at that time engaged, 
on the part of the unfortunate Mary, in endeavouring to 
effect a meeting between her and Elizabeth ; when he- 
predicted that all his efforts would be in vain ; " for, first, 
they will neuer meit togither, and next, there will nevir 
be bot discembling and secret hattrent (hatred) for a whyle, 
and at length captivity and utter wrak for our Ouen by 
England." Melville's answer was, that he could not credit 
such news, which he looked upon as " false, ungodly, and 
unlawful ; " on which Bassantin replied, " Sa far as Me- 
lanthon, wha was a godly thologue, has declared and 
written anent the naturall scyences, that are lawfull and 
daily red in dyvers Christian Universities ; in the quhilkis. 



Bat 



65 



Beaumont 



as in all other artis, God gives to some less, to some mair 
and clearer knawledge than till othirs ; be the quhilk 
knawledge I have also that at length, that the kingdom 
of England sail of rycht fall to the crown of Scotland, and 
that ther are some born at this instant that sail bruik 
lands and heritages in 'England. Bot, alace, it will cost 
many their lyves, and many bluidy battailes will be fouchen 
first, and the Spaniatris will be helpers, and will take a 
part to themselves for their labours." The first part of 
Bassantin's prediction, which he might very well have 
hazarded from what he may have known of Elizabeth's 
character and disposition, and also from the fact that Mary 
was the next heir to the English throne, proved true. 
Bassantin was a zealous Protestant and a supporter of the 
Regent Moray. He died in 1568. His principal work 
is a Treatise or Discourse on Astronomy, written in French, 
which was translated into Latin by John Torncesius (M. de 
Tournes), and published at Geneva in 1599. He wrote 
four other treatises. Although well versed for his time in 
what are called the exact sciences, Bassantin, or, as his 
name is sometimes spelt, Bassantoun, had received no part 
of a classical education. Vossius observes, that his Astro- 
nomical Discourse was written in very bad French, and 
that the author knew " neither Greek nor Latin, but only 
Scots." Bassantin's Planetary System was that of 
Ptolemy. 

Bat : There is an Oriental belief that the bat is specially 
adapted to occult uses. In the Tyrol it is believed that 
the man who wears the left eye of a bat may become in- 
visible, and in Hesse he who wears the heart of a bat bound 
to his arm with red thread will always be lucky at cards. 
(See Chagrin). 

Bataille, Dr. : Author of Le Diable au XIX. Sidcle. Under 
the pseudonym of Dr. Hecks he purports to have wit- 
nessed the secret rites and orgies of many diabolic societies, 
but a merely perfunctory examination of his work is suffi- 
cient to brand it as wholly an effort of the imagination. 

Bathym, also called Marthim, a duke of the Infernal 
Regions. He has the appearance of a robust man, says 
Wierius, but his body ends in a serpent's tail. He be- 
strides a steed of livid colour. He is well versed in the 
virtues of herbs and precious stones. He is' able to trans- 
port men from one place to another with wondrous speed. 
Thirty legions obey his behests. 

Baton, the Devil's : There is preserved in the marche 
d' A ncdne, Tolentino, a baton which it is said that the devil 
used. 

Battle of Loquifer, The : a tale incorporated in the 
Charlemagne saga, supposed to have been written about 
the twelfth century. Its hero is Renouart, the giant 
brother-in-law of William of Orange, and the events take 
place on the sea. Renouart and his barons are on the 
shore at Porpaillart, when a Saracen fleet is seen. He is 
persuaded to enter one of the ships, which immediately 
set sail ; and he is told by Isembert, a hideous monster, 
that the Saracens mean to flay him alive. Renouart, 
armed only with a huge bar of wood, kills this creature, 
and makes the Saracens let him go, while they return to 
their own country. It is arranged that Renouart will 
fight one Loquifer, a fairy giant and leader of the Saracens ; 
and on the issue of this combat the war will depend. They 
meet on an island near Porpaillart. Loquifer is in pos- 
session of a magical balm, which heals all his wounds im- 
mediately, and is concealed in his club ; but Renouart, 
who is assisted by angel?, at length succeeds in depriving 
Loquifer of his club, so that his strength departs. Renouart 
slays him, and the devil carries off his soul. The romance 
goes on to tell of a duel between William of Orange and 
Desrame, Renouart's father, in which the latter is slain. 
Renouart is comforted by fairies, who bear him to Avalon 



where he has many adventures. He is finally wrecked, 
but is rescued by mermaids, and awakes to find himself 
on the sands at Porpaillart, from which spot he had been 
taken to Avalon. 
Bauer, George : who Latinized his name (a boor or hus- 
bandman) into " Agricola," was born in the province of 
Misnia, in 1494. An able and industrious man, he acquired 
a considerable knowledge of the principles of medicine, 
which led him, as it led his contemporaries, to search for 
the elixir vita and the Philosopher's Stone. A treatise 
on these interesting subjects, which he published at Cologne 
in 1 53 1, secured him the favour of Duke Maurice of Saxony, 
who appointed him the superintendent of his silver-mines 
at Chemnitz. In this post he obtained a practical ac- 
quaintance with the properties of metals which dissipated 
his wild notions of their possible transmutation into gold ; 
but if he abandoned one superstition he adopted another, 
and from the legends of the miners imbibed a belief in the 
existence of good and evil spirits in the bowels of the earth, 
and in the creation of explosive gases and fire-damp by 
the malicious agency of the latter. Bauer died in 1555. 

Bave : Daughter of the wizard Calatin. She figures in 
the famous Irish legend The Cattle Raid of Quelgny. By 
taking the form of one of Niam's handmaids she succeeded 
in enticing her away from Cuchulin, and led her forth 
to wander in the woods. 

Bayemon : The grimoire of Pope Honorius gives this 
name as that of a powerful demon whom it addresses as 
monarch of the western parts of the Infernal Regions. To 
him the following invocation is addressed : " O King 
Bayemon, most mighty, who reigneth towards the western 
parts, I call upon thee and invoke thy name in the name 
of the Divinity. I command thee in the name of the Most 
High to present thyself before this circle, thee and the other 
spirits who are thy subjects, in the name of Passiel and 
Rosus, for the purpose of replying to all that which I de- 
mand of thee. If thou dost not come I will torment thee 
with a sword of heavenly fire. I will augment thy pains 
and burn thee. Obey, O King Bayemon. 

Bealings Bells : In February, 1834, a mysterious outbreak 
of bell-ringing was heard at the residence of Major Moor, 
F.R.S., — Bealings, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. From the 
2nd of February to the 27th of March the bells of the house 
rang at frequent intervals, and without any visible agency. 
The Major meanwhile took careful note of the condition 
of the atmosphere, state of the wires, and any physical 
cause which might affect the bells, but, as Mr. Podmore 
justly points out, he omitted to take precautions against 
trickery in his own household, and has not even left on 
record the names of its members, or any facts concerning 
them. 

Beans : A forbidden article of diet. The consumption 
of beans was prohibited by Pythagoras and Plato to those 
who desire veracious dreams, as they tend to inflate ; and 
for the purpose of truthful dreaming, the animal nature 
must be made to lie quiet. Cicero, however, laughs at 
this discipline, asking if it be the stomach and not the mind 
with which one dreams ? 

Bearded Demon : The demon who teaches the secret 
of the Philosophers' Stone. He is but little known. The 
(lemon barbu is not to be confused with Barbatos, a great 
and powerful demon who is a duke in Hades, though not 
a philosopher ; nor with Barbas, who is interested in 
mechanics. It is said that the bearded demon is so called 
on account of his remarkable beard. 

Beaumont, John : Author of a Treatise on Spirits, Ap- 
paritions, etc., published in 1705. He is described as " a 
man of hypochondriacal disposition, with a considerable 
degree of reading, but with a strong bias to credulity." 
Labouring under this affection, he saw hundreds of 

V 



Beaumont 



66 



Belloe 



imaginary men and women about him, though, as he adds, 
he never saw anything in the night-time, unless by fire or 
candlelight, or in the moonshine. " I had two spirits," 
he says, " who constantly attended me, night and day, 
for above three months together, who called each other 
by their names ; and several spirits would call at my 
chamber door, and ask whether such spirits lived there, 
and they would answer they did. As for the other spirits 
that attended me, I heard none of their names mentioned 
only I asked one spirit, which came for some nights to- 
gether, and rung a little bell in my ear, what his name was, 
who answered Ariel. The two spirits that constantly 
attended myself appeared both in women's habit, they 
being of a brown complexion, about three feet in stature ; 
they had both black loose net-work gowns, tied with a 
black sash about the middle, and within the net-work 
appeared a gown of a golden colour, with somewhat of a 
light striking through it. Their heads were not dressed 
in top-knots, but they had white linen caps on, with lace 
on them about three fingers' breadth, and over it they 
had a black loose net-work hood." 

" I would not," he says, " for the whole world, undergo 
what I have undergone, upon spirits coming twice to me ; 
their first coming was most dreadful to me, the thing being 
then altogether new, and consequently most surprising, 
though at the first coming they did not appear to me but 
only called to me at my chamber-windows, rung bells, 
sung to me, and played on music, etc.; but the last coming 
also carried terror enough ; for when they came, being 
only five in number, the two women before mentioned, 
and three men (though afterwards there came hundreds), 
they told me they would kill me if I told any person in 
the house of their being there, which put me in some con- 
sternation ; and I made a servant sit up with me four 
nights in my chamber, before a fire, it being in the Christ- 
mas holidays, telling no person of their being there. One 
of these spirits, in women's dress, lay down upon the bed 
by me every night ; and told me, if I slept, the spirits 
would kill me, which kept me waking for three nights. 
In the meantime, a near relation of mine went (though 
unknown to me) to a physician of my acquaintance, de- 
siring him to prescribe me somewhat for sleeping, which 
he did, and a sleeping potion was brought me ; but I set 
it by, being very desirous and inclined to sleep without 
it. The fourth night I could hardly forbear sleeping ; but 
the spirit, lying on the bed by me, told me again, I should 
be killed if I slept ; whereupon I rose and sat by the fireside, 
and in a while returned to my bed ; and so I did a third 
time, but was still threatened as before ; whereupon I grew 
impatient, and asked the spirits what they would have ? 
Told them I had done the part of a Christian, in humbling 
myself to God, and feared them not ; and rose from my 
bed. took a cane, and knocked at the ceiling of my chamber, 
a near relation of mine then lying over me, who presently 
rose and came down to me about two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, to whom I said, " You have seen me disturbed these 
four days past, and that I have not slept : the occasion 
of it was, that five spirits, which are now in the room with 
me, have threatened to kill me if I told any person of their 
being here, or if I slept ; but I am not able to forbear sleep- 
ing longer, and acquaint you with it, and now stand in 
defiance of them ; and thus I exerted myself about them 
and notwithstanding their continued threats I slept very 
well the next night, and continued to do so, though they 
continued with me above three months, day and night." 
Beausoleil, Jean du Chatelot, Baron de : German min- 
eralogist and alchemist, who lived during the first half of 
the seventeenth century. He travelled over most European 
countries looking for metals with the aid of a divining ring. 
In 1626 his instruments were seized under the pretext that 



they were bewitched, and he himself prisoned in the Bas- 
tille, where he died in 1645. In 1617 he published a work 
entitled Diorisinus, id est definitis verae philisophice de 
materia prima lapidis philosophalis . Beausoleil was the 
greatest of French metallurgists of his time. 

Bechard : A demon alluded to in the Key of Solomon as 
having power over the winds and the tempests. He makes 
hail, thunder and rain. 

Bed : Graham's Magnetic : A magnetic contrivance made 
use of by one Graham, physician and magnetist of Edin- 
burgh. His whole house, which he termed the Temple of 
Hygeia, was of great magnificence, but particularly did 
splendour prevail in the room wherein was set the magnetic 
bed. The bed itself rested on six transparent pillars ; the 
mattresses were soaked with oriental perfumes ; the bed- 
clothes were of satin, in tints of purple and sky-blue. A 
healing stream of magnetism, as well as fragrant and 
strengthening medicines, were introduced into the sleeping 
apartment through glass tubes and cylinders. To these 
attractions were added the soft strains of hidden flutes, 
harmonicons, and a large organ. Permission to use this 
celestial couch, so soothing to shattered nerves, was ac- 
corded only to those who sent a written application to its 
owner, inclosing £50 sterling. 

Bees : It is maintained by certain demonologists that 
if a sorceress ate a queen-bee before being captured, she 
would be able to sustain her trial and tortures without 
making a confession. In some parts of Brittany it is 
claimed for these insects that they are' very sensitive to 
the fortunes and misfortunes of their master, and will not 
thrive unless he is careful to tie a piece of black cloth to 
the hive when a death occurs in the family, and a piece 
of red cloth when there is any occasion of rejoicing. So- 
linus writes that there are no bees in Ireland, and even 
if a little Irish earth be taken to another country, and 
spread about the hives, the bees will be forced to abandon 
the place, so fatal to them is the earth of Ireland. The 
same story is found in the Origines of Isodore. " Must 
we seek," says Lebrun, " the source of this calumny of 
Irish earth ? No ; for it is sufficient to say that it is a 
fable, and that many bees are to be found in Ireland." 

Belin, Albert : A Benedictine, born at Besancon in 1610. 
His principal works are a treaty on talismans and a dis- 
sertation upon astral figures, published at Paris in 1671, 
and again in 1709. He also wrote Sympathetic Powder 
Justified, an alchemical work, and Adventures of an un- 
known philosopher in the search for and the manufacture of 
the Philosopher' s Stone. This latter work is divided into 
four books and speaks very clearly of the manner in 
which the stone is made. (Paris, 1664 and 1674). 

Bell, Dr. : (See Spiritualism.) 

Belle-FIeur, La : (See Antichrist.) 

Bellenden, Sir Lewis : (See Scotland.) 

Belli Paaro : A secret society of Liberia, Africa, the cult 
of which consists in a description of brotherhood with 
departed spirits. Dapper, an early author, saj'S of this 
society : " They have also another custom which they 
call Belli Paaro, of which they say it is a death,a new birth 
and an incorporation in the community of spirits or soul 
with whom the common folk associate in the bush, and 
help to eat the offerings prepared for the spirits." This 
description is far from clear, but it is obvious enough that 
those who join the society desire to be regarded as spirit- 
ualised, or as having died and having been brought to life 
again ; and that their society is nothing more than a con- 
fraternity of all those who have passed through this 
training in common. 

Belloe, Jeanne : A sorceress of the district of Labour, 
in France, who in the reign of Henry IV. was indicted for 
sorcery at the age of 84 years. In answer to Pierre Delancre- 



Belocolus 



67 



Bermechobus 



who interrogated her, she stated that she commenced 
to repair to the sabbatic meetings of Satan in the winter 
of the year 1609, that she was there presented to the Devil 
who kissed her, a mark of approbation which he bestowed 
upon the greatest sorcerers only. She related that the 
Sabbath was a species of bal masque, to which some came 
in their ordinary forms, whilst others joined the dance 
in the guise of dogs cats, donkeys, pigs and other animals. 
Belocolus : A white stone with a black pupil, said to 

render its bearer invisible in a field of battle. 
Belomaney : The method of divination by arrows, dates 
as far back as the age of the Chaldeans. It existed among 
the Greeks, and still later among the Arabians. The 
manner in which the latter practised it is described else- 
where, and they continued its use though forbidden by 
the Koran. Another method deserves mention. This 
was to throw a certain number of arrows into the air, and 
the direction in which the arrow inclined as it fell, pointed 
out the course to be taken by the inquirer. Divination 
by arrows is the same in principle as Rhabdomancy (q.v.). 
Belphegor : The demon of discoveries and ingenious 
inventions. He appears always in the shape of a young 
woman. The Moabites, who called him Baalphegor, adored 
him on Mount Phegor. He it is who bestows riches. 
Benedict IX. : At a time when the papacy was much abused 
— about the tenth and eleventh centuries — the papal crown 
was more than once offered for sale. Thus the office fell 
into the hands of a high and ambitious family who held it 
for a boy of twelve — Benedict IX. As he grew older the 
boy lost no opportunity of disgracing his position by his 
depraved mode of life. But, like his predecessors in the 
papal chair, he excelled in sorcery and various forms of 
magic. One of the most curious stories concerning him 
tells how he made the Roman matrons follow him over 
hill and dale, through forests and across rivers, by the 
charm of his magic, as though he were a sort of Pied Piper. 
Benemmerinnen : Hebrew witches who haunt women in 

childbirth for the purpose of stealing new-born infants. 
Benjees, The : A people of the East Indies, given over to 
the worship of the Devil ; and whose temples and pagodas 
are filled with horrible statues of him. The king of Calicut 
had a temple wholly filled with awful figures of the devil, 
and which was lighted only with the gleam of many lamps. 
In the centre was a copper throne, on which was seated a 
devil, made of the same metal, with a large tiara on his 
head, three huge horns and four others which come out 
of his forehead. On his tongue and in his hand were two 
figures — souls, which the Indians say, he s preparing to 
devour. 
Bensozia : According to Don Martin in his Religion de 
Gaulois, " chief deviless " of a certain Sabbatic meeting 
held in France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
She was, he says, the Diana of the ancient Gauls, and was 
also called Nocticula, Herodias, and " The Moon." One 
finds in the manuscripts of the church at Couserans. that 
the ladies of the fourteenth century were said to go on 
horseback to the nocturnal revelries of Bensozia. All of 
them were forced to inscribe their names in a Sabbatic 
catalogue along with those of the sorcerers proper, and 
after this ceremony they believed themselves to be fairies. 
There was found at Montmorillon in Poitou, in the 
eighteenth century, a portion of an ancient temple, a bas- 
relief with the figure of a naked woman curved upon it, 
and it is not unlikely, thinks Collin de Plancy, that this 
figure was the original deity of the Bensozia cult. 
Beowulf : an Anglo-Saxon saga of great interest. The 
events in this poem probably took place about the fifth 
century. Beowulf, himself, was most likely one of the 
Sons of Light or Men of the Sun, whose business it was to 
fight the powers of darkness until they themselves fell. 



It is related in this legend how Beowulf fought the monster, 
Grendel, and succeeded in defeating him — the giant es- 
caping only by leaving his arm in Beowulf's grip. But 
Grendel's mother, a mer-woman, came to revenge him 
and slew many people. Beowulf, hearing of this, took 
up the quarrel, and diving to the bottom of the sea, where 
her palace lay, killed her after a fierce fight. Later on 
Beowulf was made regent of Gothland, and afterwards 
king, and he reigned for about forty years. He was poi- 
soned by the fangs of a dragon during a mighty struggle, 
and died from the effects. He was buried on a hill named 
Hronesnas, and was deeply mourned by his people. 

Berande : A sorceress burnt at Maubec, in France, in 1577. 
She was confronted by a damsel whom she accused of 
sorcery, which the girl denied, whereat the beldame ex- 
claimed, " Dost thou not remember how at the last dance 
at the Croix du Pate, thou didst carry a pot of poison ? " 
The damsel at this confessed, and was burnt along with 
her accuser. 

Eeresehith : .Universal Genesis, one of the two parts into 
which the Kabala was divided by the rabbins. 

Berigard of Pisa : Alchemist. (1578 ? — 1664). Owing 
to his residing for many years at Pisa, this alchemist is 
commonly known by the appellation given above ; but 
in reality he was not an Italian but a Frenchman, and his 
name was Claude Guillermet de Bdrigard, or, as it is some- 
times spelt, Beauregard. The date of his birth is uncertain, 
some authorities assigning it to 1578, and others placing 
it considerably later ; but they are agreed in saying that 
Moulins was his native town, and that, while a young man, 
he evinced a keen love for science in its various branches, 
and began to dabble in alchemy. He appears to have 
studied for a while at the Sorbonne, at Paris ; and, having 
acquired some fame there on account of his erudition, he 
was appointed professor of natural philosophy at the Uni- 
versity of Pisa. This post he held until the year 1640, 
whereupon he was assigned an analogous position at Padua, 
and it was probably in the latter town that his death oc- 
curred in 1664. His most important contribution to 
scientific literature is Dubitationes in Dialogum Ealilcei 
pro Term immobilitate , a quarto published at Florence 
in 1632 ; but he was likewise author of Circulus Pisanus, 
issued at Udine in 1643, wherein he concerns himself chiefly 
with commenting on Aristotle's ideas on physics. Beri- 
garde's writings are virtually forgotten nowadays, but 
they are interesting as documents illustrating the progress 
of scientific knowledge throughout the seventeenth 
century. 

Berkeley, Old Woman of : (See England.) 

Bermechobus : The supposed writings of St. Methodius of 
Olympus (martyred 311 A.D.) or the saint of the same 
name who was Patriarch of Constantinople and who died 
in 846. The real name of the work is Bea-Methodius, a 
contraction for Beatus Methodivo, which was misprinted 
" Bermechobus." The work is of the nature of a pro- 
phetic Apocalypse, and foretells the history of the world. 
It was handed down by the Gnostics and was printed in 
the Liber Mirabilis (q.v.). There are no grounds, however, 
for the supposition that the work should be referred to 
either of the saints above mentioned. It recounts how 
Seth sought a new country in the east and came to the 
country of the initiates, and how the children of Cain in- 
stituted a system of black magic in India. The author 
identifies the Ishmaelitef with those tribe? who overthrew 
the Roman power, and tells of a powerful northern people 
whose reign will be over-turned by Anti-Christ. A uni- 
versal kingdom will thereafter be founded, governed by 
a prince of French blood, after which a prolonged period 
of justice will supervene. 



Bernheim 



63 



Black Magic 



Bernheim : (See Hypnotism.) 

Berthome du Lignon : called Champagnat, a sorcerer brought 
to trial at Montmorillon, in Poitou, in 1599. He confessed 
that his father had taken him to the Sabbath of the sor- 
cerers in his youth, that he had promised the Devil his soul 
and his body, that His Satanic Majesty had shown him 
marks of his favour, and that he had even visited him in 
prison on the previous night. He further confessed 
having slain several persons and beasts with the magical 
powders given him by the Enemy of Mankind. 

Bertrand, Alexandre — His Traite da' Somnambulisme et du 
Magnetisme Animal en France : (See Hypnotism ; 
Spiritualism. "i 

Beryl : Beryl, said to preserve wedded love, and to be a good 
medium for magical vision. 

Bezoar : (red). A precious stone supposed to be possessed 
of magical properties, and found in the bodie? of certain 
animals. At one time these stones would fetch ten times 
their weight in gold, being used as a remedy against poison 
and contagion ; and for this purpose they were both taken 
internally, and worn round the neck. It is said that there 
are nine varieties of bezoar, differing greatly in composition ; 
but they may be generally divided into those which consist 
mainly of mineral and those which consist of organic matter. 
A strange origin was assigned to this stone by some of the 
early naturalists. It is said that the oriental stags when 
oppressed with years fed upon serpents, which renewed 
their youth. In order to counteract the poison which was 
absorbed into their system, they plunged into a running 
stream keeping their heads only above water. This caused 
a viscous fluid to be distilled from their eyes, which was 
indurated by the heat of the sun, and formed the 
bezoar. 

Bhikshu : (See India.) 

Biarbi : (See Fascination.) 

Bible des Bohemians : (See Tarot.) 

Bible of the Devil : This wa? without doubt a grimoire (q.v.) 
or some such work. But Delancre says that the Devil 
informed sorcerers that he possessed a bible consisting of 
sacred books, having a theology of its own, which was 
dilated upon by various professors. One great magician, 
continues Delancre, who was brought before the Parlia- 
ment of Paris, avowed that there dwelt at Toledo sixty- 
three masters in the faculty of Magic who took for their 
text-book the Devil's Bible. 

Bibliomancy : A method of discovering whether or not a 
person was innocent of sorcery, by weighing him against 
the great Bible in the Church. If the person weighed less 
than the Bible, he wa- innocent. (See Witchcraft.) 

Biffant : A little-known demon, chief of a legion who entered 
the body of one Denise de la Caille (q.v.) and who was 
obliged to sign with his claws the proces verbal of exorcisms. 

Bifrons : A demon of monstrous guise who, according to 
Wierius, often took the form of a man well versed in As- 
trology and planetary influences. He excels in geometry, 
is acquainted with the virtues of herbs, precious stones 
and plants, and it is said that he is able to transport corpses 
from one place to another. ■ He it is also who lights the 
strange corpse-lights above the tombs of the dead. Twenty 
six of the infernal regions obey his behests. 

Bigois or Bigotis : A sorcerer of Tuscany who, it is said, 
composed a learned work on the nature of prognostications, 
especially those connected with thunder and lightning. 
The book is said to be irretrievably lost. It is thought that 
Bigois is the same as Bagoe (q.v.), a sibly of Erithryea, 
but this is merely of the nature of surmise. 

Binah : In the supreme triangle of the Kabala the three sides 
are reason, which they name Kelher ; necessity, Chochmah ; 
and liberty, Binah. 

Biragues, Flaminio de : Author of an infernal-facetious work 



entitled I'Enfer de la mere Cardine, which treats of the 
dreadful battle in Hell on the occasion of the marriage of 
Cerberus with Cardine (Paris, 1585 and 1597.) It is a 
satire on the demonography of the times. Didot reprinted 
the work in 1793. The author was a nephew of a Chan- 
cellor of France, Rene de Biragues. 

Birds : It is a common belief among savage tribes that the 
souls of the dead are conveyed to the land of the hereafter 
by birds. Among some West African peoples, for instance, 
a bird is bound to the body of the deceased and then sacri- 
ficed, so that it may carry the man's soul to the after-world. 
The Bagos also offer up a bird on the corpse of a deceased 
person for the same reason. The South Sea Islanders, 
again, bury their dead in coffins shaped like the bird which 
is to bear away their spirits, while the natives of Borneo 
represent Tempon-Telon's Ship of the Dead (q.v.) as having 
the form of a bird. The Indian tribes of North-West 
America have rattles shaped like ravens, with a large face 
painted on the breast. The probable significance is that 
the xaven is to carry the disembodied soul to the region of 
the sun. 

Birog : A Druidess of Irish legendary origin. She it was 
who, by her magic, brought Kian and Ethlinn together. 

Birraark : Australian necromancers. (See Necromancy.) 

Biscar, Jeanette : A sorceress of the district of Labour in 
France, who was transported to the witches' Sabbath by 
the Devil in the form of a goat. As a reward she was 
suspended in mid-air head downwards. 

Bisclaveret : The name of the were-wolf (q.v.) in Brittany. 
It is believed to be a human being, transformed by magic 
into a fearsome man-devouring beast, which roams about 
the woods, seeking whom it may slay. 

Bitru : Otherwise called Sytry, a great Prince of Hell, accord- 
ing to the demonographer Wierius. He appeared in the 
form of a leopard with the wings of a griffin. But when 
he -adopted a human appearance for the nonce it was in- 
variably one of great beauty. It is he who awakes lust 
in the human heart. Seventy legions obey his commands. 

Bitumen, in Magic : Bitumen was greatly used in magical 
practices. Images for the purpose of sympathetic magic 
were often made of this substance ; and it was used in the 
ceremonies for the cleansing of houses in which any un- 
cleanness had appeared — being spread on the floor like clay. 

Black Earth: (See Philosopher's Stone.) 

Black Hen, Fast of The: In Hungary and the adjacent 
countries it is believed that whoever has been robbed and 
wishes to discover the thief must take a black hen and along 
with it fast strictly for nine Fridays. The thief will then 
either return the plunder or die. This is called " taking 
up a black fast " against anyone. A great deal of lore 
concerning black hens may be found in the works of Guber- 
natis and Friedrich. 

Black Magic: Middle Ages. Black Magic as practised in 
mediaeval times may be defined as the use of supernatural 
knowledge for the purposes of evil, the invocation of 
diabolic and infernal powers that they may become the 
slaves and emissaries of man's will ; in short, a perversion 
of legitimate mystic science. This art and its attendant 
practices can be traced from the time of the ancient 
Egyptians and Persians, from the Greeks and Hebrews to 
the period when it reached its apogee in the Middle Ages, 
thus forming an unbroken chain ; for in mediaeval magic 
may be found the perpetuation of the popular rites of 
paganism — the ancient gods had become devils, their 
mysteries orgies, their worship sorcery. 

Some historians have tried to trace the areas in Europe 
most affected by these devilish practices. Spain is said 
to have excelled all in infamy, to have plumbed the depths 
of the abyss. The south of France next became a hotbed 
of sorcery, whence it branched northwards to Paris and the 



Black Magic 



69 



Black Magic 



countries and islands beyond, southward to Italy, finally 
extending into the Tyrol and Germany. 

In Black Magic human perversity found the means of 
ministering to its most terrible demands and the possible 
attainment of its darkest imaginings. To gain limitless 
power over god, demon and man ; for personal aggrandise- 
ment and glorification ; to cheat, trick and mock ; to 
gratify base appetites ; to aid religious bigotry and jealous- 
ies ; to satisfy private and public enmities ; to further 
political intrigue ; to encompass disease, calamity and 
death — these were the ends and aims of Black Magic 
and its followers. 

So widespread, so intense was the belief in the Powers 
of Evil that it may truly be said the Devil reigned supreme, 
if the strength and fervour of a universal fear be weighed 
against the weak and wavering manifestations of love and 
goodwill, peace and charity enjoined by religion in the 
worship of God. 

Under the influence of this belief the world became to 
the mind and imagination of man a place of dread. At set 
of sun, at midnight, in twilight of dawn and eve, the legions 
of evil were abroad on their mission of terror. A running 
stream, a lake, or thick forest, held each its horde of 
malevolent spirits lying in wait for the lonely wayfarer, 
while the churchyard close to the House of God, the 
place of the gallows away from the habitation of man, 
the pestilential marsh, wilderness and mysterious cavern, 
the barren slopes and summits of mountains, were the 
dread meeting-places of the Devil and his myrmidons, 
the scenes of their infamous orgies, the temples of their 
blasphemous rites. 

And the night was troubled by evil and ominous winds 
blowing from the Netherworld, heavy with the beating of 
the innumerable wings of the birds of ill-omen presaging 
woe ; the darkness was faintly lit by the flitting phosphores- 
cent forms of sepulchral larvse, waiting to batten on the souls 
and bodies of man ; of stryges infesting the tombs and dese- 
crating the dead ; of incubi and succubi surrounding the 
homes of the living to bring dishonour and madness to sleep- 
ing man and woman and beget monstrous and myriad life ; 
of ravenous vampires in search of victims for their feast 
of blood. Moon and stars might illumine the darkness, 
but in their beams were spells and enchantments, in their 
rising and waning the inexorable workings of Fate, while 
against their light could be seen the dishevelled or naked 
forms of warlock and witch passing overhead to their dia- 
bolical Sabbaths. The familiar happenings and actions 
of life might be nothing but the machinations of sorcery — 
to eat and drink might be to swallow evil ; to look upon 
beauty in any' form, the sesame to malign influence ; to 
laugh, but to echo infernal mockery and mirth. 

In this fruitful soil of superstition and grotesque ignor- 
ance, Black Magic sowed and reaped its terrible harvest 
of evil, persecution, madness and death. Such a state of 
mind must, of necessity, have induced a weakness of will 
and imagination specially prone to the influence of hyp- 
notic suggestion by a stronger will, and even more ready 
to fall an easy prey to self-hypnotism, which must have 
often been the result of such an atmosphere of foreboding 
and dread. 

The simplest ailments or most revolting diseases, cata- 
lepsy and somnambulism, hysteria, and insanity, all these 
were traced to the power of Black Magic, caused through 
the conjurations of sorcery. It followed that curative 
medicine was also a branch of magic, not a rational science, 
the cures being nothing if not fantastic in the last degree ' 
— incantations and exorcisms, amulets and talismans of 
precious stones, metals or weird medicaments rendered 
powerful by spells ; philtres and enchanted drinks, the 
cure of epilepsy by buried peachblossoms, and though in 



the use of herbs and chemicals was laid the foundation of 
the curative science of to-day, it was more for their en- 
chanted and symbolic significance that they were pre- 
scribed by the magicians. 

History shows us that the followers of the Black Art 
swarmed everywhere. In this fraternity as in others there 
were grades, from the pretenders, charlatans and diviners 
of the common people, to the various secret societies and 
orders of initiates, amongst whom were kings and queens, 
and popes, dignitaries of church and state, where the know- 
ledge and ritual were carefully cherished and preserved 
in manuscripts, some of which are extant at the present 
day, ancient grimoires (q.v.), variously termed the Black, 
the Red, the Great Grimoire, each full of weird rites, 
formulae and conjurations, evocations of evil malice and 
lust in the names of barbaric deities ; charms and be- 
witchments clothed in incomprehensible jargon, and 
ceremonial processes for the fulfilment of imprecations of 
misfortune, calamity, sin and death. 

The deity who was worshipped, whose powers were 
invoked in the practice of Black Magic, was the Source and 
Creator of Evil, Satanas, Belial, the Devil, a direct des- 
cendant of the Egyptian Set, the Persian Ahriman, the 
Python of the Greeks, the Jewish Serpent, Baphomet of 
the Templars, the Goat-deity of the Witches' Sabbath. 
He was said to have the head and legs of a goat, and the 
breasts of a woman. 

To his followers he was known by many names, among 
these being debased names of forgotten deities, also the 
Black One, the Black He-goat, the Black Raven, the Dog, 
the Wolf and Snake, the Dragon, the Hell-hound, Hell- 
hand, and Hell-bolt. His transformations were unlimited, 
as is indicated by many of his names ; other favourite and 
familiar forms were a cat, a mouse, a toad, or a worm, 
or again, the human form, especially as a young and hand- 
some man when on his amorous adventures. The signs 
by which he might be identified, though not invariably, 
were the cloven hoof, the goat's beard, cock's feathers, or 
ox's tail. 

In all his grotesquery are embedded ancient mysteries 
and their symbols, the detritus of dead faiths and faded 
civilizations. The Greek Pan with the goat limbs mas- 
querades as the Devil, also the goat as emblematic of 
fire and sj'mbol of generation, and perhaps traces of the 
Jewish tradition where two goats were taken, one pure, 
the other impure, the first offered as sacrifice in expiation 
of sin, the other, the impure burdened with sins by impre- 
cation and driven into the wilderness, in short, the scape- 
goat. In the Hebrew Kabala, Satan's name is that of 
Jehovah reversed. He is not a devil, but the negation 
of deity. 

Beneath the Devil's sway were numberless hordes and 
legions of demons and spirits, ready and able to procure 
and work any and every evil or disaster the 'mind of man 
might conceive and desire. In one Grimoire it tells of 
nine orders of evil spirits, these being False Gods, Lying 
Spirits, Vessels of Iniquity, Revenge led by Asmodeus, 
Deluders by the Serpent, Turbulents by Merigum, Furies 
by Apollyon, Calumniators by Astaroth, and Tempters 
by Mammon. These demons again are named separately, 
the meaning of each name indicating the possessor's 
capacity, such as destroyer, devastator, tumult, ravage, 
and so forth. 

Again each earthly vice and calamity was personified 
by a demon, Moloch, who devours infants ; Nisroch, god 
of hatred, despair, fatality ; Astarte, Lilith and Astaroth, 
deities of debauchery and abortion ; Adramelek, of murder, 
and Belial, of red anarchy. 

According to the Grimoires, the rites and rules are 
multifarious, each demon demanding special invocation 



Black Magic 



70 



Black Magic 



and procedure. The ends that may be obtained by these 
means are sufficiently indicated in the headings of the 
chapters : To take possession of all kinds of treasure ; 
to like in opulence ; to ruin possessions ; to demolish 
buildings and strongholds ; to cause armed men to appear ; 
to excite every description of hatred, discord, failure and 
vengeance ; to excite tempests ; to excite love in a virgin, 
in a married person ; to procure adulteries ; to cause 
enchanted music and lascivious dances to appear ; to 
learn all secrets from those of Venus to Mars ; to render 
oneself invisible ; to fly in the air and travel ; to operate 
under water for twenty-four hours ; to open every kind 
of lock without a key, without noise and thus gain en- 
trance to prison, larder or charnel-house ; to innoculate 
the walls of houses with- plague and disease ; to bind fa- 
miliar spirits ; to cause a dead body to revive ; to transform 
one's self ; to transform men into animals or animals into 
men. 

These rites fell under the classification of divination, 
bewitchments and necromancy. The first named was 
carried out by magical readings of fire, smoke, water or 
blood ; by letters of names, numbers, symbols, arrange- 
ments of dots ; by lines of hand or finger nails ; by birds 
and their flight or their entrails ; by dice or cards, rings 
or mirrors. 

Bewitchments were carried out by means of nails, ani- 
mals, toads or waxen figures and mostly to bring about 
suffering or death. In the first method nails were conse- 
crated to evil by spells and invocations, then nailed cross- 
wise above the imprint of the feet of the one who is destined 
for torment. The next was by selection of some animal 
supposed to resemble the intended victim and attaching 
to it some of his hair or garments. They gave it the name 
and then proceeded to torture it, in whole or part according 
to the end desired, by driving nails, red-hot pins and thorns 
into the body to the rhythm of muttered maledictions. 
For like purpose a fat toad was often selected, baptised, 
made to swallow a host, both consecrated and execrated, 
tied with hairs of the victim upon which the sorcerer had 
previously spat, and finally buried at the threshold of the 
bewitched one's door, whence it issued as nightmare and 
vampire for his undoing. 

The last and most favoured method was by the use of 
waxen images. Into the wax was mixed baptismal oil 
and ash of consecrated hosts, and out of this was fashioned 
a figure resembling the one to be bewitched. It was then 
baptised, receiving the persons name in full ; received 
the Sacraments, and next subjected to curses, torture by 
knives or fire ; then finally stabbed to the heart. It was 
also possible to bewitch a person by insufflation, breathing 
upon them, and so causing a heaviness of their, will and 
corresponding compliance to the sorcerer. 

Necromancy (q.v.) was the raising of the dead by evoca- 
tions and sacrilegious rites, for the customary purposes 
of evil. The scene of operation might be about pits filled 
with blood and resembling a shambles, in a darkened and 
suffocating room, in a churchyard or beneath swinging 
gibbets, and the number of ghosts so summoned and gal- 
vanized into life might be one of legion. 

For whatever end, the procedure usually included prof- 
anation of Christian ritual, such as diabolical masses and 
administration of polluted sacrements to animals and 
reptiles ; bloody sacrifices of animals, often of children ; - 
of orgiastic dances, generally of circular formation, such 
as that of the Witches' Sabbath in which undreamed-of 
evil and abominations, all distortions and monstrosities 
of reality and imagination took part, to end in a nightmare 
of obscene madness. 

For paraphernalia and accessories the sorcerers scoured 
the world and the imagination and mind of man, bending 



all things, beautiful or horrible to their service. The 
different planets ruled over certain objects and states and 
invocations, for such were of great potency if delivered 
under their auspices. Mars favoured wars and strife, 
Venus love, Jupiter ambition and intrigue, Saturn male- 
diction and death. 

Vestments and symbols proper to the occasion must be 
donned. The electric furs of the panther, lynx and cat 
added their quota of influence to the ceremonial. Colours 
also must be observed and suitable ornaments. For opera- 
tions of vengeance the robe must be the hue of leaping 
flame, or rust and blood, with belt and bracelets of steel, 
and crown of rue and wormwood. Blue, Green and Rose 
were the colours for amorous incantations ; whilst for 
the encompassing of death black must be worn, with belt 
of lead and wreath of cypress, amid loathsome incense of 
sulphur and assafcetida. 

Precious stones and metals also added their influence to 
the spells. Geometrical figures, stars, pentagrams, columns, 
triangles, were used ; also herbs, such as belladonna and 
assafcetida ; flowers, honeysuckle, being the witches' 
ladder, the arum, deadly nightshade and black poppies ; 
distillations and philtres composed of the virus of loath- 
some diseases, venom of reptiles, secretions of animals, 
poisonous sap and fungi and fruits, such as the fatal man- 
chineel, pulverised flint, impure ashes and human blood. 
Amulets and talismans were made of the skins of criminals, 
wrought from the skulls of hanged men, or ornaments 
rifled from corpses and thus of special virtue, or the pared 
nails of an executed thief. 

To make themselves invisible the sorcerers used an 
unguent compounded from the incinerated bodies of 
new-born infants and mixed with the blood of night-birds. 
For personal preparation a fast of fifteen days was observed. 
When that was past, it was necessary to get drunk every 
five days, after sundown, on wine in which poppies and 
hemp had been steeped. 

For the actual rites the light must be that of candles 
made from the fat of corpses and fashioned in the form of 
a cross ; the bowls to be of skulls, those of parricides being 
of greatest virtue ; the fires must be fed with cypress 
branches, with the wood of desecrated crucifixes and blood- 
stained gibbets ; the magic fork fashioned of hazel or 
almond, severed at one blow ; the ceremonial cloth to be 
woven by a prostitute, whilst round about the mystic 
circle must be traced with the ember; of a polluted cross. 
Another potent instrument of magic was the mandragore 
to be unearthed from beneath gallows where corpses are 
suspended, by a dog tied to the plant. The dog is killed 
by a mortal blow after which its soul will pass into the 
fantastic root, attracting also that of the hanged man. 

The history of the Middle Ages is shot through with the 
shadows cast by this terrible belief in Black Maqic. Mach- 
inations and counter-machinations in which church and 
state, rich and poor, learned and ignorant were alike in- 
volved ; persecutions and prosecutions where the persecutor 
and judge often met the fate they dealt to the victim and 
condemned — a dreadful phantasmagoria and procession 
where we may find the haughty Templars, the blood-stained 
Gilles de Laval, the original of Bluebeard ; Catherine de 
Medici and Marshals of France ; popes, princes and priests. 
In literature also we find its trace, in weird legends and 
monstrous tales ; in stories of spells and enchantments ; 
in the tale of Dr. Fauitus and his pact with the Devil, his 
pleasures and their penalty when his .soul must needs pass 
down to Hell in forfeit ; we may find its traces in lewd 
verses and songs. Art, too, yields her testimony to the 
infernal influence in pictures, sculptures and carvings, 
decorating palace and cathedral ; where we may find the 
Devil's likeness peeping out from carven screen and stall. 



Black Mass 



*»•" 



71 



Blake 



and his demons made visible in the horde of gargoyles 
grinning and leering from niche and corner, and clustering 
beneath the eaves. K. N. 

{See Evocation ; Familiars ; Grimoires ; Magic ; Necro- 
mancy, etc.) 

Black Mass : It is known from the confessions of witches 
sorcerers that the devil also has mass said at his Sabbath. 
Pierre Aupetit, an apostate priest of the village of Fossas, 
in Limousine, was burned for having celebrated the mys- 
teries of the Devil's mass. Instead of speaking the holy 
•words of consecration the frequenters of the Sabbath said : 
*' Beelzebub, Beelzebub, Beelzebub." The devil in the 
shape of a butterfly, flew round those who were celebrating 
the mass, and who ate a black host, which they were obliged 
to chew before swallowing. 

Black Pullet, The : A French magical publication supposedly 
printed in 1740, purporting to be a narrative of an officer 
who was employed in Egypt. While in Egypt the narrator 
fell in with a magician to whom he rendered considerable 
service, and who when he expired left him the secret of 
manufacturing a black pullet which had much skill in gold- 
finding. In it we find much plagiarism from the Comle 
de Gabalis {See Elementary Spirits.) and the whole work 
if interesting, is distinctly derivative. It contains many 
illustrations of talismans and magical rings. The receipt 
for bringing the black pullet into existences describes that 
a black hen should be set to hatch one of its own eggs, and 
that during the process a hood should be drawn over its 
eyes so that it cannot see. It is also to be placed in a box 
lined with black material. The chick thus hatched will 
have a particular instinct for detecting the places wherein 
gold is hidden. 

Black Veil of the Ship of Theseus : {See Philosopher's Stone.) 

Blackwell, Anna : The most prominent disciple of Allen 
Kardec in this country, and the ablest exponent of his views. 
Miss Blackwell herself had psychic experiences — she had 
seen visions, and spirit forms had appeared on her photo- 
graphs. 

Blake, William : (1757 — 1827) Poet, Mystic, Painter and 
Engraver, is one of the most curious and significant figures 
in the whole history of English literature, and a man who 
has likewise exerted a wide influence on the graphic arts. 
He was born in London on the 28th of November, 1757. 
It would seem that his parents and other relatives were 
■humble folk, but little is known definitely about the family 
■while their ancestry is a matter of discussion. Mr. W. B. 
Yeats, who is an ardent devotee of Blake, and has edited 
Tiis writings, would have it that the poet was of Irish descent 
but though it is true that the name Blake is common in 
Ireland to this day, especially in Galway, Mr. Yeat's con- 
tention is not supported by much trustworthy evidence, 
and it is contradicted by Mr. Martin J. Blake in his gene- 
alogical work, Blake Family Records. 

William manifested esthetic predilections at a very early 
age, and his father and mother did not discourage him 
herein, but offered to place him in the studio of a painter. 
The young man demurred however, pointing out that 
the apprenticeship was a costly one, and saying gen- 
erously that his numerous brothers and sisters should be 
considered, and that it was not fair that the family's ex- 
chequer should be impoverished on his behalf. Thereafter 
■engraving was suggested to him as a profession, not just 
because it necessitated a less expensive training than 
painting, but also as being more likely than the latter to 
yield a speedy financial return ; and accepting this offer, 
Blake went at the age of fourteen to study under James 
Basire, an engraver whose plates are but little esteemed 
-to-day, yet who enjoyed considerable reputation while 
.alive, and was employed officially by the Society of An- 
tiquaries. Previous to this a more noted manipulator 



of the burin, William Ryland, a protege of George III, had 
been suggested as one who would probably give a capital 
training to the boy : but the latter, on being taken to see 
Ryland, evinced a strong dislike for him, and refused stoutly 
to accept his teaching, declaring that the man looked as 
though born to be hanged. And it is interesting to note 
that the future artist of the Prophetic Books was right, 
for only a few years later Ryland was convicted of forgery, 
and forfeited his life in consequence. 

Blake worked under Basire for seven years, and during 
the greater part of his time the pupil was engaged mainly 
in doing drawings of Westminster Abbey, these being 
destined to illustrate a huge book then in progress, the 
Sepulchral Monuments, of Richard Gough. It is said that 
Blake was chosen by his master to go and do these drawings 
not so much because he showed particular aptitude for 
draughtmanship, as because he was eternally quarrelling 
with his fellow-apprentices : and one may well believe, 
indeed, that the young artist was convinced of his superi- 
ority to his confreres, and made enemies by failing to con- 
ceal this conviction. Whilst at the Abbey, Blake asserted 
that he saw many visions. In 1778, he entered the Royal 
Academy School, then recently founded : and here he 
continued his studies under George Moser, a chaser and 
enameller who engraved the first great seal of George III. 
Yet it was not to Moser that the budding visionary really 
looked for instruction, he was far more occupied with study- 
ing prints after the old masters, especially Michael Angelo 
and Raphael ; and one day Rosa found him engaged thus, 
reprove^ him kindly but firmly, and told him he would be 
acting more wisely if he took Charles le Brun as his exem- 
plar. He even hastened to show the pupil a volume of 
engravings after that painter, so redolent always of the 
worst tendencies of le grand siecle ; and, with this incident 
in mind, it may be assumed that Blake was deeply grateful 
when, a little later he had shaken off the futile shackles 
of the Royal Academy, and began to work on his own 
account. He had to work hard, however, for meanwhile 
his affections had been engaged by a young woman, Cath- 
erine Boucher, and funds were of course necessary ere it 
was possible for the pair to marry. But Blake slaved 
manfully with his burin, engraving illustrations for maga- 
zines and the like; and in 1782 he had his reward, his 
marriage being solemnized in that year. His wife's name 
indicates that she was of French origin, and it would be 
interesting to know if she was related to Francois Boucher, 
or to the fine engraver of the French Empire, Boucher- 
Desno3'ers ; but waiving these speculations, it is pleasant 
to recall that the marriage proved a singularly happy one, 
Blake's spouse clinging to him lovingly throughout all his 
troubles and privations, and ever showing a keen appre- 
ciation of his genius. As regards Catherine's appearance 
there still exists a small pencil-drawing by Blake, commonly 
supposed to be a portrait of his wife ; and it shows a slim, 
graceful woman, just the type of woman predominating 
in Blake's other pictures ; so it may be presumed that she 
frequently acted as his model, or — for Blake had no fond- 
ness for drawing from nature — that her appearance 
gradually crystallised itself in his brain, and thus trans- 
pired in the bulk of his works. 

After his marriage Blake took lodgings in Green Street, 
Leicester Fields ; and feeling, no doubt, that engraving 
was but a poor staff for a married man to lean upon, he 
opened a print shop in Broad Street. He made many 
friends at this period, the most favoured among them 
being Flaxman, the sculptor ; and the latter introduced 
him to Mr. Matthew, a clergyman of artistic tastes, who, 
manifesting keen interest in the few poems which Blake 
had already written, generously offered to defray the cost 
of printing them. The writer gladly accepted the offer 



Blake 



72 



Blake 



and the result was a tiny volume, Poetical Sketches by W. B. 
Thus encouraged, Blake gave up his printselling business, 
while simultaneously he went to live in Poland Street, and 
soon after this removal he published his Songs of Innocence, 
the letterpress enriched by designs from his own hand. 
Nor was this the only remarkable thing about the book, 
for the whole thing was printed by the author himself, 
and by a new method of his own invention — a method 
which can scarcely be detailed here owing to lack of space, 
but which the reader will find described adequately in 
Mr. Arthur Hind's monumental History of Engraving and 
Etching. Blake lived in Poland Street for five years, and 
during this time he achieved and issued The Book of Thel, 
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, and the first book of 
The French Revolution. In 1792 he removed to Hercules 
Buildings, Lambeth ; and while staying here he war forced 
by dire poverty to do much commercial work, notably a 
series of illustrations to Young's Night Thoughts, yet he 
found leisure for original drawing and writing also, and 
to this period of his life belong the Gates of Paradise and 
Songs of Experience. In a while he tired of London how- 
ever, and so he went to Felpham, near Bognor, in Sussex, 
taking a cottage there hard by where Aubrey Beardsley was 
to live at a later date, and here he composed Milton, Jeru- 
salem, and a large part of the Prophetic Books, while 
he made a new friend, William Hayley, who repeatedly 
aided him with handsome presents of money. The Sussex 
scenery, besides — afterwards to inspire Whistler and Con- 
der— appealed keenly to the poet, and in one of his lyrics 
he exclaims :— 

" Away to sweet Felpham, for Heaven is there," while 
to Flaxman he wrote : — 

" Felpham is a sweet place for study, because it is more 
spiritual than London. Heaven opens here on all sides 
her golden gates ; her windows are not obstructed by 
vapours, voices of celestial inhabitants are more distinctly 
heard, and their forms more distinctly seen, and my 
cottage is also a shadow of their houses." 

Yet Blake tired of Sussex as he had tired of his former 
home, and in 1803 he returned to London, taking a house 
in South Bolton Street. Here again he endured much 
poverty, and was then forced into doing illustrations to 
Virgil, and also a series of designs for Blair's Grave ; but 
later his financial horizon was brightened by help from 
John Linnell, the landscape painter, and shortly after- 
wards the artist did some of his finest things, for instance 
his Spiritual Portraits, and his drawings for The Book of 
Job, while after completing these he commenced illustrating 
the Divine Comedy of Dante. In 1821 he again changed 
his home, taking up his abode now in Fountain Court, 
Strand, and here he continued to work at the Dante draw- 
ings ; but only seven of them were ever published, for 
Blake's health was beginning to fail, his energies were 
slackening, and he died in 1827. 

Sixteen years before his death Blake held a public ex- 
hibition of his drawings, engravings, illustrations and the 
like ; and the affair was treated with haughty disdain, 
the only paper which saw fit to print a criticism being The 
Examiner, edited by Leigh Hunt. It is customary for 
Blake's idolators of to-day to attempt to heap scorn on 
those who thus expressed callousness towards his work, 
and to vituperate more particularly the many people 
among his contemporaries who showed him frank antag- 
onism, but is not all this noisy blaming of his bygone ene- 
mies and critics unnecessarily severe ? For it must be borne 
in mind that the artist came as a complete novelty, the 
mysticism permeating his pictures having virtually no 
parallel in English painting prior to his advent. And it 
should be remembered, too, that Blake as a technician has 
many grave limitations ; and limitations which must have 



been exasperating to people accustomed to the art of that 
amazing century which begot masters like Ramsay, Gains- 
borough and Romney, Watteau and Fragonard, De la 
Tour and Clodion, all of them producing works eminently 
graceful and pre-emenently decorative. Now comparing 
him to any of these men, Blake's modelling appears sadly 
timid and amateurish, as witness his drawing of himself, 
or his copy of Laurence's portrait of Cowper ; while passing 
to his draughtsmanship, this is frequently inaccurate, and 
nowhere embodies the fluency and charming rhythm re- 
flected by nearly all the artists aforesaid. His colour again 
is often thin and tawdry ; while as to his composition, 
he is admirable only on very rare occasions, the incon- 
testable truth being that, in the bulk of his pictures, the 
different parts have little or no relation to one another. 
This is true especially of those of his works which include 
a vast assembly of figures, yet even in various others of 
simpler cast this lack of anything like arrangement is 
equally paramount, and to choose an example, one need 
only look at " The Door of Death " in America. This is 
two pictures rather than one, and the spectator's gaze 
wanders from side to side, fretted and bewildered. 

It were injustice to Blake himself, to omit noting these 
technical flaws in his workmanship, yet it were no less 
unjust, if not actually ridiculous, to write at any length 
contrasting him with the other masters of his century ; 
for his outlook and intention were wholly different from 
theirs, and, lacking their charm and decorative value, he 
transcends these men withal in divers respects. He is a 
prince among mystics, his finest drawings are flushed with 
weirdness and mystery, and he reincarnates visions and 
phantasies as no one else has done in line and colour, not 
even Rosetti. For Blake contrived to remain a child 
throughout the whole of his life, and so, for him, dreams 
were an actuality, the things he saw in his trances were 
real and living, and he perpetuated all these things with 
just that obvious and definite symbolism which a child 
would naturally use. When he wants to express " Vain 
Desire " he draws a man trying to reach the stars with the 
aid of an enormous ladder ; in the " Resurrection of the 
Dead " he delineates actual bodies soaring heavenwards, 
and when his topic is morning, he shows a nude form shining 
from the dusky mountain tops ; while for Blake " The 
Door of Death " is an actual stone portal, and when illus- 
trating the text in Job, " With dreams upon my bed Thou 
scarest me," he is not content to depict a sleeper with a 
frightened expression on his face, but draws all around 
the sleeper the imaginary horrors which tormented him — 
serpents, chains, and distorted human creatures. Now 
in the hands of most men all this sort of thing would yield 
nothing but the laughable, yet somehow Blake's drawings; 
even those which are weakest technically, invariably 
possess just that curious air of distinction which is the 
dominant characteristic of all truly great pictures. In 
fine, he expressed the outlook of a child with a sublime 
mastery never vouchsafed to children. 

If Blake the draughtsman and illustrator was a fierce 
iconoclast, turning his back resolutely on the styles current 
in his time, most assuredly Blake the poet, enacted a kin- 
dred role, evincing a sublime contempt for the trammels 
of Augustanism, and thus making straight the way for 
Burns, for Wordsworth, and for the divine Shelley. Yet 
just as Burns was tinged slightly by the typical failings 
of the pastoral century, so also Blake would seem to have 
found it difficult originally to break his shackles : for oc- 
casionally one finds him employing expletives, and this 
suggests that at first he thought with Pope and his school 
that verse is futile unless precise ; while some of bis pic- 
tures of child life in Songs of Innocence are unduly pretty 
and idyllic, almost as idyllic as the scenes in Goldsmith's- 



Blake 



73 



Bodin 



Deserted Village. Unlike Lowry and Mr. Kenneth Grahame 
those exquisite adepts in the delineation of children, Blake 
shows only one side of childlife : for his children are nearly 
all out for a holiday, they are seldom vexed, or cross, or 
angry, and their eyes are hardly ever dim with tears. At 
least, however, they are prone to dream dreams and see 
visions : and it is significant that, in one poem, the writer 
describes a child unto whom are revealed things hidden 
from his father's eyes : — 

" Father, O father ! what do we here, 

In this land of unbelief and fear ? 

The land of dreams is better far 

Above the light of the morning star." 
That verse and many others besides, charm at once by 
a fusion of complete naturalness with rare beauty : and 
the genius of Blake in his earlier poems is really this, that 
with the simple language of childhood, and out of the 
simple events of childlife, he makes a noble and enduring 
art — an art, charged as surely as his own drawings with 
an air of distinction. 

Had Blake contented himself with writing his Poetical 
Sketches, his Songs of Innocence and the subsequent Songs 
of Experience, the charge of madness could not well have 
been levelled at him by his contemporaries. It was his 
later writings like The-Book of Thel and the Prophetic Books 
which begot this imputation, for in these later poems the 
writer casts his mantle of simplicity to the winds, he sets 
himself to give literary form to visions, and he is so purely 
spiritual and ethereal, so far beyond the realm of normal 
human speech, that mysticism frequently devolves into 
crypticism. His rhythm, too, is often so subtle that it 
hardly seems rhythm at all ; yet even in his weirdest flights 
Blake is still the master, he still embodies that curious 
something which differentiates great art from the rank and 
file of esthetic products. And if, as observed before, the 
colouring in many of his water-colour drawings is sadly 
thin and poor, the very reverse is true, and true abundantly 
of the poems written towards the close of his life. Glowing 
and gorgeous tones are omnipresent in these, they have the 
barbaric pomp of Gautier's finest prose, the glitter and 
opulence of Berlioz' or Wagner's orchestration, nay the 
richness and splendour of a sunset among towering 
mountains. 

No account of Blake would be complete without some 
account of the literature which has grown up around his 
name, a literature whereof many items are mor^e than 
worthy of the topic they celebrate. The earliest systematic 
biography of the master is that by Alexander Gilchrist, 
1863, a book, the more valuable inasmuch as it contains 
many reproductions of Blake's drawings, notably the whole 
of the Job set : and since Gilchrist's day the artist's life 
has been rewritten by Alfred I. Story, 1893, and by Edwin 
J. Ellis, 1907, while his letters have been collected and 
annotated by Frederick Tatham, 1906. Much interesting 
and important matter concerning Blake is contained in 
The Life and Letters of Samuel Palmer, by A. W. Palmer, 
1892 in A Memoir of Edward Calvert by Samuel Calvert, 
1893, and in The Lije of John Linnell by A. T. Story, 1892, 
while as regards critical studies of the master, perhaps the 
best is Swinburne's eloquent tribute, 1868, and further 
works of note are those of Richard Garnett, Mr. Arthur 
Symons and M. Basil de Selincourt. The student should 
also consult Ideas of Good and Evil by W. B. Yeats, 1903, 
and The Rosetti Papers by W. M. Rossetti, 1903, while he 
will find it advisable to look also at an edition of the Job 
illustrations containing an able introduction by Mr. Laur- 
ence Binyon, 1906. To speak finally of editions of Blake's 
own writings these are of course numerous, but the only 
one which is really complete is that edited by E. J. Ellis, 
1906. W. G. B-M. 



Blanolifleur : Granddaughter of the Duke of Fsrrara and 
heroine of the romance Florics and BlanchefleUr, which is 
probably of Spanish origin. She and Flori.ce, son of the 
King of Murcia, loved each other from infancy, and she 
gave him a magical ring. He was banished for his love 
and Blanchfieur was eventually shipped to Alexandria to- 
be sold as a slave. Florice, however, found her there, 
partly by aid of the mystic ring, and they were happily 
united . 

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna : was born at Ekaterinoslav 
Russia, on the 31st of July, 1831. She was the daughter 
of Colonel Peter Hahn, a member of a Mecklenburg family 
settled in Russia. She married, at the age of seventeen 
Nicephore Blavatsky, a Ruseian official in Caucasia, a man 
very much older than herself. Her married life was of short 
duration as she separated from her husband in a few months. 
The next year or so she occupied chiefly in travelling, Texas 
Mexico, Canada and India, were each in turn the scene 
of her wanderings, and she twice attempted to enter Tibet, 
on one occasion she managed to cross its frontier in disguise 
but lost her way, and after various adventures was found 
by a body of horsemen and escorted homewards. The 
period between 1848 and 1858, she described as the " veiled" 
time of her life, refusing to divulge anything that happened 
to her in these ten years, save stray allusions to a seven 
years' stay in Little and Great Tibet, or in a " Himalayan 
Retreat." In 1858 she returned to Russia, where she soon 
achieved distinction as a spiritualistic medium. Later on 
she went to the United States where she remained for six 
years, and became a naturalised citizen. She became 
prominent in spiritualistic circles in America about 1870. 
It was there that she founded her school of Theosophy. 
The idea occurred to her of combining her spiritualistic 
" control " with Buddhistic legends about Tibetan sages, 
and she professed to have direct " astral " communication 
with two Tibetan mahatmas. 

With the aid of Col. Henry Olcott, she founded in New 
York, in 1875, the Theosophical Society with a threefold 
aim : (1) to form a universal brotherhood of man ; (2) to 
study and make known the ancient religions, philosophies- 
and sciences ; (3) to investigate the laws of nature and 
develop the divine powers latent in man. In order to gain 
converts to Theosophy she was obliged to appear to perform 
miracles. This she did with a large measure of success, but 
her " methods " were on several occasions detected as fraudu- 
lent. Nevertheless her commanding personality secured 
for her a large following, and when she died, in 1891, she 
was at the head of a large body of believers in her teaching, 
numbering about 100,000 persons. (See Theosophy.) 

Blindfolding a Corpse : The Afritans of the Shari River in 
Central America were wont to blindfold a ccrpse before 
burying it, to prevent it from returning to haunt 
the survivors. 

Blockula : (See Scandinavia.) 

Bluebeard : (See Gilles de Laval.) 

Bodhisattva : is the official in the theosophical hierarchy 
who has charge of the religion and education of the world. 
He is the founder of religions, instituting these either di- 
rectly or through one of his messengers, and after a faith 
has been founded, he puts it in charge of a Master, though 
he still continues the direction of it. 

Bodin, Jean : a jurisconsult and student of demonology, who 
died of the plague in 1596. An Angevin by birth, he 
studied law in youth and published his Republique, which 
La Harpe calls " the rerm of the spirit of law," but it is 
his Demonomanie des Sorciers by which he is known to 
occultists. In this work he defended sorcery, but propa- 
gated numerous errors. By his Colloquium heptaplomeron 
de abdites rerum sublimium varcanus he aroused very un- 
favourable opinions regarding his religious views. In it 



Bodin 



74 



Boehme 



he discusses in the form of dialogue the theological opinions 
of Jews, Mussulmans, and deists to the disadvantage of 
the Christian faith, and although he died a Catholic he 
professed in his time the tenets of Protestantism, Judaism, 
sorcery, atheism and deism. The Demonomanie was pub- 
lished in Paris, in 1581, and again under the title of Fleau des 
demons et des sorciers at Wiort, in 161 6. In its first and 
second books Bodin demonstrates that spirits have com- 
munication with mankind, and traces the various charac- 
teristics and forms which distinguish good spirits from 
evil. He unfolds the methods of diabolic prophecy and 
communication, and those of evocation of evil existences 
of pacts with the Devil, of journeys through the air to the 
sorcerers' Sabbath, of infernal ecstasies, of spells by which 
■one may change himself into a werewolf, and of carnal 
communion with incubi and succubi. The third book 
speaks of the manner of preventing the work of sorcerers 
and obviating their charms and enchantments, and the 
fourth of the manner in which sorcerers may be known. 
He concludes his study by refuting the work of John Wier 
or Wierius (q.v.) who, he asserts, was in error in believing 
sorcerers to be fools and people or unsound mind, and states 
that the books of that author should be burned " for the 
honour of God." 

Sir Walter Scott says : " Bodin, a lively Frenchman, 
explained the zeal of Wierius to protect the tribe of 
sorcerers from punishment, by stating that he himself 
was a conjurer and the scholar of Cornelius Agrippa, and 
might therefore well desire to save the lives of those accused 
of the same league with Satan. Hence they threw on their 
antagonists the offensive names of witch-patrons and 
witch-advocates, as if it were impossible for any to hold 
the opinion of Naudaeus, Wierius, Scot, etc., without patron- 
izing the devil and the witches against their brethren of 
mortality. Assailed by such heavy charges, the philoso- 
phers themselves lost patience, and retorted abuse in their 
turn, calling Bodin, Delrio, and others who used their 
arguments, witch-advocates, and the like, as the affirming 
and defending the existence of the crime seemed to increase 
the number of witches, and assuredly augmented the list 
of executions. But for a certain time the preponder- 
ance of the argument lay on the side of the Demonolo- 
gists. 
Boehme, Jakob : (1575-1624) : German Mystic. The name o 
this illustrious mystic and philosopher, who has excited 
so wide and lasting an influence, is sometimes spelt Beem 
or Behm, Behmon or Behmont, while commoner still is the 
form used at the head of this article ; but it is probable 
that Jakob's name was really Bohme, for that spelling 
savours far more of bygone Germany- than any of the 
multifarious others do. Born in 1575, at Altsteidenberg, 
in Upper Lusatia, the philosopher came of humble peasant 
stock, and accordingly his education consisted in but a 
brief sojourn at the village school of Seidenberg, about a 
mile from his own home, while the greater part of his 
childhood was spent in tending his father's flocks on the 
grassy sides of a mountain, known as the Landskrone. 
This profession doubtlesj appealed to a boy of speculative 
and introspective temperament, but betimes it transpired 
that Jakob was not strong enough physically to make a 
good shepherd, and consequently he left home at the age 
of thirteen, going to seek his fortune at Gorlitz, the nearest 
town of any size. 

To this day Gorlitz is famous for its shoemakers, while 
in Boehme's time it was a very centre and stronghold of 
"the cobbling industry ; so it was to a cobbler that the boy 
went first in search of employment, and very soon he had 
found what he wanted. Unfortunately, the few authentic 
Tecords of his career offer little information concerning his 
•early years, but apparently he prospered tolerably well. 



it being recorded that in 1599 he became a master-shoe- 
maker, and that soon afterwards he was married to Kathar- 
ina, daughter of Hans Kantzschmann, a butcher. The 
young couple took a house near the bridge in Neiss Voistadt 
— their dwelling is still pointed out to the tourist — and 
some years later Boehme sought to improve his business 
by adding gloves to his stock in trade, a departure which 
sent him periodically to Prague to acquire consignments 
of the goods in question. 

It is likely that Boehme began to write soon after be- 
coming a master-cobbler, if not even at an earlier period, 
but it was not till he was approaching forty that his gifts 
became known and appreciated. About the j'ear 1612, he 
composed a philosophical treatise, Aurora, oder die Mor- 
genrote un Aujgang, and, though this was not printed till 
much later, manuscript copies were passed from hand to 
hand, the result being that the writer soon found himself 
the centre of a local, circle of thinkers and scholars, many 
of them people far above him in the social scale. These 
did not say that the cobbler should stick to his last, but 
realised that his intellect was an exceptionally keen one ; 
and Boehme would no doubt have proceeded to print and 
publish his work but for an unfortunate occurrence, just 
that occurrence which has always been liable to harass 
the man of bold and original mind. In short, a charge of 
heresy was brought against him by the Lutheran Church ; 
he was loudly denounced from the pulpit by Gregorius 
Richter, pastor primarius of Gorlitz, and anon, the town 
council, fearing to contend with the omnipotent eccles- 
iastical authorities, took po session of the original manu- 
script of Boehme's work, and bade the unfortunate author 
desist from writing in the meantime. So far as can be 
ascertained, he obeyed instructions for a little while, per- 
haps fearing the persecution which would await him if he 
did otherwise, but by 1618 he was busy again, compiling 
polemical and expository treatises ; while in 1622, he wrote 
certain short pieces on repentance, resignation, and the 
like. These last were the only things from his pen which 
were published in book form during his lifetime, and with 
his consent, nor were they of a nature likely to excite 
clerical hostility ; but a little later Boehme circulated a 
less cautious theological work, Der Weg zu Christa, and this 
was the signal for a fresh outburst of hatred on the part 
of the church, Richter storming from his pulpit once again. 
The philosopher, however, contrived to go unscathed, and, 
during a brief sojourn at Dresden, he had the pleasure of 
listening to sundry orations made in his praise by some 
of his admirers, whose number was now greatly increased. 
But Boehme was not destined to survive this triumph long, 
for, struck down by fever at Dresden, he was carried with 
great difficulty to his home at Gorlitz, and there he died in 
1624, his wife being absent at the time 

Boehme's literary output divides itself easily and natur- 
ally into three distinct sections, and indeed he himself 
observed this, and drew up a sort of specification wherein 
he virtually indicated his successive aims. At first he 
was concerned simply with the study of the deity, and to 
this period belongs his Aurora ; next he grew interested 
in the manifestation of the divine in the structure of the 
world and of man, a predilection which resulted in four 
great works. Die Drei Principien Gotilichens Wes Wescus, 
Vom Dreifachen Leben der Menschen, Von der Mensch- 
werdung Christi, and Von der Geburt and Bezlichnang Aller 
Wescu ; while finally, he devoted himself to advanced 
theological speculations and researches, the main outcome 
being his Von Christi Testamsnten and his Von der Chaden- 
wahl : Mysierium Magnum. Other notable works from 
his hand, are his seven Quellgeister , and likewise his study 
of the three first properties of eternal nature, a treatise 
in which some of his ardent devotees have found Sir Adam 



TJoehme 



75 



Boniface 



Newton's formula anticipated, and which certainly re- 
sembles Schelling's Theogonische Natur. 

Alchemist or not himself, Boehme's writings demonstrate 
that he studied Paracclsas closely, while they also reflect 
-the influence of Valentine Weigel, and of the earliest 
-protestant mystic, Kaspar Schwenhfeld. Nor was it other 
•than natural that the latter should appeal keenly to the 
philosopher of Gorlitz, he too being essentially a stout 
Protestant, and having little or nothing in common with 
the mystics of other forms of Christianity. That is to say, 
he is seldom or never dogmatic, but always speculative, 
true Teuton that he was ; while his writings disclose none 
-of those religious ecstasies which fill the pages of Santa 
Theresa, and he never talks of Holding converse with 
spirits or angels, or with bygone saints ; he never refers 
to miracles worked on his behalf, practically the one 
■exception being a passage where he tells how, when a 
shepherd boy on the Landskrone, he was vouchsafed an 
.apparition of a pail of gold. At the same time, he seems 
to have felt a curious and constant intimacy with the 
invisible world, he appears to have had a strangely per- 
spicacious vision of the Urgrund, as he calls it, which is, 
being literally translated, primitive cause ; and it was 
probably his gift in these particular ways, and the typically 
German clearness with which he sets down his ideas and 
convictions, which chiefly begot his vast and wide influence 
over subsequent people inclined to mysticism. Through- 
out the latter half of the seventeenth century, his works 
were translated into a number of different languages, and 
found a place in the library of nearly every broadminded 
English theologian ; while they proved a great and acknow- 
ledged source of inspiration to William Law, the author of 
■Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout Life. 
Since then, various religious bodies, regarding Boehme 
as their high priest, have been founded in Great Britain 
and in Holland ; while in America, too, the sect known as 
Philadelphians owe their dominant tenets to the mystic 
of Gorlitz. W. S. B-M. 

Uogey : Perhaps derived from the Slavonic bog, god. Other 
fbrms of the name of this ancient sprite, spectre or goblin 
are bug-a-boo, boo (Yorkshire), boggart, bogle (Scotland), 
boggle, bo-guest, bar-guest, boll, boman, and bock. Bull- 
beggar is probably a form of bu and bogey allied to boll 
'(Northern), an apparition. 

Boguet Henri : Grand Justice of the district Saint Claude, 
in Burgundy, who died in 1619. He was the author of a 
work full of peurile and ferocious zeal against sorcerers. 
This book, published at the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century, was latterly burnt because of the inhu- 
manities which crowded its pages. It is entitled Discours 
des sorciers, with many instructions concerning how to 
judge sorcerers and their acts. It is, in short, a compilation 
•of procedures, at the majority of which the author has 
Tiimself presided, and which exhibit the most incredible 
absurdities and criminal credulity. In its pages we dis- 
cover the proceedings against the unfortunate little Louise 
Maillat, who at the age of eight was possessed of eight 
demons, of Francoise Secretain, a sorceress, who had 
meetings with the said demons, and who had the Devil 
for her lover, and of the sorcerers Gros-Jacques and Willir- 
moz. Claude Gailiard and Roland Duvernois and many 
others figure in the dreadful role of the sanguinary author's 
dread judgments. Boguet details the horrible doings of 
•the witches' Sabbath, how the. sorcerers caused hail to fall 
■of which they made a powder to be used as poison, how 
they used an unguent which carried them to the Sabbath, 
.how a sorcerer was enabled to slay whom he would by 
means of a mere breath, and how, when arraigned before 
a judge they cannot shed tears. He further enlarges on 
the Devil's mark which was found on the skins of these 



unfortunates, of how all sorcerers and magicians possess 
the power of changing their forms into those of wolves, 
and how, for these offences they were burnt at the stake 
without sacrament, so that they were destroyed body and 
soul. The work terminates with instructions to judges 
of cases of sorcery, and is often known as the Code des 
Sorciers. 

Boh : A magical word greatly used to frighten children. 
" Boe," a Greek word is synonymous with the Latin 
" Clamor " signifying our English " cry ;" and it is possible 
that the cry of the ox "boo ' may have suggested this 
exclamation, as this sound would quite naturally be very 
terrifying to a young child. One also suspects some con- 
nection between this monosyllable and the " Bogle-boe ' 
or " bwgwly " of Welsh people. According to Warton, 
it was the name of a fierce Gothic general, whose name 
like those of other great conquerors" was remembered as 
a word of terror. 

Bohmius, Jean : The author of a work entitled Pyschologie, 
a treatise on spirits, published at Amsterdam in 1632. 
Of its author nothing is known. 

Bolomancy : (See Belomancy.) 

Bonati : A Florentine astrologer who flourished in the thir- 
teenth century. He lived in a most original manner, and 
perfected the art of prediction. When the army of Martin 
IV, beseiged Forli, a town of the Romagna, defended by 
the Count of Montferrat.BoMatfi announced to the Count 
that he would succeed in repulsing the enemy, but that 
he would be wounded in the fray. The event justified 
his prediction, and the Count who had taken with him the 
necessary materials to staunch his wound in case the pro- 
phecy came true, became a devout adherent of astrology. 
Bonati became a Franciscan towards the close of his life, 
and died in 1300. His works were published by Jacobus 
Cauterus under the title of Liber Astronomicus, at 
Augsberg, in 1491. 

Boniface VIII., Pope, who gained an unenviable notoriety 
in Dante's Inferno has been regarded by many as an ex- 
ponent of the black art, and so romantic are the alleged 
magical circumstances connected with him that they are 
worthy of repetition. Boniface, a noted jurisconsult, was 
born at Anagni, about 1228, and was elected Pope in 1294. 
He was a sturdy protagonist of papal sapremacy, and before 
he had been seated two years on the throne of St. Peter 
he quarrelled seriously with Phillippe le Bel, King of France, 
whom he excommunicated. This quarrel originated in 
the determination ot the king to check in his own dominions 
the power and insolence of the church and the ambitious 
pretensions of the see of Rome. In 1303, Phillippe's min- 
isters and agents, having collected pretended evidence in 
Italy, boldly accused Boniface of heresy and sorcery, and 
the king called a council at Paris to hear witnesses and 
pronounce judgment. The pope resisted, and refused to 
acknowledge a council not called by himself ; but the 
insults and outrages to which he was exposed proved too 
much for him, and he died the same year, in the midst of 
these vindictive proceedings. His enemies spread abroad 
a report, that in his last moments he had confessed his 
league with the demon, and that his death was attended 
with " so much thunder and tempest, with dragons flying 
in the air and vomiting flames, and such lightning and 
other prodigies, that the people of Rome believed that 
the whole city was going to be swallowed up in the abyss." 
His successor, Benedict xi. undertook to defend his memory 
but he died in the first year of his pontificate (in 1304), 
it was said by poison, and the holy see remained vacant 
during eleven months. In the middle of June, 1305, a 
Frenchman, the archbishop of Bordeaux, was elected to 
the papal chair under the title of Clement V. 

It was understood that Clement was raised to the papacy 



Boniface 



76 



Book of the Dead 



in a great measure by the king's influence, who is said to 
have stipulated as one of the conditions, that he should 
allow of the proceedings against Boniface, which were to 
make his memory infamous. Preparations were again 
made to carry on the trial of Boniface, but the king's ne- 
cessities compelled him to seek other boons of the supreme 
pontiff, in consideration of which he agreed to drop the 
prosecution, and at last, in 13 12, Boniface was declared 
in the council of Vienne, innocent of all the offences with 
which he had been charged. 

If we may place any faith at all in the witnesses who 
were adduced against him, Boniface was at bottom 
a freethinker, who concealed under the mitre the spirit 
of mockery which afterwards shone forth in his country- 
man Rabelais, and that in moments of relaxation, especially 
among those with whom he was familiar, he was in the 
habit of speaking in bold — even in cynical — language, of 
things which the church regarded as sacred. Persons were 
brought forward who deposed to having heard expressions 
from the lips of the pope, which, if not invented or exag- 
gerated, savour of infidelity, and even of atheism. Other 
persons deposed that it was commonly reported in Italy, 
that Boniface had communication with demons, to whom 
he offered his worship, whom he bound to his service by 
necromancy, and by whose agency he acted. They said 
further, that he had been heard to hold conversation with 
spirits in the night ; that he had a certain " idol," in which 
a " diabolical spirit" was enclosed, whom he was in the 
habit of consulting ; while others said he had a demon 
enclosed in a ring which he wore on his finger. The wit- 
nesses in general spoke of these reports only as things which 
they had heard ; but one a friar, brother Bernard de 
Sorano. deposed, that when Boniface was a cardinal, and 
held the office of notary to Nicholas III., he lay with the 
papal army before the castle of Puriano, and he (brother 
Bernard) was sent to receive the surrender of the castle. 
He returned with the cardinal to Viterbo, where he was 
lodged in the palace Late one night, as he and the car- 
dinal's chamberlain were looking out of the window of the 
room he occupied, they saw Benedict of Gaeta (which was 
Bomjace s name before he was made pope) enter a garden 
adjoining the palace, alone, and in a mysteiious manner. 
He made a circle on the ground with a sword, and placed 
himself in the middle, having with him a cock, and a fire 
in an earthen pot (in quadam olla terrea). Having seated 
himself in the middle of the circle, he killed the cock 
and threw its blood in the fire, from which smoke 
immediately issued, while Benedict read in a certain book 
to conjure demons. Presently brother Bernard heard a 
great noise (rumorem magnum) and was much terrified. 
Then he could distinguish the voice of some one saying, 
" Give us the share," upon which Benedict took the cock 
threw it out of the garden, and walked away without ut- 
tering a word. Though he met several persons on his 
way, he spoke to nobody, but proceeded immediately to 
a chamber near that of brother Bernard, and shut himself 
up. Bernard declared that, though he knew there was 
nobody in the room with the cardinal, he not only heard 
him talking all night, but he could distinctly perceive a 
strange voice answering him. 
Bonnevault, Pierre : A sorcerer of Poitou in the seventeenth 
century, who was arrested as he was on his way to the 
Devil's Sabbath. He confessed that on the first occasion 
he had been present at that unholy meeting he had been 
taken thither by his parents and dedicated to the Devil, 
to whom he had promised to leave his bones after death, 
but that he had not bargained to leave his infernal majesty 
his immortal soul. He admitted that he called Satan 
master, that the Enemy of Man had assisted him in various 
magical acts, and that he, Bonnevault, had slain various 



persons through Satanic agency. In the end he was con- 
demned to death. His brother Jean, accused of sorcery 
at the same time, prayed to the Devil for assistance, and- 
was raised some four or five feet from the ground and 
dashed back thereon, his skin turning at the same time to a 
blue-black hue. He confessed that he had met at the 
Sabbath a young man through whom he had promised 
one of his fingers to Satan after his death. He also told 
how he had been transported through the air to the Sabbattt 
how he had received powders to slay certain people whom 
he named, and for these crimes he received the punishment 
of death. 

Bonnevault, Maturin , de : Father of the preceding also 
accused of sorcery, visited by experts who found upon 
his right shoulder a mark resembling a small rose, and 
when a long pin was thrust into this he displayed such 
signs of distres? that it was judged that he must be a sor- 
cerer, indeed, he confessed that he had espoused Berthomee 
de la Bedouche, who with her father and mother practised 
sorcery, and how he had gone -to seek serpents and toads 
for the purposes of their sorceries. He said that the Sab- 
bath was held four times yearly, at the feasts of Saint 
John the Baptist, Christmas, Mardi gras and Paques. 
He had slain seven persons by sorcery, and avowed that 
he had been a sorcerer since he was seven years of age. 
He met a like fate with his sons. 

Book of Celestial Chivalry : Appeared in the middle of the 
sixteenth century. It is of Spanish origin ; and treats of 
suppositious knightly adventures, in a semi-romantic, 
semi-mystical vein. 

Book of Sacred Magic : (See Abraham the Jew.) 

Book of Secrets : (See Kabala.) 

Book of the Dead : An arbitrary title given to an Egyptian 
funerary work called pert em hru, the proper translation 
of which is : " coming forth by day," or '" manifested in 
the light." There are several versions or recensions of 
this work, namely those of Heliopolis, Thebes and Sais, 
these editions differing only inasmuch as they were edited 
by the colleges of priests founded at these centres. Many 
papyri of the work have been discovered, and passages 
from it have been inscribed upon the walls of tombs and 
pyramids, and on sarcophagi and mummy-wrappings. 
It is undoubtedly of extremely early date : how early it 
would indeed be difficult to say with any exactness, but 
in the course of centuries it was greatly added to and modi- 
fied. In all about 200 chapters exist, but no papyrus has 
been found containing all these. The chapters are quite 
independent of one another, and were probably all com- 
posed at different times. The main subject of the whole 
is the beatification of the dead, who were supposed to recite 
the chapters in order that they might gain power and enjoy 
the privileges of the new life. 

The work abounds in magical references, and it is its 
magical side alone which wo can consider here. The whole 
trend of the Book of the Dead is thaumatmagic, as its 
purpose is to guard the dead against the dangers which 
they have to face in reaching the other world. As in most 
mythologies, the dead Egyptian had to encounter malig- 
nant spirits, and was threatened by many dangers before 
reaching his haven of rest. He had also to undergo judg- 
ment by Ofiris, and to justify himself before being per- 
mitted to enter the realms of bliss. This he imagined he 
could in great part accomplish by the recitation of various 
magical formula?, and spells, which would ward off the 
evil influences opposed to him. To this end every Egyptian 
of means had buried with him a papyrus of the Book of 
the Dead, in which was contained at least all the chapters 
necessary to his encounter with such formidable adversaries 
as he would meet at the gates of Amenti (q.v.), the Egyptian 
Hades, and which would assist him in making replies during 



Book of the Dead 



77 



Borri 



his ceremony of justification. First amongst these spells 
were the " words of power " (See " Egypt "). The Egyp- 
tians believed that to discover the " secret " name of a god 
was to gain complete ascendancy over him. Sympathetic 
magic was in vogue in Egyptian burial practice, for we 
find in Egyptian tombs of the better sort, paintings of 
tables laden with viands of several descriptions, the in- 
scriptions attached to which convey the idea of boundless 
liberality. Inscriptions like the following are extremely 
common — " To the Ka or soul of so-and-so, 5,000 loaves 
of bread, 500 geese, and 5.000 jugs of beer." Those dedica- 
tions cost the generous donors little, as they merely had 
the objects named painted upon the wall of the tomb, 
imagining that their kas ox astral counterparts would be 
•eatable and drinkable by the deceased. This of course 
is merely an extension of the neolithic savage conception 
that articles buried with a man had their astral counter- 
parts and would be of use to him in another world. 

Pictorial representation played a considerable part in 
the magical ritual of the Book of the Dead. One of the 
pleasures of the dead was to sail over Heaven in the boat 
of Ra, and to secure this for the deceased one must paint 
•certain pictures and mutter over them words of power. 
On this, Budge in his Egyptian Magic says : " On a piece 
of clean papyrus a boat is to be drawn with ink made of 
green abut mixed with anti water, and in it are to be figures 
•of Isis, Thoth, Shu, and Khepera, and the deceased ; when 
this had been done the papyrus must be fastened to the 
breast of the deceased, care being taken that it does not 
actually touch his body. Then shall his spirit enter into 
the boat of Ra each day, and the god Thoth shall take 
heed to him, and he shall sail about with him into any 
place that he wisheth. Elsewhere it is ordered that the 
boat of Ra be painted ' in a pure place,' and in the bows 
is to be painted a figure of the deceased ; but Ra was 
supposed to travel in one boat (called Atet) until noon, 
and another (called Sektet) until sunset, and provision 
had to be made for the deceased in both boats. How 
was this to be done ? On one side of the picture of the 
boat a figure of the morning boat of Ra was to be drawn, 
and on the other a figure of the afternoon boat ; thus the 
one picture was capable of becoming two boats. And, 
provided the proper offerings were made for the deceased 
on the birthday of Osiris, his soul would live for ever, and 
he would not die a second time. According to the rubric 
to the chapter in which these directions are given, the 
text of it is as old, at least, as the time of Hesepti, the fifth 
king of the 1st. dynasty, who reigned about B.C. 4350, 
and the custom of painting the boat upon papyrus is prob- 
ably contemporaneous. The two following rubrics from 
Chapters CXXXIII. and CXXXIV., respectively, will 
•explain still further the importance of such pictures : — 

"1. ' This chapter shall be recited over a boat four 
cubits in length, and made of green porcelain (on which 
"have been painted) the divine sovereign chiefs of the cities ; 
and a figure of heaven with its stars shall be made also, 
and this thou shalt have made ceremonially pure by means 
of natron and incense. And behold, thou shalt make an 
-image of Ra in yellow colour upon a new plaque and set 
it at the bows of the boat. And behold, thou shalt make 
an image of the spirit which thou dost wish to make per- 
fect (and place it) in this boat, and thou shalt make it to 
travel about in the boat (which shall be made in the form 
of the boat) of Ra ; and he shall see the form of the god 
Ra himself therein. Let not the eye of any man what- 
soever look upon it, with the exception of thine own self, 
or thy father, or thy son, and guard (this) with great care. 
Then shall the spirit be perfect in the heart of Ra, and 
it shall give unto him power with the company of the gods ; 
and the gods shall look upon him as a divine being like 



unto themselves ; and mankind and the dead shall fall 
down upon their faces, and he shall be seen in the under- 
world in the form of the radiance of Ra.' 

"2. ' This chapter shall be recited over a hawk standing 
and having the white crown upon his head, (and over 
figures of) the gods Tern, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, 
Isis, Suti, and Nephthys, painted in yellow colour upon 
a new plaque, which shall be placed in (a model of) the 
boat (of Ra), along with a figure of the spirit whom thou 
wouldst make perfect. These thou shalt anoint with 
cedar oil, and incense shall be offered up to them on the 
fire, and feathered fowl shall be roasted. It is an act of 
praise to Ra as he journeyeth, and it shall cause a man to 
have his being along with Ra day by day, whithersoever 
the god vayageth ; and it shall destroy the enemies of Ra 
in very truth regularly and continually.' " 

It was understood that the words of power were not to 
be spoken until after death. They were " a great mys- 
tery " but " the eye of no man whatsoever must see it, 
for it is a thing of abomination for every man to know 
it. Hide it, therefore ; the Book of the Lady of the Hidden 
Temple is its name." This would seem to refer to some 
spell uttered by Isis-Hathor which delivered the god Ra 
or Horus from trouble, or was of benefit to him, and it is 
concluded that it may be equally efficacious in the case 
of the deceased. 

Many spells were included in the Book of the Dead for 
the purpose of preserving the mummy against mouldering, 
for assisting the owner of the papyrus to become as a god 
and to be able to transform himself into an)' shape he 
desired. Painted offerings were also provided for him 
in order that he might give gifts to the gods. Thus we 
see that the Book of the Dead was undoubtedly magical 
in its character, consisting as it did of a series of spells or 
words of power, which enabled the speaker to have perfect 
control over all the powers of Amenti. The only moment 
in which the dead man is not master of his fate is when 
his heart is weighed by Thoth before Osiris. If it does 
not conform to the standard required for justification, he 
is cast out ; but this excepted, an absolute knowledge 
of the Book of the Dead safeguarded the deceased in every 
way from the danger of damnation. So numerous are 
the spells and charms for the use of the- deceased, that to 
merely enumerate them would be to take up a good deal 
of space. A number of the chapters consist of prayers 
and hymns to the gods, but the directions as to the magical 
uses of the book are equally numerous, and the conception 
of supplication is mingled with the idea of circumvention 
by sorcery in the most extraordinary manner. 

Book of the Sum Total : (See Avicenna and Jean de Menug.) 

Book of Thel : (See Blake.) 

Boolya : (See Magic.) 

Boiaek : Mahomet's mare which he has put in Paradise. 
She has a human face, and stretches at each step as far 
as the furthest sight can reach. 

Boreal Virtue : (See Fludd.) 

Borri, Josephe-Franeois : An alchemistical imposter of the 
seventeenth century, born at Milan, in 1627. In youth 
his conduct was so wayward that at last he was compelled 
to seek refuge in a church in dread of the vengeance of 
those whom he had wronged. However, he speedily 
cloaked his delinquencies under the cloak of imposture 
and hypocrisy, and he pretended that God had chosen 
him to reform mankind and to re-establish His reign below. 
He also claimed to be the champion of the Papal power 
against all heretics and Protestants, and wore a wondrous 
sword which he alleged Saint Michael had presented him 
with. He said that he had beheld in heaven a luminous 
palm-branch which was reserved for him. He held that 
the Virgin was divine in nature, that she had conceived 



Borri 



78 



Braharv 



through inspiration, and that she was equal to her Son, with 
Whom she was present in the Eucharist, that the Holy 
Spirit was incarnate in her, that the second and third 
Persons of the Trinity were inferior to the Father. Accord- 
ing to some writers Borri proclaimed himself as the Holy 
Spirit incarnate. He was arrested after the death of 
Innocent X by order of the Inquisition, and on 3rd of 
January, 1661, condemned to be burnt as a heretic. But 
£e succeeded in escaping to Germany where he received 
much money from the Queen Christina to whom he claimed 
that he could manufacture the Philosophers' Stone. He 
afterwards fled to Copenhagen, whence he wished to sail 
to Turkey. But he was tracked to a small village hard 
by and arrested along with a conspirator. He was sent 
back to Rome, where he died in prison, August 10th, 1695. 
He is the author of a work entitled. The Key of the Cabinet 
of the Chevalier Borri (Geneva, 1681) which is chiefly 
concerned with elementary spirits, and it is this work which 
the Abbe de Villars has given in an abridged form as the 
Comte de Gabalis (q.v.). 

Borroughs, George : (See America, U.S. of.) 

Bors, Bohors or Boort : One of King Arthur's knights. He 
was associated with Sir Galahad and Lancelot in their 
search for the Holy Grail. He is the hero of many magical 
adventures, one of which we relate. During the quest 
for the Holy Grail, a damsel offers him her love, which 
he refuses ; and she, with twelve other damsels, thereupon 
threatens to throw herself from a tower. Bors, though 
of a kindly disposition, thinks they had better lose their 
souls than his. They fall from the tower, Bors crosses 
himself, and the whole vanishes, being a deceit of the devil. 
After the quest is ended Bors comes to Camelot ; he relates 
his adventures, which it is said were written down and 
kept in the Abbey of Salisbury. 

Botanomancy : A method of divination by means of burning 
the branches of vervein and brier, upon which were carved 
the questions of the practitioner. 

Bottle Imps : A class of German spirits, similar in many 
ways to Familiars. The following is the prescription of 
an old alchymist, given by the Bishop of Dromore in his 
Relics of Ancient Poetry, for the purpose of securing one of 
these fairies. First, take a broad square crystal or Vene- 
tian glass, about hree inches in breadth and length. Lay 
it in the blood of a white hen on three Wednesdays or 
three Fridays. Then take it and wash it with holy water 
and fumigate it. Then take three hazel sticks a year old ; 
take the bark off them ; make them long enough to write 
on them the name of the fairy or spirit whom you may 
desire three times on each stick, which must be flat on 
one side. Bury them under some hill haunted by fairies 
on the Wednesday before you call her ; and on the Friday 
following dig them out, and call her at eight, or three, or 
ten o'clock, which are good times for this purpose. In 
order to do so successfully one must be pure, and face to- 
ward- the East. When you get her, tie her to the glass. 

Bourru : A monkish apparition spoken of in many tales 
as that of an imaginary phantom which appears to the 
Parisians, walking the streets in the darkest hours of the 
night, and glancing in at the windows of timid folk — 
passing and re-pa?sing a number of times. Nurses are 
wont to frighten their small charges with the Monk Bourru. 
The origin of the spectre is unknown. 

Boville (or Bovillus), Charles de : A Picard who died about 
x 553' He desired to establish in his work De sensu the 
opinion, anciently held, that the world is an animal,- — an 
idea also imagined by Felix Nogaret. Others works by 
Boville are his Lettres, his Life of Raymond Lully, his 
Traite des douze nombres, and his Trois Dialogues sur I'Im- 
mortalite" de VAme, le Resurrection, et la Fin du Monde. 

Bowls, Magical [See Magic.) 



Boxhorn, Mark Querius : A celebrated Dutch critic, born 
at Bergen-op -Zoom, in 1612. His Treatise on Dreams 
(Leyden 1639) is of great rarity. 

Braccesco, Jean : A canon and alchemist of Brescia, who- 
flourished in the seventeenth century He gave much 
study to the hermetic philosophy, and commented upon 
the work of Geber. His most curious work is The Tree 
of Life a dissertation upon the uses of the Philosophers' 
Stone in medicine. (Rome. 1542.) 

Bradlaugh, Charles : A prominent member of the Committee- 
of the London Dialectical Society, appointed in 1869 to 
investigate the alleged phenomena of spiritualism. He 
and Dr. Edmunds were among those who served on sub- 

. committee No, 5, which held seances with Home, at which 
the phenomena were not at all satisfactory. The two ■ 
investigators named therefore signed a minority report, 
containing a careful and critical treatment of th»- 
evidence. 

Bragadini, Mark Antony : An alchemist of Venice, beheaded 
in 1595, because he boasted that he had made some gold 
from a recipe which he had received from a demon. 
He was tried at Munich, by order of Duke William II. 
Two black dogs which accompanied him were also arrested, 
charged with being familiars, and duly tried. They were- 
shot with an arquebuse in the public square. 

Brahan Seer, The : Coinneach Odhar (Kenneth Ore). Al- 
though Coinneach Odhar is still spoken of and believed 
in as a seer throughout the Highlands, and especially in 
the county of Ross and Cromarty, his reputation is of 
comparatively recent growth. The first literary reference- 
to him was made by Hugh Miller in his Scenes and Legends 
of the North of Scotland (1835). About half a century 
later a collection of the Seer's predictions was published by 
the late Mr. Alexander Mackenzie, Inverness, the author 
of several clan histories. Many of these alleged foretellings 
are of a trivial character. The most important prophecies- 
attributed to Coinneach (Kenneth) are those which refer 
to the house of Seaforth Mackenzies. One, which is sup- 
posed to have been uttered in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, foretold that the last of the Seaforths 
would be deaf. It was uttered at Brahan Castle, the chief 
seat of the Seaforths, near Dingwall, after the seer had 
been condemned to death by burning, by Lady Seaforth 
for some offensive remark. He declared to her ladyship 
that he would go to heaven, but she would never reach 
it. As a sign of this he declared that when he was burned 
a raven and a dove would hasten towards his ashes. If 
the dove was the first to arrive it would be proved his hope 
was well -founded. The same legend is attached to the 
memory of- Michael Scott — a rather suggestive fact. Ac- 
cording to tradition, Kenneth was burned on Chanonry 
Point, near Fortrose. No "record survives of this event. 
The first authentic evidence regarding the alleged seer, 
was unearthed by Mr. William M. Mackenzie, editor of ' 
Barbour's Bruce, who found among the Scottish Parlia- 
mentary records of the sixteenth century an order, which 
was sent to the Ross-shire authorities, to prosecute several 
wizards, including Coinneach Odhar. This was many years 
before there was a Seaforth. It is quite probable that 
Kenneth was burned, but the legendary cause of the tale 
must have been a " filling in " of late tradition. Kenneth's 
memory apparently had attached to it many floating 
prohecies and savings including those attributed to Thomas 
and Michael Scott. The sayings of "True Thomas " were 
hawked through the Highlands in Gaelic chap books, and 
so strongly did the bard appeal to the imaginations of the 
eighteenth century folks of Inverness, that they associate 
him with the Fairies- and Fingalians (Fians) of the local . 
fairy mound, Tom-na-hurich. A Gaelic saying runs,. 
" When the horn is blown, True Thomas will come forth." " 



Brahan 



79 



Bridge of Souls 



Thomas took the place of Fingal (Finn or Fionn) as chief 
of the " Seven Sleepers " in Tom-na-hurich, Inverness. 
At Cromarty, which was once destroyed by the sea, 
Thomas is alleged to have foretold that it would be 
thrice destroyed. Of course, the Rhymer was never in 
Cromarty and probably knew nothing about it. As he 
supplanted Fingal at Inverness, so at Cromarty he appearr 
to have supplanted some other legendary individual. The 
only authentic historical fact which remains is that Coin- 
neach Odhar war a notorious wizard, and of mature years, 
in the middle of the sixteenth Century. Wizards were not 
necessarily seers. It is significant that no reference is 
made to Kenneth in the letters received by Pepys from 
Lord Reay, regarding second-sight in the seventeenth 
century, or in the account of Dr. Johnson's Highland 
tour, although the learned doctor investigated the pro- 
blem sympathetically. 

In the Scottish Highlands no higher compliment could 
be paid to the memory of any popular man than to attribute 
to him the gift of " second sight." Rev. John Morrison, 
minister of Petty, near Inverness, who was a bard, was one 
of the reputed seers of this order. Many of his " wonderful 
sayings " were collected long after his death. Rev. Dr. 
Kennedy, a Dingwall Free Church minister, and a man 
of strong personality and pronounced piety, is reputed to 
have had not only the " gift of prophecy " but also the 
" gift of healing." He was himself a believer in " second 
sight " and stated that his father was able to foretell events. 
In his The Days of the Fathers in Ross-shire (1861), he 
makes reference to several individuals who were similarly 

' " gifted " with what he believed to be a God-given power. 
One of his seers was reputed to have foretold the " Dis- 
ruption " of the Church of Scotland about sixteen years 
before the event took place. By this time the seers had 
acquired the piety of the people who believed in them. 
Even the notorious Kenneth, the Brahan seer a Pagan and 
a wizard, became glorified by doubtful tradition, like the 
notorious Michael Scott, one of his prototypes. 

References to second sight in the Highlands are made 
in the following publications : Kirk's Secret Commonwealth 
of Elves, Fauns and Fairies ; Martin's Western Isles of 
Scotland ; Deuterosophia (Second Knowledge) or a Brief 
Discourse concerning Second Sight by Rev. John Frazer 
(Edinburgh, Ruddiman, Aned and Co, 1763), Miscellanies 
by John Aubrey, F.R.S (London, 1696). That there is 
sufficient evidence to justify the serious investigation of 
" Second sight " phenomena in the Scottish Highlands, 
no doubt can remain. But that is no reason why the 
" Brahan Seer " legends should be accepted as genuine, 
especially when it is found that Kenneth died before the 
Seaforth branch of the Mackenzies came into existence. 
Whoever foretold the fall of that house, it was certainly 
not the " notorious wizard " of the Scottish Parliamentary 
records. No doubt, Kenneth made himself notorious 
by tyrannizing over a superstitious people in the sixteenth 
century, ?.nd was remembered on that arcount. During 
his lifetime he must have been credited with many hap- 
penings supposed to have been caused by his spells. After 
his death- he gathered an undeserved reputation for 
prophecy and piety by the snowball process — a not un- 
familiar happening in the past of the Scottish Highlands, 
where Sir William Wallace, St. Patrick, St. Bean, and 
others were reputed to have been giants who flung glaciated 
boulders from hill-top to hill-top across wide glens and 
over lochs of respectable dimensions. 

Donald Mackenzie. 

Brahma Charin : (See India.) 

Braid : (See Hypnotism.) 

Breathings, The : One of the methods of yoga practice. 
There are three varieties of breathing amongst yogis : (1) by 



quite emptying the lungs, and holding them so as long, 
as possible ; (2) by filling the lungs as full as may be ; and 
(3) by merely retaining whatever breath happens to be in 
them. It is thus possible to suppress thought, thereby 
saving up much vital force. 

Bredis : French medium. (See France.) 

Brian : In the Kabala, the third of the three stages of spirit 
progress, the three original ranks or classes. Men are- 
called upon to proceed from the lower to the higher. In 
the Apocalypse Briah is represented as the feet of " the 
mighty angel with the face of the sun." 

Briatic World : (See Kabala.) 

Briccriu surnamed " of the Poisoned Tongue": an Ulster 
chieftain mentioned in the myth of Cuchulain, a mediaevaL 
Irish romance. It is said that upon one occasion he asked 
certain warriors to a feast, and started the question of 
which of them was the greatest. Conall, Laery, and Cu- 
chulain, were selected, and a demon called " The Terrible " 
was requested to decide the point. He suggested who- 
ever could cut off his, The Terrible's, head to-day, and 
allow his own head to be cut off on the morrow, would be 
the most courageous, and therefore most deserve the title 
of champion. Cuchulain succeeded in beheading the 
devil, who immediately picked up his head and vanished. 
The next day he reappeared in his usual form in order to 
cut off Cuchulain's head. On his placing his head on 
the block, the demon told him to rise, and acknowledged 
that he was champion of Ireland. 

Bridge of Souls : The superstition that the souls of the dead 
sought the other world by means of a bridge is pretty 
widely disseminated. The Rev. S. Baring Gould in his. 
Book of Folklore says : "As peoples became more civilised 
and thought more deeply of the mystery of death, they 
conceived of a place where the souls lived on, and being 
puzzled to account for the rainbow, came to the conclusion 
that it was a bridge by means of which spirits mounted to 
their abode above the clouds. The Milky Way was called 
variously the Road of the Gods or the Road of Souls. 
Among the Norsemen, after Odin had constructed his 
heavenly palace, aided by the dwarfs, he reared the bridge 
Bifrost, which men call the rainbow, by which it could 
be reached. It is of three colours ; that in the middle 
is red, and is of fire, to consume any unworthy souls that 
would venture up the bridge. In connection with this 
idea of a bridge uniting heaven and earth, up which souls 
ascended, arose the custom of persons constructing bridges 
for the good souls of their kinsfolk. On runic grave-stones 
in Denmark and Sweden we find such inscriptions as these: 
' Nageilfr had this bridge built for Anund, his good son.' 
' The mother built the bridge for her only son.' ' Hold- 
fast had the bridge constructed for Hame, his father, who 
lived in Viby.' ' Holdfast had the road made for Igul. 
and for Ura, his dear wife.' At Sundbystein, in the Up- 
lands, is an inscription showing that three brothers and 
sisters erected a bridge over a ford for their father. 

The bridge as a means of passage for the soul from this 
earth to eternity must have been known also to the Ancients 
for in the cult of Demeter, the goddess of Death, 
at Eleusis, where her mysteries were gone through, in 
order to pass at once after death into Elyisium, there was 
an order of Bridge priestesses ; and the goddess bore the 
name of the Lady of the Bridge. In Rome also the prieft 
was a bridge-builder pontifex, as he undertook the charge 
of souls. In Austria and parts of Germany it is still sup- 
posed that children's souls are led up the rainbow to heaven. 
Both in England and among the Chinese it is regarded as 
a sin to point with the finger at the bow. With us no 
trace of the idea that it is a Bridge of Souls remains. Prob- 
ably this was thought to be a heathen belief and was ac- 
cordingly forbidden, for children in the North of England 



Brig of Dread 



80 



Buer 



to this day when a rainbow appears, make a cross on the 
ground with a couple of twigs or straws, " to cross out the 
bow." The .West Riding recipe for driving away a rain- 
bow is : " Make a cross of two sticks and lay four pebbles 
on it, one at each end." 

Brig of Dread, The : There is an old belief, alluded to by 
Sir Walter Scott, that the soul, on leaving the body, has 
to pass over the Brig of Dread, a bridge as narrow as a 
thread, crossing a great gulf. If the soul succeed in passing 
it he shall enter heaven, if he fall off he is lost. 

Brimstone : Pliny says that houses were formerly hallowed 
against evil spirits by the use of Brimstone. 

Brisin : An enchantress who figures in the Morte d' Arthur. 
She plays an important part in the annunciation of Galahad 
and the allurement of Lancelot. 

British National Association of Spiritualists : A society 
formed in 1873, mainly through the instrumentality of 
Mr. Dawson Rogers, to promote the interests of spiritualism 
in Great Britain. It numbered among its original vice- 
presidents and members of council the most prominent 
spiritualists of the day — Benjamin Coleman, Mrs. Mak- 
dongall Gregory, Sir Charles Isham, Messrs. Jacken, Dawson 
Rogers, and Morell Theobald, Drs. Wyld, Stanhope Speer, 
and many others — while many eminent people of other 
lands joined the association as corresponding members. 
The B.N.A.S. in 1882 decided to change its name to " The 
Central Association of ' Spiritualists." Among its com- 
mittees was one for systematic research into the pheno- 
^mena of spiritualism, in which connection some interesting 
scientific experiments were made in 1878. Early in 1882 
conferences were held at the Association's rooms, presided 
over by Professor Barrett, which resulted in the formation 
of the Society for Psychical Research. Many members 
of the latter society were recruited from the council of 
the B.N.A.S., such as the Rev. Stainton Moses, Dr. George 
Wyld, Messrs. Dawson Rogers, and Morell Theobald. The 
B.N.A.S. was at first associated with the Spiritualist, 
edited by W. H. Harrison, but in 1879 the reports of its 
proceedings were transferred to Spiritual Notes, a paper 
which, founded in the previous year, came to an end in 
1881, as did also the Spiritualist. In the latter year 
Dawson Rogers founded Light, with which the society 
was henceforth associated. From the beginning of its 
career, the B.N. A .S. has held itself apart from religious 
and philosophical dogmatism, and has included among, 
its members spiritualists of all sects and opinions. 

British Spiritual Telegraph : Spiritualistic journal. (See 
Spiritualism.) 

Britten, Mrs. Emma Hardinge : Mrs. Emma Hardinge, after- 
wards Mrs. Hardinge Britten, was a distinguished " in- 
spirational " speaker, a native of London, but whose first 
championship of spiritualism was carried out in America. 
In 1865 she came to Britain with the intention of retiring 
from active service, but was persuaded by the spiritualists 
there to continue her labours. Her eloquent extempore 
lectures, delivered presumedly under spirit control, dealt 
often with subjects chosan by the audience, and were of a 
lofty and erudite character. She was the author of a 
History of Modem American Spiritualism, and a careful, 
if biased resume of spiritualism in all parts of the world, 
entitled Nineteenth Century Miracles. 

Broseliande : A magic forest in Brittany, which figures in 
the Arthurian legend. It was in this place that Merlin 
was enchanted by Nimue or Viviana, Lady of the Lake, 
and imprisoned beneath a huge stone. The name Bro- 
celiande is often employed as symbolic of the dim un- 
reality of legendary scenery. 

Brohou, Jean : A physician of Coutarces, in the seventeenth 
century. He was the author of an Almanack or Journal 
of Astrology, with prognostications for the year 1572, 



(Rouen, 1571), and a Description d'une Merveilleuse et 
Prodiigeuse Comete, with a treatise on comets, and the 
events they prognosticate (Paris, 1568;. 

Broichan, or Druid : (See Celts.) 

Broom : In Roumania and Tuscany it is thought that a 
broom laid beneath the pillow will keep witches and evil 
spirits away. 

Broomstick : Witches were wont to ride through the air on 
switches or broomsticks, on their nocturnal journey to the 
Sabbath. Does the broomstick magically take the place 
of a flying horse ? 

Brotherhood of the Trowel : An esoteric society which sprang 
up at Florence towards the end of the fifteenth century, 
which was composed of eminent architects, sculptors and 
painters ; and continued in existence for over four hundred 
years. Their patron was St. Andrew, whose festival was 
commemorated annually by ceremonies allied to the old 
Mysteries: 

Brothers of Purity : An association of Arab philosophers 
founded at Bosra in the tenth century. They had forms 
of initiation, and they wrote many works which were 
afterwards much studied by the Jews of Spain. 

Brown, John Mason : on prophecy by American medicine 
man. (See Divination.) 

Browne, Sir Thomas : A learned English medical man who 
died in 1682 at an advanced ' age. Besides, his famous 
Religio Medici and Urn Burial, he was chiefly celebrated 
by the manner in which he combatted popular errors in 
a work entitled Pseudodoxia Epadinium, an essay on popu- 
lar errors, — an examination of many circumstances in his 
time received as veritable facts, and which he proved to 
be false or doubtful. But frequently the learned author 
replaces one error by anotner, if on the whole his book is 
wonderfully accurate considering the date of its composi- 
tion. The work is divided into seven books, the first of 
which deals with those errors which spring from man's 
love of the marvellous ; the second, errors arising from 
popular beliefs concerning plants and metals, the third, 
absurd beliefs connected with animals ; the fourth book 
treats of errors relative to man ; the fifth, errors recorded 
by pictures ; the sixth deals with cosmographical and 
historical errors , and the seventh, with certain commonly 
accepted absurdities concerning the wonders of the world. 
For the publication of this work he was charged with 
atheism, which drew from him his famous Religio Medici. 

Bruhesen, Peter Van : A Dutch doctor and astrologer who 
died at Bruges, in 1571. He published in that town in 
1550 a Grand and Perpetual Almanack in which he scrupu- 
lously indicated by the tenets of judicial astrology the 
correct days for bathing, shaving, hair-cutting and so 
forth. The work caused offence to a certain magistrate 
of Bruges who plied the tonsorial trade, with the result 
that there appeared against Bruhesen's volume another 
Grand and Perpetual Almanack, with the flippant sub- 
title a scourge for empirics and charlatans. This squib 
was published by a rival medico, Francois Rapaert, but 
Peter Haschaerts, a surgeon, and a protagonist of astro- 
logical science, warmly defended Bruhesen in his Astro- 
logical Buckler. 

Bruillant : One of the actors mentioned in the Grand Saint 
Graal. He it was who discovered the Grail Sword in 
Solomon's ship, and with it slew Lambor. For this use 
of the holy sword, however, the whole of Britain suffered, 
for no wheat grew, the fruit trees bare no fruit, and there 
was no fish in the sea. Bruillant himself was punished 
with death. 

Buckingham, Duke of : (See England.) 

Buddhic Plane : (See Intuitional World.) 

Buer : According to Wierius, a demon of the second class. 
He has naturally the form of a star, and is gifted with a 



Buguet 



81 



Burma 



knowledge of philosophy and of the virtues of medicinal 
herbs. He gives domestic feliticy and health to the sick. 
He has charge over fifteen legions. 

Buguet : A French photographer who came to London in 
1874 and there produced spirit photographs with consid- 
erable skill. Many persons claimed to recognise their 
friends in the spirit pictures, and even after Buguet had 
been arrested, and had confessed that he had resorted to 
trickery, there were yet a number of persons who refused 
to believe that he was a fraud, and thought that he had 
been bribed to confess trickery of which he was innocent. 
(See Spirit Photography.) 

Bune : According to Wierius a most powerful demon, and 
one of the Grand Dukes of the Infernal Regions. His form 
is that of a man. He does not speak save by signs only, 
He removes corpses, haunts cemeteries, and marshals the 
demons around tombs and the places of the dead. He 
enriches and renders eloquent those who serve him. 
Thirty legions of the infernal army obey his call. The 
demons who own his sway called Bunis, are regarded by 
the Tartars as exceedingly evil. Their power is great and 
their number immense. But their sorcerers are ever in 
communication with these demons by means of whom 
they carry on their dark practices. 

Burgot, Pierre : A werewolf, burned at Besancon in 1521 with 
Michel Verdun (q.v.). 

Burial with Feet to the East : It was- formerly the custom 
among Christians to bury their dead with the feet towards 
the east and head towards the west. Various reasons 
are given for this practice, some authorities stating that 
the corpse was placed thus in preparation for the reser- 
rection, when the dead will rise with their faces towards 
the east. Others think this mode of burial is practised 
in imitation of the posture of prayer. 

Burma : A country east of India and south of China, and 
a province of British India, inhabited by an indigenous 
stock of Indo-Chinese type which originally migrated 
from Western China, at different periods, and which is 
now represented by three principal divisions, the Talaings, 
■the Shans, and the Bama, or Burmese proper, although 
groups of several other allied races are found in the more 
remote portions of the country. The civilised part of the 
community, which, roughly speaking, is perhaps one half 
of the population, recognizes a religion the constituents 
of which are animism (q.v.) and Indian Brahmanic demon- 
olatry, modified to some extent by Buddhistic influences, 
and this cult if steadily making progress in the less en- 
lightened and outlying tribes. We have here to do only 
with that portion of the popular belief which deals with 
the more directly occult and with superstition, and we 
shall refrain from any description of Burmese religion 
proper which presents similar features to those cults from 
which it takes its origin, and which are fully described 
elsewhere. 

The Burmese believe the soul immaterial and indepen- 
dent of the body, to which it is only bound by special 
attraction. It can quit and return to the body at will, 
but can also be captured and kept from returning to it. 
After death the soul hovers near the corpse as an invisible 
butterfly, known as leippya. A witch or demon may 
captuie the leippya while it wanders during the hours of 
sleep, when sickness is sure to result. Offerings are made 
to the magician or devil to induce him to release the soul. 
The Kachins of the Northern Hills of Burma believe that 
persons having the evil eye possess two souls, the secondary 
soul being the cause of the malign influence. 

Belief in Spirits. — Belief in spirits, mostly malign, 
is very general in Burma, and takes a prominent place in 
the religious belief of the people. The spirits of rain, wind 



and the heavenly bodies are in that condition of evolution 
which usually results in their becoming full-fledged 
deities, with whom placation gives place to worship. 
But the spirits of the forest are true demons with 
well-marked animistic characteristics. Thus the nat 
or seiktha dwells in every tree or grove. His nature 
is usually malign, but occasionally we find him the tutelar 
or guardian of a village. In any case he possesses a shrine 
where he may be propiatiated by gifts of food and drink. 
Several of these demoniac figures have almost achieved 
godhead, so widespread have their cults become, and Hmin 
Nat, Chiton, and Wannein Nat, may be instanced as fiends 
of power, the dread of which has spread across extensive 
district". The nals are probably of Indian origin, and 
although now quite animistic in character may at one time 
have been members of the Hindu pantheon. Many spirit 
families such as the Seikkaso, Akathaso, and Bammaso, 
who inhabit various parts of the jungle trees, are of Indian 
origin. The fulfilment of every wish depends upon the 
nats or spirits, who are all powerful as far as man is con- 
cerned. They are innumerable. Every house has its 
complement, who swarm in its several rooms and take up 
their abode in its hearth, door-posts, verandahs, and 
corners. The nats also inhabit or inspire wild beasts, and 
all misfortune is supposed to emanate from them. The 
Burmans believe that the more materialistic dead haunt 
the living with a malign purpose. The people have a 
great dread of their newly deceased ancestors, whom they 
imagine to haunt the vicinity of their dwellings for the 
purpose of ambushing them. No dead body may be carried 
to a cemetery except by the shortest route, even should 
this necessitate the cutting a hole in the wall of the house. 
The spirits of those who have died a violent death haunt 
the scene of their fatality. Like the ancient Mexicans 
(See Ciupipiltin 1 , the Burmans have a great dread of the 
ghosts of women who have died in childbed. The Kachins 
believe such women to turn into vampires (swawmx) who 
are accompanied by their children when these die with 
them. The spirits of children are often, supposed to in- 
habit the bodies of cats and dogs. The Burmans are 
extremely circumspect as to how they speak and act to- 
wards the inhabitants of the spirit-world, as they believe 
that disrespect or mockery will at once bring down upon 
them misfortune or disease. An infinite number of 
guardian spirits is included in the Burman demonological 
system, and these are chiefly supposed to be Brahmanic 
importations. These dwell in the houses like the evil 
nats, and are the tutelars of village communities, and even 
of clans. They are duly propitiated, at which ceremonies 
rice, beer, and tea-salad are offered to them. Women 
are employed as exorcists in a case of driving out the evil 
nats, but at the festivals connected with the guardian nats 
they are not permitted to officiate. 

Necromancy and Occult Medicine. — Necromancy is of 
general occurrence among the Burmese. The weza or 
wizards are of two kinds, good and evil, and these are again 
each subdivided into four classes, according to the materials 
which they employ, as, for example, magic squares, mercury 
or iron. The native doctors profess to cure the diseases 
caused by witchcraft, and often specialise in various ail- 
ments. Besides being necromantic, medicine is largely 
astrological. There is said to be in Lower Burma a town 
of wizards at Kale Thaungtot on the Chindwin River, and 
many journey thence to have the effects of bewitchment 
neutralised by its chief. Sympathetic magic is employed 
to render an enemy sick. Indian and native alchemy 
and cheiromancy are exceedingly rife. Noise is the uni- 
versal method of exorcism, and in cases of illness the patient 
is often severely beaten, the idea being that the fiend which- 
possesses him is the sufferer. 

a 



Burma 



82 



Byron 



Mediums and Exorcists. — The tumsa or natsaw are magi- 
cians, diviners, or " wise " men and women who practise 
their arts in a private and not in a hierophantic capacity 
among the rural Burmans. The wise man physician who 
works in iron (than weza) is at the head of his profession, 
and sells amulets which guard the purchasers from injury, 
female mediums profess to be the spouses of certain nats, 
and can only retain their supernatural connection with a 
certain spirit so long as they are wed to him. With the 
exorcists training is voluntary and even perfunctory. But 
with the mediums it is severe and prolonged. Among the 
civilised Burmans a much more exhaustive apprentice- 
ship is demanded. Indeed a" thorough and intricate 
knowledge of some departments of magical and astrological 
practice is necessary to recognition by the brotherhood, 
the entire art of which is medico-magical, consisting of the 
eorcism of evil spirits from human beings and animals. 
The methods employed are such as usually accompany 
exorcism among all semi-civilised peoples, that is, dancing, 
flagellation of the afflicted person, induction of ectasy, 
oblation to the fiend in possession, and noise. 

Prophecy and Divination. — These are purely popular 
in Burma, and not hierophantic, and in some measure are 
controlled bv the use of the Deitton, an astrological book 
of Indian origin. The direction in which the blood of a 
sacrificed animal flows, the knots in torn leaves, the length 
of a split bamboo pole, and the whiteness or otherwise of 
a hard-boiled egg, serve among others as methods of au- 
gury. But by far the most important mode of divination 
in use in Burma is that by means of the bones of fowls. 
It is indeed universal as deciding all the difficulties of 
Burmese existence. Those wing or thigh bones in which 
the holes exhibit regularity are chosen. Pieces of bamboo 
are inserted into these holes, and the resulting slant of the 
stick defines the augury. If the stick slants outwards it 
decides in favour of the measure under test. If it slants 
inwards, the omen is unfavourable. Other methods of 
divination are by the entrails of animals and by the con- 
tents of blown eggs. 

Astrology. — Burmese astrology derives both from Indian 
and Chinese sources, and powerfully affects the entire 
people. Every Burman is fully aware from his private 
astrologer, of the trend of his horoscope regarding the near 
future, and while active and enterprising on his lucky days, 
nothing will induce him to undertake any form of work 
should the day be pyaithadane or ominous. The Bedin- 
saya, or astrologers proper, practise a fully developed 
Hindu astrology, but they are few in number, and are 
practically neglected for the rural soothsayers, who follow 
the Chinese system known as Hpewan, almost identical 
with the Taoist astrological tables of Chinese diviners. 
From this system are derived horoscopes, fortunes, happy 
marriages, and prognostications regarding business affairs. 
But in practice the system is often confounded with the 
Buddhist calendar and much confusion results. The 
Buddhist calendar is in popular use, whilst the Hpewan 
is purely astrological. Therefore the Burman who is ig- 
norant of the latter must perforce consult an astrologer 
who is able to collate the two regarding his lucky and 
unlucky days. The chief horoscopic influences are day 
of birth, day of the week, which is represented by the 
symbol of a certain animal, and the position of the dragon's 
mouth to the terminal syllables of- the day-names. 

Magic. — Burmese magic consists in the making of charms 
the manufacture of occult medicine which will cause hallu- 
cination, second sight, the prophetic state, invisibility, 
or invulnerability. It is frequently " sympathetic." 
(See Magic) and overlaps into necromancy and astrology. 
It does not appear to be at all ceremonial, and is to a great 
extent unsophisticated, save where it has been influenced 



by Indian and Buddhist monks, who also draw on 
native sources to enlarge their own knowledge. 

LITERATURE.— Temple, The Thirty-seven Nats, 1906 ; 
Scott and Hardiman, Gazeteer of Upper Burma and the 
Shan States, 1900-1901 ; The Indian Antiquary, Vols. 
XVII.-XXXVI. ; Fielding Hall, The Soul of a people. 

Busardier : An alchemist of whom few particulars are on 
record. Ho lived at Prague with a noble Courtier. Fall- 
ing sick and feeling the approach of death, he sent a letter 
to his friend Richtausen, at Vienna, asking him to come and 
stay with him during his last moments. Richtausen set 
out at once but on arriving at Prague found that Busardier 
was dead. On inquiring if the adept had left anything 
behind him the steward of the nobleman with whom he 
had lived stated that only some powder had been left 
which the nobleman desired to preserve. Richtausen by 
some means got possession of the powder and took his 
departure. On discovering this the nobleman threatened 
to hang his steward if he did not recover the powder. The 
steward surmising that no one but Richtausen could have 
taken the powder, armed himself and set out in pursuit. 
Overtaking him on the road he at the point of the pistol, 
made Richtausen hand over the powder. Richtausen 
however contrived to abstract a considerable quantity. 
Richtausen knowing the value of the powder presented 
himself to the Emperor Ferdinand, himself an alchemist, 
and gave him a quantity of the powder. The Emperor 
assisted by his Mine Master, Count Russe, succeeded in 
converting three pounds of mercury into gold by means 
of one grain of the powder. The Emperor is said to have 
commemorated the event by having a medal struck bear- 
ing the effigy of Apollo with the caduceus of Mercury and 
an appropriate motto. 

Richtausen was ennobled under the title of Baron Chaos. 
Mr. A. E. Waite in his Lives of the Alchemists states 
that " Among many transformations performed by the 
same powder was one by the Elector of Mayence, in 1651. 
He made projections with all the precautions possible to 
a learned and skilful philosopher. The powder enclosed 
in gum tragacanth to retain it effectually, was put into the 
wax of a taper, which was lighted, the wax being then 
placed at the bottom of a crucet. These preparations 
were undertaken by the Elector himself. He poured four 
ounces of quicksilver on the wax, and put the whole into 
a fire covered with charcoal above, below and around. 
Then they began blowing to the utmost, and in about half 
an hour on removing the coals, they saw that the melted 
gold was over red, the proper colour being green. The 
baron said the matter was yet too high and it was necessary 
to put some silver into it. The Elector took some coins 
out of his pocket, put them into the melting pot, combined 
the liquefied silver with the matter in the crucet, and 
having poured out the whole when in perfect fusion into 
aiingot, he found after cooling, that it was very fine gold, 
but rather hard, which was attributed to the lingot. On 
again melting, it became exceedingly soft and the Master 
of the Mint declared to His Highness that it was more than 
twenty- four carats and that he had never seen so fine a 
quality of the precious metal." 

Butter, Witches' : The devilgives to the witches of Sweden 
cats which are called carriers, because they are sent by 
their mistresses to steal in the neighbourhood. The greedy 
animals on such occasions cannot forbear to satisfy their 
own appetites. Sometimes they eat to repletion and are 
obliged to disgorge their stolen meal. Their vomit is 
always found in kitchen gardens, is of a yellow colour, and 
is called witches' butter. 

Byron, Lord (See Haunted Houses.) 

Byron, Sir John : (See Haunted Houses.) 



Caacrinolaas 



83 



Cabiri 



c 



Caacrinolaas : According to Wierius (q.v.) Grand President 
of Hell, also known as Caasimolar and Glasya. He is 
figured in the shape of a god with the wings of a griffon. 
He is supposed to inspire knowledge of the liberal arts, 
and to incite homicides. It is this fiend who can render 
man invisible. He commands thirty-six legions. 
Cabiri, or more properly Cabeiri : A group of minor deities 
of Greek origin, of the nature and worship of whom very 
little is known. The name appears to be of Semitic origin, 
signifying the " great gods," and the Cabiri seem to have 
been connected in some manner with the sea, protecting 
sailors and vessels. The chief seats of their worship were 
Lemnos, Samothrace, Thessalia and Bceotia. They were 
originally only two in number — the elder identified with 
Dionysus, and the younger identified with Hermes, who 
was also known as Cadmilus. Their worship was at an 
early date amalgamated with that of Demeter and Ceres, 
with the result that two sets of Cabiri came into being — 
Dionysus and Demeter, and Cadmilus and Ceres. A Greek 
writer of the second century B.C. states that they were 
four in number — Axisros, Axiokersa, Axiokersos, and Cas- 
milus, corresponding, he states to Demeter, Persephone, 
Hades and Hermes. The Romans identified the Cabiri 
with the Penates. In Lemnos a festival of these deities 
was held annually and lasted nine days, during which all 
domestic and other fires were extinguished, and sacred 
fire was brought from Delos. From this fact it has been 
judged that the Cabiri may have been volcanic demons ; 
but this view has latterly been abandoned. It was in 
Samothracia that the cult of the Cabiri attained its widest 
significance, and in this island as early as the fifth century 
B.C. their mysteries were held with great eclat, and at- 
tracted almost universal attention. Initiation into these 
was regarded as a safeguard against misfortune of all kinds, 
and persons of distinction exerted all their influence to 
become initiates. In 1888 interesting details as to the 
bacchanal cult of the Cabiri were obtained by the excava- 
tion of their temple near Thebes. Statues of a deity called 
Cabeiros were found, attended by a boy cup-bearer. His 
attributes appear to be bacchic. 

The Cabiri are often mentioned as powerful magicians, 
and Herodotus and other writers speak of the Cabiri as 
sons of Vulcan. Cicero, however, regards them as the 
children of Proserpine ; and Jupiter is often named as 
their father. Strabo, on the other hand, regards them 
as the ministers of Hecate and Bochart recognises in them 
the three principal infernal deities, Pluto, Proserpine, and 
Mercury. It is more than likely that they were originally 
of Semitic Or Egyptian origin — more probably the former ; 
but we find a temple of Memphis consecrated to them in 
Egypt- It is not unlikely, as Herodotus supposes, that 
the cult is Pelasgian in origin, as it is known that the Pe- 
lasgians occupied the island of Samothrace, and established 
there certain mysteries, which they afterwards carried 
to Athens. There are also traditions that the worship 
of the Cabiri originally came from the Troad, a Semitic 
centre. Kenrick in his Egypt before Herodotus brings 
forward the following conclusions concerning the Cabiri : — 
" 1. The existence of the worship of the Cabiri at Mem- 
phis under a pigmy form, and its connection with the 
worship of Vulcan. The coins of Thessalonica also es- 
tablish this connection ; those which bear the legend 
' Kabeiros ' having a figure with a hammer in his hand, 
the pileus and apron of Vulcan, and sometimes an anvil 
near the feet. 

"2. The Cabiri belonged also to the Phoenician the- 
ology. The proofs are drawn from the statements of 
Herodotus. Also the coins of Cossyra, a Phoenician settle- 



ment, exhibit a dwarfish figure with the hammer and short 
apron, and sometimes a radiated head, apparently allusive 
to the element of fire, like the star of the Dioscuri. 

" 3. The isle of Lemnos was another remarkable seat 
of the worship of the Cabiri and of Vulcan, as representing 
the element of fire. Mystic rites were celebrated here 
over which they presided, and the coins of the island ex- 
hibit the head of Vulcan, or a Cabirus, with the pileus, 
hammer and forceps. It was this connection with fire, 
metallurgy, and the most remarkable product of the art, 
weapons of war, which caused the Cabiri to be identified 
with the Cureks of Etolia, the Ida^i Dactyli of Crete, the 
Corybantes of Phrygia, and the Telchines of Rhodes. They 
were the same probably in Phoenician origin, the same in 
mystical and orgiastic rites, but different in number, gene- 
alogy, and local circumstances, and by the mixture of 
other mythical traditions, acceding to the various coun- 
tries in which their worship prevailed. The fable that 
one Cabirus had been killed by his brother or brothers' 
was probably a moral mythus representing the result of 
the invention of armour, and analogous to the story of 
the mutual destruction of the men in brazen armour, who 
sprang.from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus and Jason. 
It is remarkable that the name of the first fratricide sig- 
nifies a ' lance,' and in Arabic a ' smith.' 

" 4. The worship of the Cabiri prevailed also in Imbros, 
near the entrance of the Hellespont, which makes it 
probable that the great gods in the neighbouring island 
of Samothrace were of the same origin. The Cabiri, Cu- 
retes, and Corybantes appear to have represented air as 
well as fire. This island was inhabited by Pelasgi, who 
may have derived from the neighbouring country of Thrace 
and Phrygia, and with the old Pelasgic mysteries of Ceres. 
Hence the various explanations given of the Samothracan 
deities, and the number of them so differently stated, some 
making them two, some four, some eight, the latter agree- 
ing with the number of early Egyptian gods mentioned 
by Herodotus. It is still probable that their original 
number was two, from their identification with the Dios- 
curi and Tyndarida?, and from the number of the Pataeci 
on Phoenician vessels. The addition of Vulcan as their 
father or brother made them three, and a fourth may have 
been their mother Cabira. 

"5. The Samothracian divinities continued to be held 
in high veneration in late times, but are commonly spoken 
of in connection with navigation, as the twin Dioscuri or 
Tyndaridas ; on the other hand the Dioscuri are spoken of 
as the Curetes or Corybantes. The coins of Tripolis exhibit 
the spears and star of the Dioscuri, with the legend' Cabiri.' 
" 6. The Roman Penates have been identified with 
the Dioscuri, and Dionysius states that he had seen two 
figures of ancient workmanship, representing youths armed 
with spears, which, from an antique inscription on them, 
he knew to be meant for Penates. So, the 'Lares ' of 
Etruria and Rome. 

" 7. The worship of the Cabiri furnishes the key to 
the wanderings of iEneas, the foundation of Rome, and 
the War of Troy itself, as well as the Argonautic expedition. 
Samothrace and the Troad were so closely connected in 
this worship, that it is difficult to judge in which of the 
two it originated, and the gods of Lavinium, the supposed 
colony from Troy, were Samothracian. Also the Palla- 
dium, a pigmy image, was connected at once with iEneas 
and the Troad, with Rome, Vesta, and the Penates, and 
the religious belief and traditions of several towns in the 
south of Italy. Mr. Kenrick also recognises a mythical 
personage in .lEneas, whose attributes were derived from 
those of the Cabiri, and continues with some interesting 



Cabiri 



84 



Csetulom 



observations on the Homeric fables. He concludes that 
the essential part of the War of Troy originated in the 
desire to connect together and explain the traces of an 
ancient religion. It fine, he notes one other remarkable 
circumstance, that the countries in which the Samothracian 
and Cabiriac worship prevailed were peopled either by 
the Pelasgi, or by the iEolians, who of all the tribes com- 
prehended under the general name Hellenes, approach 
the most nearly in antiquity and language to the Pelasgi 
' We seem warranted, then (our author observes), in two 
conclusions ; first, that the Pelasgian tribes in Italy, Greece 
and Asia were united in times reaching high above the 
commencement of history, by community of religious ideas 
and rites, as well as letters, arts, and language ; and, 
secondly, that large portions of what is called the heroic 
history of Greece, are nothing else than fictions devised 
to account for the traces of this affinity, when time and 
the ascendancy of other nations had destroyed the prim- 
itive connection, and rendered the cause of the similarity 
obscure. The original derivation of the Cabiriac system 
from Phoenicia and Egypt is a less certain, though still 
highly probable conclusion. 

" 8. The name Cabiri has been very generally deduced 
the Phoenician "mighty ' and this etymology is in accor- 
dance with the fact that the gods of Samothrace were 
called ' Divi potes.' Mr. Kenrick believes, however, that 
the Phoenicians used some other name which the Greeks 
translated ' Kabeiros,' and that it denoted the two elements 
of fire and wind." 

Pococke in his India in Greece will have it that the Cabiri 
are the 'Khyberi " or people of the " Khyber," or a Bud- 
dhist tribe — a totally unlikely origin for them. 

In the Generations of Sanconiathon, the Cabiri are 
claimed for the Phoenicians, though we understand the 
whole mystically. The myth proceeds thus. Of the Wind 
and the Night were born two mortal men, iEon and Proto- 
gonus. The immediate descendants of these were, 'Genus ' 
and ' Genea,' man and w6man. To Genus were born three 
mortal children, Phos, Pur, and Phlox, who discovered 
fire, and these again begat " sons of vast bulk and height, 
whose names were given to the mountains in which they 
dwelt, Cassiul, Libanus, Antilibanus, and Brathu. The 
issue of these giant men by their own mothers were Mein- 
rumus, Hypsuranius, and Usous. Hypsuranius inhabited 
Tyre ; and Usous becoming a huntsman, consecrated two 
pillars to fire and the wind, with the blood of the wild 
beasts that he captured. In times long subsequent to 
these, the race of Hypsuranius gave being to Agreus and 
Halieus, inventors, it is said, of the arts of hunting and 
fishing. From these descended two brothers, one of whom 
was Chrysor or Hephaestus ; in words, charms and 
divinations ; he also invented boats, and was the first 
that sailed. His brother first built walls with bricks, and 
their descendants in the second generation seem to have 
completed the invention of houses, by the addition of 
courts, porticos, and crypts. They are called Aletae and 
Titans, and in their time began husbandry and hunting 
with dogs. From the Titans descended Amynus, a builder, 
and Magus, who taught men to construct villages 
and tend flocks ; and of these two were begotten Misor 
(perhaps Mizraim), whose name signifies Well-freed ; and 
Sydic, whose name denotes the Just ; these found the 
use of salt. We now come to the important point in this 
line of wonders. From Misor descended Taautus (Thoth, 
Athothis, or Hermes Trismegistus), who invented letters ; 
and from Sydic descended the Dioscuri, or Cabiri, or Cory- 
bantes, or Samothraces. These, according to Sanconia- 
thon, first built a complete ship, and others descended 
from them who discovered medicine and charms. All 
this dates prior to Babylon and the gods of Paganism, 



the elder of whom are next introduced in the ' Generations.' 
Finally, Sanconiathon settles Poseidon (Neptune) and 
the Cabiri at Berytus ; but not till circumsision, the sac- 
rifice of human beings, and the portrayal of the gods had 
been introduced. In recording this event, the Cabiri are 
called husbandmen and fishermen, which leads to the 
presumption that the people who worshipped those ancient 
gods were at length called by their name. 

But little is known regarding the methods of initiation: — 
" The candidate for initiation was crowned with a garland 
of olive, and wore a purple band round his loins. Thus 
attired, and prepared by secret ceremonies (probably mes- 
meric), he was seated on a throne brilliantly lighted, and 
the other initiates then danced round him in hieroglyphic 
measures. It may be imagined that solemnities of this 
nature would easily degenerate into orgies of the most 
immoral tendency, as the ancient faith and reverence for 
sacred things perished, and such was really the case. Still, 
the primitive institution was pure in form and beautiful 
in its mystic signification, which passed from one ritual 
to another, till its last glimmer expired in the freema- 
sonry of a very recent period. The general idea represented 
was the passage through death to a higher life, and while 
the outward senses were held in the thrall of magnetism, 
it is probable that revelations, good or evil, were made 
to the high priests of these ceremonies." 

It is extremely difficult to arrive at any scientific con- 
clusion regarding the origin of the Cabiri, but, to summarise, 
they were probably of Semitic origin, arriving in Greece 
through Phoenician influence ; and that they approximated 
in character to the gods with whom the Greeks identified them 
is extremely likely. (See Strabo.L. 10 ; Varro, DeLinguaLatina, 
L. 4; Herodotus, L. 3, c. 37; Eusebius, Praep Evang; 
Pausanius, L. 9 ; Bryant, Antient Mythology, Vol. III.) 

Cacodaemons : Deities of inferior rank, one of whom it was 
believed by many was attached to each mortal from his 
birth as a constant companion, and were capable of giving 
impulses, and acting as a sort of messenger between the 
gods and men. The cacodaemons were of a hostile nature, 
as opposed to the agathodaemons who were friendly. It 
is said that one of the cacodaemons who appeared to Cassius 
was a man of huge stature, and of a black hue. The belief 
in these daemons is probably traditional, and it is said 
that they are the rebellious angels who were expelled from 
heaven for their crimes. They tried, but in vain, to obtain 
a settlement in various parts of the universe ; and their 
final abode is believed to be all the space between the 
earth and the stars. There they abide, hated by all the 
elements, and finding their pleasure in revenge and injury. 
Their king was called Hades by the Greeks, Typhon by the 
Egyptians, and Ahrimanes by the Persians and Chaldajans. 

Cacodemon : The name given by the ancients to an evil 
spirit. He changed his shape so frequently that no one 
could tell in what guise he most generally appeared to 
man. Each person was also supposed to have a good and 
bad genius, the evil being the cacodemon. The astrologers 
also called the twelfth house of the sun, which is regarded 
as evil, that of cacodemon. 

Cactomite : A marvellous stone, said to possess occult prop- 
erties, which was known to the ancients, and which was 
probably the cornelian. Any one wearing it was supposed 
to be assured of victory in battle. 

Caer : The daughter of Ethal Anubal, Prince of the Danaans 
of Connaught, and mentioned in Irish myths. It was 
said that she lived year about in the form of a maiden and 
of a swan. She was beloved by Angus Og, who also found 
himself transformed into a swan ; and all who heard the 
rapturous song of the swan-lovers were plunged into a 
deep sleep, lasting for three days and nights. 

Caetulum (See Lithomancy.) 



Cagliostro 



85 



Cagliostro 



Cagliostro : one of the greatest occult figures of all time. It 
was the fashion during the latter half of the XlXth century 
to regard Cagliostro as a charlatan and impostor, and this 
point of view was greatly aided by the savage attack per- 
petrated on his memory by Carlyle, who alluded to him 
as the " Prince of Quacks." Recent researches, however, 
and especially those made by Mr. W. R. H. Trowbridge 
in his Cagliostro : the Splendour and Misery of a Master 
of Magic (1910), go to show that if Cagliostro was not a man 
of unimpeachable honour, he was by no means the quack 
and scoundrel that so many have made him out to be. In 
the first place it will be well to give a brief outline of his 
life as known to us before Mr. Trowbridge's exam- 
ination of the whole question placed Cagliostro' s circum- 
stances in a different light, and then to check the details 
of his career in view of what may be termed Mr. Trowbridge' s 
discoveries. 

We find that Carlyle possessed a strong prejudice in 
regard to Cagliostro, and that he made no allowance for 
the flagrant mendacity of the documentary evidence re- 
garding the so-called magician ; and this leads up to the 
fact that although documents and books relating to Cag- 
liostro abound, they possess little or no value. An account 
compiled from all these sources would present the following 
features : 

Cagliostro' s father whose name is alleged to have been 
Peter Balsamo, a person of humble origin, died young, and 
his mother, unable to support him, was glad to receive 
assistance for this purpose from one of her brothers ; but 
from infancy he showed himself averse to proper courses, 
and when placed in an religious seminary at Palermo, he 
more than once ran away from it, usually to be recaptured 
in undesirable company. Sent next to a Benedictine con- 
vent, where he was under the care of a Father Superior, 
who quickly discovered his natural aptitude, he became 
the assistant of an apothecary attached to the convent, 
from whom he learned the principles of chemistry and 
medicine ; but even then his desire was more to discover 
surprising and astonishing chemical combinations than 
to gain more useful knowledge. Tiring of the life at last, 
he succeeded in escaping from the convent, and betook 
himself to Palermo where he associated with rascals and 
vagabonds. He was constantly in the hands of the police, 
and his kind uncle Who tried to assist him was rewarded 
by being robbed of a considerable sum. Engaged in every 
description of rascality, he was even said to have assisted 
in the assassination of a wealthy canon. At this time it is 
asserted that he was only fourteen years of age, but, later, 
becoming tired of lesser villainies he resolved upon a grand 
stroke, upon which to lay the foundations of his fortunes . 

At Palermo resided an avaricious goldsmith named 
Marano, a stupid, superstitious man who believed devout- 
edly in the efficacy of magic. He became attracted to 
Cagliostro, who at the age of seventeen posed as being 
deeply versed in occultism, and had . been seen evoking 
spirits. Marano made his acquaintance and confided to 
him that he had spent a great deal of money upon quack 
alchemists ; but that he was convinced that in meeting 
him (Cagliostro) he had at last chanced upon a real master 
of magic. Cagliostro willingly ministered to the man's 
superstitions, and told him. as a profound secret that in a 
field at no great distance from Palermo lay a buried treasure 
which, by the aid of magic ceremonies he could absolutely 
locate. But the operation necessitated some expensive 
preliminaries — at least 60 oz. of gold would be required 
in connection with it. To this very considerable sum 
Marano demurred, and Cagliostro cooly asserted that he 
would enjoy the vast treasure alone. But the credulity 
of Marano was too strong for his better sense, and at length 
he agreed to furnish the necessary funds. 



At midnight they sought the field where it was supposed 
the treasure was hid. Cagliostro proceeded with his in- 
cantations and Marano, terrified at their dreadful nature, 
fell prostrate on his face, in which position he was un- 
mercifully belaboured by a number of scoundrels whom 
Cagliostro had collected for that purpose. Palermo rang 
with the affair, but Cagliostro managed to escape to Messina, 
where he adopted the title of " Count." 

It was in this town that he first met with the mysterious 
Althotas. He was walking one day in the vicinity of the 
harbour when he encountered a person of singular dress 
and countenance. This man, apparently about fifty years 
of age, was dressed as an oriental, with caftan and robes, 
and was accompanied by an Albanian greyhound. At- 
tracted by his appearance Cagliostro saluted him, and after 
some conversation the stranger offered to tell the pseudo- 
count the story of his past, and to reveal what was actually 
passing in his mind at that moment. Cagliostro was in- 
terested and made arrangements for visiting the stranger, 
who pointed out to him the house in which he resided, 
requesting him to call a little before midnight, and to rap 
twice on the knocker, then three times more slowly, when 
he would be admitted. At the time appointed Cagliostro 
duly appeared and was conducted along a narrow passage 
lit by a single lamp in a niche of the wall. At the end of 
this was a spacious apartment illuminated by wax candles, 
and furnished with everything necessary for the practice 
of alchemy. Althotas expressed himself as a believer in 
the mutability of physical law rather than of magic, which 
he regarded as a science having fixed laws discoverable 
and reducible to reason. He proposed to depart for Egypt, 
and to carry Cagliostro thither with him — a proposal which 
the latter joyfully accepted. Althotas acquainted him 
with the fact that he possessed no funds, and upon Cag- 
liostro' s expressing some annoyance at this circumstance 
laughed at him, telling him that it was an easy matter 
for him to make sufficient gold to pay the expenses of their 
voyage. Authorities differ greatly regarding the per- 
sonality of Althotas ; but we will leave this part of the 
Cagliostro mystery for the moment. 

Embarking upon a Genoese ship they duly came to 
Alexandria where Althotas told his comrade that he was 
absolutely ignorant regarding his birth and parentage, 
and said that he was much older than he appeared to be, 
but that he was in possession of certain secrets for the 
preservation of strength and health. " Nothing " he 
said ' ' astonishes me ; nothing grieves me, save the evils 
which I am powerless to prevent ; and I trust to reach 
in peace the term of my protracted existence." His early 
years had been passed near Tunis on the coast of Barbary, 
where he had been the slave of a wealthy Mussulman 
pirate. At twelve 5-ears of age he spoke Arabic fluently, 
studied botany, and read the Koran to his master, who 
died when Althotas was sixteen. Althotas now found 
himself free, and master of a very considerable sum which 
had been bequeathed him by his late owner. 

Accompanied by Cagliostro he penetrated into Africa 
and the heart of Egypt, visiting the Pyramids, making 
the acquaintance of the priests of different temples, and 
receiving from them much hidden knowledge. (The 
slightest acquaintance with Egyptian history would have 
saved the author of this statement from making such an 
absurd anachronism). Following upon their Egyptian 
tour, however, they visited the principal kingdoms of 
Africa and Asia, and they are subsequently discovered 
at Rhodes pursuing alchemical operations. At Malta 
they assisted the Grand-master Pinto, who was infatuated 
with alchemical experiments,and from that momentAlthotas 
completely disappears — the memoir of Cagliostro merely sta- 
ting that during their residence in Malta he passed away. 



Cagliostro 



86 



Cagliostro 



Cagliostro on the death of his comrade repaired to Naples. 
He was in funds, for Pinto had well provided him before 
he left Malta. In Naples he met with a Sicilian prince, 
who conceived a strong predilection for his society, and 
invited him to his castle near Palermo. This was dan- 
gerous ground but Cagliostro was nothing if not courageous, 
and besides he was curious to revisit the haunts of his 
youth. He had not been long in Palermo when one day 
he travelled to Messina where he encountered by chance 
one of his confederates in the affair of Marano the gold- 
smith. This man warned him strongly not to enter the 
town of Palermo, and finally persuaded him to return 
to Naples to open a gambling-house for the plucking of 
wealthy foreigners. This scheme the pair carried out, 
but the Neapolitan authorities regarded them with such 
grave suspicion that they betook themselves to the Papal 
States. Here they parted company, and regarding this 
time the alleged memoir of Cagliostro is not very clear. 
It however leads us to believe that the so-called Count 
had no lack of dupes, and from this obscurity he emerges 
at Rome where we find him established as an empiric, 
retailing specifics for all the diseases that flesh is heir to. 
Money flowed in upon him, and he lived in considerable 
luxury. 

It was at this time that he met the young and beautiful 
Lorenza Feliciani, to whom he proposed marriage ; her 
father dazzled by Cagliostro's apparent wealth and im- 
portance consented, and the marriage took place with 
some ceremony. All biographers of Cagliostro agree in 
stating that Lorenza was a thoroughly good woman, honest, 
devoted and modest. The most dreadful accusations 
have been made concerning the manner in which Cagliostro 
treated his wife, and it has been alleged that he thoroughly 
ruined her character and corrupted her mind. But we 
shall discover late? that this account has been coloured 
by the unscrupulous imagination of the Jesuitical writers 
of the Roman Inquisition. All biographers agree that 
Cagliostro hastened his wife's ruin, but it is difficult to 
know how they came by their data ; and in any case they 
disagree substantially in their details. Cagliostro's resi- 
dence now became the resort of card-sharpers and other 
undesirables, and it is said that he himself assumed the 
title and uniform of a Prussian colonel ; but he and his 
confederates quarrelled and with his wife he was forced 
to quit Rome with a so-called Marquis D'Agriata. They 
took the road to Venice, and reached Bergamo, which 
through their rogueries they had speedily to leave. They 
then made the best of their way through Sardinia and 
Genoa, and indeed spent several years in wandering through 
Southern Europe. At last they arrived in Spain by way of 
Barcelona, where they tarried for six months, proceeding 
afterwards to Madrid and Lisbon. From Lisbon they 
sailed to England, where Cagliostro lived upon his wits, 
duping certain foreigners. An English life of Cagliostro 
gives an account of his adventures in London, and tells 
how he was robbed of a large sum in plate, jewels and 
money ; how he hired apartments in Whitcomb Street, 
where he spent most of his time in studying chemistry 
and physics, giving away much money and comporting 
himself generously and decently on all sides. 

In 1772 he returned to France with his wife and a certain 
Duplaisir. At this time it is said that Duplaisir eloped 
with Lorenza, and that Cagliostro obtaining an order for 
her arrest, she was imprisoned in a penitentiary, where 
she was detained for several months. On her release, it 
is alleged, an immediate reconciliation occurred between 
husband and wife. At this time Cagliostro had attracted 
much attention in Paris by his alchemical successes. It 
was the period of mystic enthusiasm in Europe, when 
princes, bishops, and the nobility generally were keen to 



probe the secrets of nature, and when alchemy and the 
allied sciences were the pursuits and hobbies of the great. 
But according to his Italian biographer Cagliostro went 
too far and raised such hopes in the breasts of his dupes 
that at last they entertained suspicions of his honesty, so 
that he was forced to flee to Brussels, whence he made his 
way to his native town of Palermo, where he was speedily 
arrested by the goldsmith Marano. A certain nobleman, 
however, interested himself on his behalf, and procured 
his release, and he embarked with his wife who had accom- 
panied him, for Malta. From that island they soon retired 
to Naple.5, and from there to Marseilles and Barcelona. 
Their progress was marked by considerable state, and 
having cheated a certain alchemist of 100,000 crowns under 
the pretence of achieving some alchemical secret, they 
hurried to England. 

It was during his second visit to London that the Count 
was initiated into Masonry, and conceived his great idea 
of employing that system for his own behoof. With this 
grand object in view he incessantly visited the- various 
London Lodges, and ingratiated himself with their prin- 
cipals and officials. At this period he is said to have picked 
up in an obscure London bookstall a curious manuscript 
which is said to have belonged to a certain George Gaston, 
concerning whom nothing is known. This document dealt 
with the mysteries of Egyptian Masonry, and abounded 
in magical and mystical references. It was from this, it 
is alleged, that Cagliostro gathered his occult inspirations. 
He studied it closely and laid his plans carefully. After 
another and somewhat harassed tour through Holland, 
Italy and Germany, he paid a visit to the celebrated Count 
de St. Germain. In his usual eccentric manner, St. Ger- 
main arranged their meeting for the hour of two in the 
morning, at which time Cagliostro and his wife, robed in 
white garments, and cinctured by girdles of rose colour, 
presented themselves before the Count's temple of mystery. 
The drawbridge was lowered, and a man of exceptional 
height led them into a dimly lighted apartment where 
folded doors sprang suddenly open, and they beheld a 
temple illuminated by hundreds of wax lights. The Count 
of St. Germain sat upon the altar, and at his feet two aco- 
lytes swung golden censers. In the Lives of the Alchemy s- 
iical Philosophers this interview is thus detailed. " The 
divinity bore upon his breast a diamond pentagram of 
almost intolerable radiance. A majestic statue, white 
and diaphanous, upheld on the steps of the altar a vase 
inscribed, ' Elixir of Immortality,' while a vast mirror 
was on the wall, and before it a living being, majestic as 
the statue, walked to and fro. Above the mirror were 
these singular words — ' Store House of Wandering Souls.' 
The most solemn silence prevailed in this sacred retreat, 
but at length a voice, which seemed hardly a voice, pro- 
nounced these words — ' Who are you ? Whence come you ? 
What would you ?' Then the Count and Countess Cag- 
liostro prostrated themselves, and the former answered 
after a long pause, ' I come to invoke the God of the faith- 
ful, the Son of Nature, the Sire of Truth. I come to de- 
mand of him one of the fourteen thousand seven hundred 
secrets which are treasured in his breast, I come to proclaim 
myself his slave, his apostle his martyr.' 

" The divinity did not respond, but after a long silence, 
the same voice asked : — ' What does the partner of thy 
long wanderings intend ?' 

" ' To obey and to serve,' answered Lorenza. 

" Simultaneously with her words, profound darkness 
succeeded the glare of light, uproar followed on tranquillity, 
terror on trust, and a sharp and menacing voice cried 
loudly : — ' Woe to those who cannot stand the tests .' 

'" Husband and wife were immediately separated to 
undergo their respective trials, which they endured with 



Cagliostro 



87 



Cagliostro 



exemplary fortitude, and which are detailed in the text 
of their memoirs. When the romantic mummery was 
over, the two postulants were led back into the 
temple with the promise of admission to the divine 
mysteries. There a man mysteriously draped in a long 
mantle cried out to them : — ' Know ye that the arcanum 
of our great art is the government of mankind, and that 
the one means to rule them is never to tell them the truth. 
Do not foolishly regulate your actions according to the 
rules of common sense ; rather outrage reason and cour- 
ageously maintain every unbelievable absurdity. Re- 
member that reproduction is the palmary active power in 
nature, politics and society alike ; that it is a mania with 
mortals to be immortal, to know the future without under- 
standing the present, and to be spiritual while all that 
surrounds them is material.' 

" After this harangue the orator genuflected devoutly 
before the divinity of the temple and retired. At the 
same moment a man of gigantic stature led the countess 
to the feet of the immortal Count de St. Germain who thus 
spoke : — 

" ' Elected from my tenderest youth to the things of 
greatness, I employed myself in ascertaining the nature 
of veritable glory. Politics appeared to me nothing but 
the science of deception, tactics the art of assassination, 
philosophy the ambitious imbecility of complete irration- 
ality ; physics fine fancies about Nature and the continual 
mistakes of persons suddenly transplanted into a country 
which is utterly unknown to them ; theology the science 
of the misery which results from human pride ; history 
the melancholy spectacle of perpetual perfidy and blun- 
dering. Thence I concluded that the statesman was a 
skilful liar, the hero an illustrious idiot, the philosopher 
an eccentric creature, the physician a pitiable and blind 
man, the theologian an anatical pedagogue, and the his- 
torian a word-monger. Then did I hear of the divinity 
of this temple. I cast my cares upon him, with my in- 
certitudes and aspirations. When he took possession of 
my soul he caused me to perceive all objects in a new light ; 
I began to read futurity. This universe so limited, so 
narrow, so desert, was now enlarged. I abode not only 
■with those who are, but with those who were. He united 
me to the loveliest women of antiquity. I found it em- 
inently delectable to know all without studying anything, 
to dispose of the treasures of the earth without the so- 
licitations of monarchs, to rule the elements rather than 
men. Keaven made me liberal ; I have sufficient to 
satisfy my taste ; all that surrounds me is rich, loving, 
predestinated. 

' ' When the service was finished the costume of ordinary 
life was resumed. A superb repast terminated the cere- 
mony. During the course of the banquet the two guests 
were informed that the Elixir of Immortality was merely 
Tokay coloured green or red according to the necessities 
of the case. Several essential precepts were enjoined upon 
them, among others that they must detest, avoid, and 
•calumniate men of understanding, but flatter, foster, and 
blind fools, that they must spread abroad with much 
mystery the intelligence that the Count de St. Germain 
was five hundred years old, and that they must make 
gold, but dupes before all." 

There is no good authority for this singular interview, 
but if it really occurred it only probably served to confirm 
■Cagliostro in the projects he had mapped out for himself. 

Travelling into Courland, he and his wife succeeded 
in establishing several Masonic Lodges according to the 
rite of what he called Egyptian Freemasonry. Persons 
of high rank flocked around the couple, and it is even said 
that he plotted for the sovereignty of the Grand Duchy. 
Be this as it may, it is alleged that he collected a very large 



treasure of presents and money, and set out for St. Peters- 
burg, where he established himself as a phyrician. 

A large number of cures have been credited to Cagliostro 
throughout his career, and his methods have been the 
subject of considerable controversy. But there is little 
doubt that the basis of them was a species of mesmeric 
influence. It has been said that he trusted simply to the 
laying on of hands ; that he charged nothing for his ser- 
vices ; that most of his time was occupied in treating the 
poor, among whom he distributed vast amounts of money. 
The source of this wealth was said to have been derived 
from the Masonic Lodges, with whose assistance and coun- 
tenance he had undertaken this work. 

Returning to Germany he was received in most of the 
towns through which he passed as a benefactor of the 
human race. Some regarded his cures as miracles, others 
as sorceries, while he himself asserted that they—were 
effected by celestial aid. 

For three years Cagliostro remained at Strasburg, feted 
and lauded by all. He formed a strong friendship with 
the famous Cardinal-archbishop, the Prince de Rohan 
who was fired by the idea of achieving alchemical successes. 
Rohan was extremely credulous, and leaned greatly to 
the marvellous. Cagliostro accomplished supposed trans- 
mutations under his eyes, and the Prince delighted with 
the seeming successes lavished immense sume upon the 
Count. He even believed that the elixir of life was known 
to Cagliostro and built a small house in which he was to 
undergo a physical regeneration. When he had sucked 
the Prince almost dry, Cagliostro repaired to Bordeaux, 
proceeding afterwards to Lyons, where he occupied him- 
self with the foundation of headquarters for his Egyptian 
Masonic rite. He now betook himself to Paris, where he 
assumed the role of a master of practical magic, and where 
it is said he evoked phantoms which he caused to appear 
at the wish of the enquirer in a vase of clear water, or 
mirror. Mr. Waite thinks in this connection that fraud 
wa= an impossibility, and appears to lean to the theory 
that the visions evoked by Cagliostro were such as occur 
in crystal-gazing, and that no one was more astonished 
than the Count himself at the results he obtained. Paris 
rang with his name and he won the appellation of the 
'' Divine Cagliostro." Introduced to the Court of Louis 
XVI. he succeeded in evoking apparitions in mirrors be- 
fore many spectators — these including many deceased 
persons specially selected by those present. His residence 
was isolated and surrounded by gardens, and here he es- 
tablished a laboratory. His wife affected great privacy, 
and only appeared in a diaphanous costume at certain 
hours, before a very select company. This heightened 
the mystery surrounding them, and the elite of Parisian 
society vied with one another to be present at their magic 
suppers, at which the evocation of the illustrioup dead 
was the principal amusement. It is even stated that 
deceased statesmen, authors and nobles took their seats 
at Cagliostro' s supper-table. 

But the grand object of Cagliostro appears to have been 
the spread of his Egyptian Masonic rite. The lodges which 
he founded were androgynal, that is they admitted both 
men and women ; the ladies being instructed by the Mas- 
ter's wife, who figured as the Grand Mistress of the Order 
— her husband adopting the title of Grand Copt. There 
is little doubt that a good deal of money was subscribed 
by the neophytes of the various lodges : the ladies who 
joined, each sacrificing on the altar of mysticism no less 
than ioo louis ; and Cagliostro' s immense wealth, which 
has never been doubted by any authority on his life, in 
the strictest probability found its source in the numerous 
gifts which showered in upon him from the powerful and 
wealthy for the purpose of furthering his masonic schemes. 



Cagliostro 



88 



Cagliostro 



But although he lived in considerable magnificence, Cag- 
liostro by no means led a life of abandoned luxury ; for 
there is the best evidence that he gave away vast sums 
to the poor and needy, that he attended the sick hand and 
foot, and in short played the part of healer and reformer 
at one and the same time. 

A great deal of mystery surrounded the doings of the 
Egyptian Masonry in its headquarters in the Faubourg 
Saint Honore, and the seances for initiation took place 
at midnight. Figuier and the Marquis de Luchet have 
both given striking accounts of what occurred during the 
female initiations : 

" On entering the first apartment," says Figuier, "the 
ladies were obliged to disrobe and assume a white garment, 
with a girdle of various colours. They were divided into 
six groups, distinguished by the tint of their cinctures. 
A large veil was also provided, and they were caused to 
enter a temple lighted from the roof, and furnished with 
thirty-six arm-chairs covered with black satin Lorenza 
clothed in white, was seated on a species of throne, sup- 
ported by two tall figures, so habited that their sex could 
not be determined. The light was lowered by degrees 
till surrounding objects could scarcely be distinguished, 
when the Grand Mistress commanded the ladies to uncover 
their left legs as far as the thigh, and raising the right arm 
to rest it on a neighbouring pillar. Two young women 
then entered sword in hand, and with silk ropes bound 
all the ladies together by the arms and legs. Then after 
a period of impressive silence, Lorenza pronounced an 
oration, which is given at length, but on doubtful authority, 
by several biographers, and which preached fervidly the 
emancipation of womankind from the shameful bonds 
imposed on them by the lords of creation. 

" These bonds were symbolised by the silken ropes from 
which the fair initiates were released at the end of the 
harangue, when they were conducted into separate apart- 
ments, each opening on the Garden, where they had the 
most unheard-of experiences. Some were pursued by 
men who unmercifully persecuted them with barbarous 
solicitations ; others encountered less dreadful admirers, 
who sighed in the most languishing postures at their feet. 
More than one discovered the counterpart of her own love 
but the oath they had all taken necessitated the most in- 
exorable inhumanity, and all faithfully fulfilled what was 
required of them. The new spirit infused into regenerated 
woman triumphed along the whole line of the six and 
thirty initiates, who with intact and immaculate symbols 
re-entered triumphant and palpitating, the twilight of 
the vaulted temple to receive the congratulations of the 
sovereign priestess. 

" When they had breathed a little after their trials, 
the vaulted roof opened suddenly, and, on a vast sphere 
of gold, there descended a man, naked, as the unfallen 
Adam, holding a serpent in his hand, and having a burning 
star upon his head. 

" The Grand Mistress announced that this was the genius 
of Truth, the immortal, the divine Cagliostro, issued with- 
out procreation from the bosom of our father Abraham, 
and the depositary of all that hath been, is, or shall be 
known on the universal earth. He was there to initiate 
them into the secrets of which they had been fraudently 
deprived. The Grand Copt thereupon commanded them 
to dispense with the profanity of clothing, for if they would 
receive truth they must be as naked as itself. The sov- 
ereign priestess setting the example unbound her girdle 
and permitted her drapery to fall to the ground, and the 
fair initiates following her example expored themselves 
in all the nudity of their charms to the magnetic glances 
of the celestial genius, who then commenced bis revelations. 

" He informed his daughters that the much abused 



magical art was the secret of doing good to humanity. 
It was initiation into the mysteries of Nature, and the 
power to make use of her occult forces. The visions which 
they had beheld in the Garden where so many had seen 
and recognised those who were dearest to their hearts, 
proved the reality of hermetic operations. They had 
shewn themselves worthy to know the truth ; he under- 
took to instruct them by gradations therein. It was enough 
at the outset to inform them that the sublime end of that 
Egyptian Freemasonry which he had brought from the 
very heart of the Orient was the happiness of mankind. 
This happiness was illimitable in its nature, including 
material enjoyments as much as spiritual peace, and the 
pleasures of the understanding. 

The Grand Copt at the end of this harangue once more 
seated himself upon the sphere of gold and was borne away 
through the roof ; and the proceedings ended, rather ab- 
surdly in a ball. This sort of thing was of course as the 
breath of his nostrils to Cagliostro, who could not have 
existed without the atmosphere of theatrical mysticism, 
in which he perfectly revelled. 

It was at this period that Cagliostro became implicated 
in the extraordinary affair of the Diamond Necklace. He 
had been on terms of great intimacy with the Cardinal 
de Rohan. A certain Countess de Lamotte had petitioned 
that prince for a pension on account of long aristocratic 
descent. De Rohan was greatly ambitious to become 
First Minister of the Throne, but Marie Antoinette, the 
Queen, disliked him and stood in the way of such an honour. 
Mm . Lamotte soon discovered this, and for purposes of 
her own told the Cardinal that the Queen favoured his am- 
bitions, and either forged, or procured someone elsj to 
forge, letters to the Cardinal purporting to come from the 
Queen, some of which begged for money for a poor family 
in which her Majesty was interested. The letters con- 
tinued of the begging description, and Rohan, who was 
himself heavily in debt, and had misappropriated the 
funds of various institutions, was driven into the hands 
of money-lenders. The wretched Countess de Lamotte 
met by chance a poor woman whose resemblance to the 
Queen was exceedingly marked. This person she trained 
to represent Marie Antoinette, and arranged nightly 
meetings between her and Rohan, in which the disguised 
woman made all sorts of promises to the Cardinal. Be- 
tween them the adventuresses mulcted the unfortunate 
prelate in immense sums. Meanwhile a certain Bahmer, 
a jeweller, was very desirous of selling a wonderful diamond 
necklace in which, for over ten years he had locked up 
his whole fortune. Hearing that Mme. de Lamotte had 
great influence with the Queen, he approached her for 
the purpose of getting her to induce Marie Antoinette to 
purchase it. She at once corresponded with De Rohan 
on the matter, who came post haste to Paris, to be told 
by Mme. de Lamotte that the Queen wished him to be 
security for the purchase of the necklace, for which she 
had agreed to pay 1,600,000 livres, or £64,000, in four 
half-yearly instalments. He was naturally staggered 
at the suggestion but however, affixed his signature to 
the agreement, and Mme. de Lamotte became the possessor 
of the necklace. She speedily broke it up, picking the 
jewels from their setting with an ordinary penknife. Mat- 
ters went smoothly enough until the date when the first 
instalment of 400,000 livres became due. De Rohan, 
never dreaming that the Queen would not meet it, could 
not lay his hands on such a sum, and Bahmer noting his- 
anxiety mentioned the matter to one of the Queen's ladies- 
in-waiting, who retorted that he must be mad, as the Queen 
had never purchased the necklace at all. He went at 
once to Mme. de Lamotte who laughed at him, said he 
was being fooled, that it had nothing to do with her, and 



•«, 



* 





Cagliostro 



89 



Cagliostro 



told him to go to the Cardinal. The terrified jeweller did 
not however talce her advice, but went to the King. 

The amazed Louis XVI. listened to the story quietly 
enough, and then turned to the Queen who was present, 
who at once broke forth in a tempest of indignation. As 
a matter of fact Bahmer had for years pestered her to buy 
the necklace, but the crowning indignity was that Da 
Rohan, whom she cordially detested, should have been 
made the medium for such a scandalous disgrace in con- 
nection with her name, and she at once gave directions 
that the Cardinal should be arrested. The King acquiesced 
in this, and shortly afterwards the Countess de Lamotte, 
Cagliostro and his wife, and others, followed him to the 
Bastille. 

The trial which followed was one of the most sensational 
and stirring in the annals of French history. The King 
was greatly blamed for allowing the affair to become pub- 
lic -at all, and there is little doubt that such conduct as 
the evidence displayed as that of aristocrats assisted to 
hasten the French Revolution. 

It was Mme. de Lamotte who charged Cagliostro with 
the robbery of the necklace, and she did not hesitate to 
invent for him a terrible past, designating him an empiric, 
alchemist, false prophet, and Jew. This is not the place 
to deal with the trial at length, and it will suffice to state 
that Cagliostro easily proved his complete innocence. But 
the Parisian public looked to Cagliostro to supply the 
comedy in this great drama, and assuredly they were not 
disappointed, for he provided them with what must be 
described as one of the most romantic and fanciful, if 
manifestly absurd, life stories in the history of autobi- 
ography. His account of himself which is worth quoting 
at length is as follows : — 

" I cannot," he says, " speak positively as to the place 
of my nativity, nor to the parents who gave me birth. 
All my inquiries have ended only in giving me some great 
notions, it is true, but altogether vague and uncertain, 
concerning my family. 

" I spent the years of my childhood in the city of Medina 
in Arabia. There I was brought up under the name of 
Acharat, which I preserved during my progress through 
Africa and Asia. I had my apartments in the palace of 
the Muphti Salahaym. It is needless to add that the 
Muphti is the chief of the Mahometan religion, and that 
his constant residence is at Medina. 

" I recollect perfectly that I had then four persons at- 
tached to my service : a governor, between forty-five 
and sixty years of age, whose name was Althotas, and 
three servants, a white one who attended me as valet de 
chambre and two blacks, one of whom was constantly about 
me night and day. 

" My governor always told me that I had been left an 
orphan when only about three months old, that my parents 
were Christians and nobly born ; but he left me absolutely 
in the dark about their names and the place of my nativity. 
Some words, however, which he let fall by chance have 
induced ms to suspect that I was born at Malta. Althotas, 
whose name I cannot speak without the tenderest emotion, 
treated me with great care and all the attention of a father. 
He thought to develope the talent I displayed for the sci- 
ences. I may truly say that he knew them all, from the 
most abstruse down to those of mere amusement. My 
greatest aptitude was for the study of botany and 
chemistry. 

" By him I was taught to worship God, to love and 
assist my neighbours, and to respect everywhere religion 
and the laws. We both dressed like Mahometans and 
conformed outwardly to the worship of Islam ; but the 
true religion was imprinted in our hearts. 

" The Muphti, who often visited me, always treated me 



with great goodness and seemed to entertain the highest 
regard for my governor. The latter instructed me in most 
of the Eastern languages. He would often converse with 
me on the pyramids of Egypt, on those vast subterraneous 
caves dug out by the ancient Egyptians, to be the repository 
of human knowledge and to shelter the precious trust 
from the injuries of time. 

" The desire of travelling and of beholding the wonders 
of which he spoke grew so strong upon me, that Medina 
and my youthful sports there lost all the allurements I 
had found in them before. At least, when I was in my 
twelfth year, Althotas informed me one day that we were 
going to commence our travels. A caravan was prepared 
and we set out, after having taken our leave of the Muphti 
who was pleased to express his concern at our departure 
in the most obliging manner. 

" On our arrival at Mecca we alighted at the palace of 
the Cherif. Here Althotas provided me with sumptuous 
apparel and presented me to the Cherif, who honoured me 
with the most endearing caresses. At sight of this prince 
my senses experienced a sudden emotion, which it is not 
in the power of words to express, and my eyes dropped 
the most delicious tears I have ever shed in my life. His, 
I perceived, he could hardly contain. 

" I remained in Mecca for the space of three years ; not 
a day passed without my being admitted to the sovereign's 
presence, and every hour increased his attachment and 
added to my gratitude. I sometimes surprised his gaze 
riveted upon me, and turned to heaven with every ex- 
expression of pity and commiseration. Thoughtful, I 
would go from him a prey to an ever-fruitless curiosity. 
I dared not question Althotas, who always rebuked me 
with great severity, as if it had been a crime in me to 
wish for some information concerning my parents and the 
place where I was born. I attempted in vain to get the 
secret from the negro who slept in my apartment. If I 
chanced to talk of my parents he would turn a deaf ear 
to my questions. But one night when I was more pressing 
than usual, he told me that if ever I should leave Mecca 
I was threatened with the greatest misfortunes, and bid 
me, above all, beware of the city of Trebizond. 

" My inclination, however, got the better of his fore- 
bodings — I was tired of the uniformity of life T led at the 
Cherif's court. One day when I was alone the prince en- 
tered my apartment ; he strained me to his bosom with 
more than usual tenderness, bid me never cease to adore 
the Almighty, and added, bedewing my cheeks with his 
tears : ' Nature's unfortunate child, adieu t ' 

" This was our last interview. The caravan waited 
only for me and I set off, leaving Mecca never to re-enter 
it more 

' ' I directed my course first to Egypt, where I inspected 
these celebrated pyramids which to the eye of the super- 
ficial observer only appear an enormous mass of marble 
and granite. I also got acquainted with the priests of 
the various temples, who had the complacence to introduce 
me into such places as no ordinary traveller ever entered 
before. The next three years of my progress were spent 
in the principal kingdoms of Africa and Asia. Accompanied 
by Althotas, and the three attendants who continued in 
my service, I arrived in 1766 at the island of Rhodes, and 
there embarked on a French ship bound to Malta. 

" Notwithstanding the general rule by which all vessels 
coming from the Levant are obliged to enter quarantine, 
I obtained on the second day leave to go ashore. Pinto, 
the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, gave us apart- 
ments in his palace, and I perfectly recollect that mine 
were near the laboratory. 

" The first thing the Grand Master was pleased to do 
was to request the Chevalier d' Aquino, of the princely 



Cagliostro 



90 



Cagliostro 



house of Caramanica, to bear me company and do me the 
honours of the island. It was here that I first assumed; 
European dress and with it the name of Count Cagliostro, 
nor was it a small matter of surprise to me to see Althotas 
appear in a clerical dress with the insignia of the Order 
of Malta. 

" I have every reason to believe that the Grand Master 
Pinto was acquainted with my real origin. He often spoke 
to me of the Cherif and mentioned the city of Trebizond, 
but never would consent to enter into further particulars 
on the subject. Meanwhile he treated me with the utmost 
distinction, and assured me of very rapid preferment if I 
would consent to take the cross. But my taste for trav- 
elling and the predominant desire of practising medicine, 
induced me to decline an offer that was as generous as 
it was honourable. 

" It was in the island of Malta that I had the misfortune 
of losing my best friend and master, the wisest as well as 
the most learned of men, the venerable Althotas. Some 
minutes before he expired, pressing my hand, he said in 
a feeble voice, ' My son, keep for ever before your eyes 
the fear of God and the love of your fellow-creatures ; you 
will soon be convinced by experience of what you have 
been taught by me.' 

" The spot where I had parted for ever from the friend 
who had been as a father to me, soon became odious. I 
begged leave of the Grand Master to quit the island in 
order to travel over Europe ; he consented reluctantly, 
and the Chevalier d'Aquino was so obliging as to accom- 
pany me. Our first trip was to Sicily, from thence we 
went to the different islands of the Greek Archipelago, 
and returning, arrived at Naples, the birthplace of my 
companion. 

' ' The Chevalier, owing to his private affairs, being obliged 
to undertake a private journey, I proceeded alone to Rome, 
provided with a letter of credit on the banking house of 
Signor Bellone. In the capital of the Christian world I 
resolved upon keeping the strictest incognito. One morn- 
ing, as I was shut up in my apartment, endeavouring to 
improve myself in the Italian language, my valet de ckambre 
introduced to my presence the secretary of Cardinal Orsini, 
who requested me to wait on his Eminence. I repaired 
at once to his palace and was received with the most flat- 
tering civility. The Cardinal often invited me to his table 
and procured me the acquaintance of several cardinals 
and Roman princes, amongst others, Cardinals York and 
Ganganelli, who was afterwards Pope Clement XIV. Pope 
Rezzonico, who then filled the papal chair, having ex- 
pressed a desire of seeing me, I had the honour of frequent 
interviews with his Holiness. 

" I was then (1770) in my twenty-second year, when 
by chance I met a young lady of quality, Seraphina Feli- 
■ciani, whose budding charms kindled in my bosom a flame 
which sixteen years of marriage have only served to 
strengthen. It is that unfortunate woman, whom neither 
her virtues, her innocence, nor her quality of stranger 
could save from the hardships of a captivity as cruel as 
it is unmerited." 

Cagliostro is reticent regarding his life between the period 
last dealt with, and the date of his coming to Paris. But 
although proved innocent he had through his very inno- 
cence offended so many persons in high places that he was 
banished, amidst shouts of laughter from everyone in the 
court. Even the judges were convulsed, but on his return 
from the court-house the mob cheered him heartily. If 
he had accomplished nothing else he had at least won 
the hearts of the populace by his kindness and the many 
acts of faithful service he had lavished upon them, and 
it was partly to his popularity, and partly to the violent 
hatred of the Court, that he owed the reception accorded 



to him. He was re-united to his wife, and shortly after- 
wards took his departure for London where he was received 
with considerable eclat. Here he addressed a letter to 
the people of France, which obtained wide circulation and 
predicted the French Revolution, the demolishment of 
the Bastille, and the downfall of the monarchy. Following 
upon this the Courier de V Europe a French paper published 
in London, printed a so-called exposure of the real life of 
Cagliostro from beginning to. end. From that moment, 
however, his descent was headlong ; his reputation had 
Switzerland and Austria, he could find no rest for the sole 
of his foot. At last he came to Rome, whither Lorenza, 
his wife accompanied him. At first he was well received 
there, and even entertained by several cardinals, privately 
Ftudying medicine, and living very quietly : but he made 
the grand mistake of attempting to further his masonic 
ideas within the bounds of the Papal States. Masonry 
was of course anathema to the Roman Church, and upon 
his attempting to found a Lodge in the Eternal Citj' itself, 
he was arrested on the 27th September, 1789, by order of 
the Holy Inquisition, and imprisoned in the Castle of Saint 
Angelo. His examination occupied his inquisitors for 
no less than eighteen months, and he was sentenced to 
death on the 7th April, 1791. He was, however, recom- 
mended to mercy, and the Pope commuted his sentence 
to perpetual imprisonment in the Castle of Saint Angelo. 
On one occasion he made a desperate attempt to escape : 
requesting the services of a confessor he attempted to 
strangle the Brother sent to him, but the burly priest, 
whose habit he had intended to disguise himself in proved 
too strong for him, and he was quickly overpowered. 
After this he was imprisoned in the solitary Castle of San 
Leo near Montefeltro, the situation of which stronghold 
is one of the most singular in Europe, where he died and 
was interred in 1795. The manner of his death is abso- 
lutely unknown, but an official commissioned by Napoleon 
to visit the Italian prisons gives some account of Cagliostro' s 
quarters there. 

" The galleries," he reports, " which have been cut out 
of the solid rock, were divided into cells, and old dried- up 
cisterns had been converted into dungeons for the worst 
criminals, and further surrounded by high walls, so that 
the only possible egress, if escape was attempted, would 
be by a staircase cut in the rock and guarded night and 
day by sentinels. 

" It was in one of these cisterns that the celebrated 
Cagliostro was interred in 1 79 1 . In recommending the Pope 
to commute the sentence of death, which the Inquisition 
had passed upon him, into perpetual imprisonment, the 
Holy Tribunal took care that the commutation should 
be equivalent to the death penalty. His only communi- 
cation with mankind was when his jailers raised the trap 
to let food down to him. Here he languished for three 
years without air, movement, or intercourse with his fellow- 
creatures. During the last month? of his life his condition 
excited the pity of the governor, who had him removed 
from this dungeon to a cell on the level with the ground, 
where the curious, who obtain permission to visit the prison, 
may read on the walls various inscriptions and sentences 
traced there by the unhappy alchemist. The la-t bears 
the date of the 6th of March 1795." 

The Countess Cagliostro was also sentenced by the In- 
quisition to imprisonment for life. She was confined in 
the Convent of St. Appolonia, a penitentiary for women 
in Rome, where it was rumoured that she died in 1794. 

Cagliostyo' s manuscript volume entitled " Egyptian 
Freemasonry " fell with his other papers into the hands 
of the Inquisition, and was solemnly condemned by it as 
subversive to the interests of Christianity. It was pub- 
licly burned, but oddly enough the Inquisition set apart 



Cagliostro 



91 



Cagliostro 



one of its brethren to write — " concoct " is the better word 
— some kind of Life of Cagliostro and in this are given 
several valuable particulars concerning his Masonic methods 
.as follows : 

" It may be unnecessary to enter into some details con- 
cerning Egyptian Masonry. We shall extract our facts 
from a book compiled by himself, and now in our posses- 
.sion, by which he owns he was always directed in 
the exercise of his functions, and from which those regu- 
lations and instructions were copied, wherewith he enriched 
many mother lodges. In this treatise, which is written 
in French, he promises to conduct his disciples to perfection 
by means of physical and moral regeneration, to confer 
perpetual youth and beauty on them, and restore them 
to that state of innocence which they were deprived of 
by means of original sin. He asserts that Egyptian Ma- 
sonry was first propagated by Enoch and Elias, but that 
since that time it has lost much of its purity and splendour. 
Common masonry, according to him, has degenerated 
Into mere buffoonery, and women have of late been entirely 
•excluded from its mysteries ; but the time was now ar- 
rived when the Grand Copt was about to restore the glory 
of masonry, and allow its benefits to be participated by 
both sexes. 

" The statutes of the order then follow in rotation, the 
division of the members into three distinct classes, the 
various signs by which they might discover each other, 
the officers who are to preside over and regulate the society, 
-the stated times 'when the members are to assemble, the 
erection of a tribunal for deciding all differences that may 
arise between the several lodges or the particular members 
of each, and the various ceremonies which ought to take 
place at the admission of the candidates. In every part 
of this book the pious reader is disgusted with the sacrilege, 
the profanity, the superstition, and the idolatry with which 
it abounds — the invocations in the name of God, the pros- 
trations, the adorations paid to. the Grand Master, the 
fumigations, the incense, the exorcisms, the emblems of 
the Divine Triad, of the moon, of the sun, of the compass, 
of the square, and a thousand other scandalous particulars, 
with which the world is at present acquainted. 

" The Grand Copt, or chief of the lodge, is compared 
-to God the Father. He is invoked upon every occasion ; 
he regulates all the actions of the members and all the 
ceremonies of the lodge, and he is even supposed to have 
•communication with angels and with the Divinity. In 
the exercise of many of the rites they arc desired to repeat 
the Veni and the Te Deum — nay, to such an excess of im- 
piety are they enjoined, that in reciting the psalm Memento 
Domine David, the name of the Grand Master is always 
to be substituted for that of the King of Israel. 

" People of all religions are admitted into the society 
of Egyptian Masonry — the Jew, the Calvinist, the Lutheran 
are to be received into it as well as the Catholic — provided 
they believe in the existence of God and the immortality 
■of the soul, and have been previously allowed to participate 
in the mysteries of the common masonry. When men 
are admitted, they receive apair of garters" from the Grand 
Copt, as is usual in all lodges, for their mistresses ; and 
when women are received into the society, they are pre- 
sented by the Grand Mistress with a cockade, which they 
are desired to give to that man to whom they are most 
attached. 

" We shall here recount the ceremonies made use of 
on admitting a female. 

" The candidate having presented herself, the Grand 
Mistress (Madame Cagliostro generally presided in that 
capacity) breathed upon her face from the forehead to the 
chin, and then said, ' I breathe upon you on purpose to 
inspire you with virtues which we possess, so that they 



may take root and flourish in your heart, I thus fortify 
your soul, I thus confirm you in the faith of your brethren 
and sisters, according to the engagements which you have 
contracted with them. We now admit you as a daughter 
of the Egyptian lodge. We order that you be acknow- 
ledged in that capacity by all the brethren and sisters of 
the Egyptian lodges, and that you enjoy with them the 
same prerogatives as with ourselves.' 

" The Grand Master thus addresses the male candidate : 
' In virtue of the power which I have received from the 
Grand Copt, the founder of our order, and by the particular 
grace of God, I hereby confer upon you the honour of being 
admitted into our lodge in the name of Helios, Mene, Tetra- 
grammaton.' 

"In a book said to be printed at Paris in 1789, it is 
asserted that the last words were suggested to Cagliostro 
as sacred and cabalistical expressions by a pretended con- 
juror, who said that he was assisted by a spirit, and that 
this spirit was no other than a cabalistical Jew, who by 
means of the magical art had murdered iis own father 
before the incarnation of Jesus Christ. 

" Common masons have been accustomed to regard St. 
John as their patron, and to celebrate the festival of that 
saint. Cagliostro also adopted him as his protector, and 
it is not a little remarkable that he was imprisoned at Rome 
on the very festival of his patron. The reason for his 
veneration of this great prophet was, if we are to believe 
himself, the great similarity between the Apocalypse and 
the rites of his institution. 

" We must here observe that when any of his disciples 
were admitted into the highest class, the following exec- 
rable ceremony took place. A young boy or girl, in the 
state of virgin innocence and purity, was procured, who 
was called the pupil, and to whom power was given over 
the seven spirits that surround the throne of their divinity 
and preside over the seven planets. Their names according 
to Cagliostro's book are Anael, Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, 
Uriel, Zobiachel, and Anachiel. The pupil is then made 
use of as an intermediate agent between the spiritual and 
physical worlds, and being clothed in a long white robe, 
adorned with a red ribbon, and blue silk festoons, he is 
shut up in a little closet. From that place he gives re- 
sponses to the Grand Master, and tells whether the spirits 
and Moses have agreed to receive the candidates into the 
highest class of Egyptian masons. . . . 

" In his instructions to obtain the moral and physical 
regeneration which he had promised to his disciples, he 
is exceedingly careful to give a minute description of the 
operations to which they have to submit. Those who are 
desirous of experiencing the moral regeneration are to 
retire from the world for the space of forty days, and to 
distribute their time into certain proportions. Six hours 
are to be employed in reflection, three in prayer to the 
Deity, nine in the holy operations of Egyptian Masonry, 
while the remaining period is to be dedicated to repose. 
At the end of the thirty-three days a visible communica- 
tion is to take place between the patient and the seven 
primitive spirits, and on the morning of the fortieth day 
his soul will be inspired with divine knowledge, and his 
body be as pure as that of a new-born infant. 

" To procure a physical regeneration, the patient is to 
retire into the country in the month of May, and during 
forty days is to live according to the most strict and austere 
rules, eating very little, and then only laxative and sana- 
tive herbs, and making use of no other drink than distilled 
water, or rain that has fallen in the course of the month. 
On the seventeenth day, after having lot blood certain 
white drops are to be taken, six at night and six in the 
morning, increasing them two a day in progression. In 
three days more a small quantity of blood is again to be 



Cagliostro 



92 



Cala 



let from the arm before sunrise, and the patient is to retire 
to bed till the operation is completed. A grain of the 
panacea is then to be taken ; this panacea is the same as 
that of which God created man when He first made him 
immortal. When this is swallowed the candidate loses 
his speech and his reflection for three entire days, and he 
is subject to frequent convulsions, struggles, and perspira- 
tions. Having recovered from this state, in which how- 
ever, he experiences no pain whatever, on that 
day, he takes the third and last grain of the panacea, which 
causes him to fall into a profound and tranquil sleep ; it 
is then that he loses his hair, his skin, and his teeth. These 
again are all reproduced in a few hours, and having become 
a new man, on the morning of the fortieth day he leaves 
his room, enjoying a complete rejuvenescence, by which 
he is enabled to live 5557 years, or to such time as he, of 
his own accord, may be desirous of going to the world of 
spirits." 

To revert to the question of the researches of Mr. Trow- 
bridge, it will appear to any unbiassed reader of his work 
that he has proved that Cagliostro was not the same as 
Joseph Balsamo with whom his detractor:: have identified 
him. Balsamo was a Sicilian vagabond adventurer, and 
the statement that he and Cagliostro were one and the 
same person originally rests on the word of the editor of 
the Courier de V Europe, a person of the lowest and most 
profligate habits, and upon an anonymous letter from 
Palermo to the Chief of the Paris police. Mr. Trowbridge 
sees in the circumstance that the names of the Countess 
Cagliostro and the wife of Balsamo were identical nothing 
but a mere coincidence, as the name Lorenza Feliciani is 
a very common one in Italy. He also proves that the 
testimony of the handwriting experts as to the remarkable 
similarity between the writing of Balsamo and Cagliostro 
is worthless, and states that nobody who had known Bal- 
samo ever saw Cagliostro. He also points out that Balsamo, 
who had been in England in 1771, was " wanted " by the 
London police : how was it then that six years afterward 
they did not recognise him in Count Cagliostro who spent 
four months in a debtors' prison there, for no fault of his 
own ? The whole evidence against Caglioslro's character 
rests with the editor of the Courier de V Europe and his 
Inquisition biographer, neither of whom can be credited 
for various good reasons. Again, it must be recollected 
that the narrative of the Inquisition biographer is supposed 
to be based upon the confessions of Cagliostro under torture 
in the Castle of St. Angelo. Neither was the damaging 
disclosure of the editor of the Courier de I'Europe at all 
topical, as he raked up matter which was at least fourteen 
years old, and of which he had no personal knowledge 
whatsoever. Mr. Trowbridge also proves that the dossier 
discovered in the French archives in 1783, which was sup- 
posed to embody the Countess Cagliostro's confessions 
regarding the career of her husband when she was im- 
prisoned in the Salpetriere prison, is palpably a forgery, 
and he further disposes of the statements that Cagliostro 
lived on the immoral earnings of his wife. 

It is distinctly no easy matter to get at the bed-rock 
truth regarding Cagliostro or to form any just estimate 
of his true character. That he was vain, naturally pom- 
pous, fond of theatrical mystery, and of the popular side 
of occultism, is most probable. Another circumstance 
which stands out in relation to his personality is that he 
was vastly desirous of gaining cheap popularity. He was 
probably a little mad. On the other hand he was benefi- 
cent, and felt it his mission in the then king-ridden state 
of Europe to found Egyptian Masonry for the protection 
of society in general, and the middle and lower classes in 
particular. A born adventurer, he was by no means a 
rogue, as his lack of shrewdness has been proved on many 



occasions. There is small question either that the various 
Masonic lodges which he founded and which were patron- 
ised by persons of ample means, provided him with exten- 
sive funds, and it is a known fact that he was subsidised 
by several extremely wealthy men, who, themselves 
dissatisfied with the state of affairs in Europe, did not 
hesitate to place their riches at his disposal for the purpose 
of undermining the tyrannic powers which then wielded 
sway. There is reason to believe that he had in some way 
and at some period of his. life acquired a certain working 
knowledge of practical occultism, and that he possessed 
certain elementary psychic powers of hypnotism and 
telepathy. His absurd account of his childhood is almost 
undoubtedly a plagiarism of that stated in the first mani- 
festo to the public of the mysterious Rosicrucian Brother- 
hood, (q.v) as containing an account of the childhood of 
their Chief. But on the whole he is a mystery, and in all 
likelihood the clouds which surround his origin and earlier 
years will never be dispersed. It is probably better that 
this should be so, as although Cagliostro was by no means 
an exalted character, he was yet one of the most picturesque 
figures in the later history of Europe ; and assuredly not 
the least aid to his picturesqueness is the obscurity in which 
his origin is involved. Consult — Cagliostro. W. R. H. 
Trowbridge ; Cagliostro and Company. Franz Funck-Bren- 
tano ; Waite, Lives of the Alchemy sts. 

Cagnet Bombee of Jonquieres : A song detailing an operation 
in Alectromancy. (See Alectromaney.) 

Cahagnet, Alphonse : A French cabinet-maker who became 
interested in somnambulic phenomena about the year 
1845, and thenceforward recorded and analysed the trance 
utterances of various somnambules. His Arcanes de la 
vie future devoiUes, published in January, 1848, contained 
much information concerning the various spheres, and the 
conditions under which discarnate siprits lived. This was 
followed in 1849 by a second volume, describing seances 
held with Adele.Maginot. Through this medium sitters 
could communicate with their deceased friends or with 
those who were far away, evidences of clairvoyance, diag- 
nosis and cure of disease were given, and, in short, all the 
phenomen of American-French mediumship were antici- 
pated. A third volume of Arcanes was published later. 
Cahagnets' work is notable in many ways. His own good 
faith was transparent, he took great pains to procure the 
written testimony of the sitters, and thus the trance 
utterances of his somnambules are among the best attested 
of their kind. 

Cailleach, or Harvest Old Wife : In the Highlands of Scot- 
land, there is to be found the belief that whoever is last- 
with his harvesting will be saddled with the Harvest Old 
Wife to keep until the~next year. 

The first farmer to be done, made a doll of some blades 
of corn, which was called the " old wife," and sent it to 
his nearest neighbour. He, in turn, when finished, sent 
it on to another, and so on until the person last done had 
the " old woman " to keep. Needless to say this fear 
acted as a spur to the superstitious Highlanders. (See 
Scotland.) 

Caiumarath, or Kaid-mords : According to the Persians, 
the first man. He lived a thousand years and reigned 
five hundred and sixty. He produced a tree, from the 
fruits of which were born the human race. The devil 
seduced and corrupted the first couple, who after their 
fall, dressed themselves in black garments and sadly 
awaited the resurrection, for they had introduced sin into 
the world. 

Cala, Charles : A Calabrian who wrote on the occult in the 
seventeenth century. He published his Memorie his- 
toriche dell' apparitione delta cruce prodigiose da Carlo Cala 
at Naples in 1661. 



Calatin 



93 



Cambodia 



Calatin Clan : A poisonous multiform monster of Irish 
legend. This creature was compofed of a father and 
his twenty-seven sons, any one of whose weapons could, 
by the merest touch, kill a man within nine days. This 
monstrosity was sent against Cuchulain, who succeeded 
in catching its eight-and-twenty spears on his shield. 
The Clan, however managed to throw him down and 
groucd his face in the gravel. Cuchulain was assisted by 
the son of an Ulster exile, who cut off the creature's heads 
while Cuchulain hacked it to pieces.; 
Calen : Chilian sorcerers. (See American Indians.) 
Calif, Robert. (See America, U.S. of) 
Calmecacs : Training College of Aztec priests. (See Mexico 

and Central America.) 
Calmet, Oom Augustin : A Benedictine of the congregation 
of Saint-Vannes, and one of the most diligent and active , 
of his order, who died in 1757 at his abbey of Sesones. He 
was the author of a Dictionnaire de la Bible and of many 
well-known commentaries on the scriptures. But he is 
chiefly famous among occultists for his Dissertation sur 
les apparitions des anges, des demons et des esprits, et sur 
les revenans et vampires de Hongrie, de Bohdme, de Moravie 
et de Silesie. (Paris- 1746, and 1751 — the latter being the 
best edition). It was translated into English in 1759, 
and is alluded to in the article " Vampire." The greatest 
faith in the supernatural (some might perhaps stigmatise 
it as credulity) marks the work. But he notices unfavour- 
able theories equally with those which suit his hypotheses, 
and if he places too much credence in the classical authors, 
he is never dull. He became the butt of Voltaire, who 
wrote beneath his portrait in verse of questionable quality : 
" Des oracles sacres que Dieu daigna nous rendre 
Son travail assidu perca l'obscurite 
II fit plus, il les crut avec simplicite 
Et fut, par ses vertus, digne de les entendre." 
Calundronius : A magic stone without form or colour which 
has the virtues of resisting malign spirits, destroying 
enchantments, giving to the owner an advantage over 
his enemies, and of dissipating despair. 
Cambions : Offspring of the incubi and succubi (q.v.), 
according to Bodin and Delamare. Some are more kindly 
disposed to the human race than others. Luther says 
of them in his Colloquies that they show no sign of life 
before seven years of age. He says that he saw one which 
cried when he touched it. Maiole states, according to 
Boguet in his Discours des Sorciers (chap. XIV.), that a 
Galician mendicant was in the habit of exciting public 
pity by carrying about a Campion. One day, a 
horseman observing him to be much hampered 
by the seeming infant in crossing a river, took the sup- 
posed child before him on his horse. But he was so heavy 
that the animal sank under the weight. Some time after- 
wards the mendicant was taken and admitted that the 
child he habitually carried was a little demon whom he 
had trained so carefully that no one refused him alms 
whilst carrying it. 
Cambodia : The Cambodia of to-day is bounded by French 
Cochin-China, Annam, Siam and the Gulf of Siam. Of 
its population of 1,500,000 inhabitants, the main part is 
composed of the Khmer people, and Chinese, Annamese 
Malays and aboriginal elements are also represented. 

Magic. — Magic is mixed up to a surprising degree with 
the daily life of this people. They consult sorcerers upon 
the most trivial matters, and are constantly at great pains 
to discover whether any small venture is likely to prove 
lucky or unlucky. There are two kinds of sorcerers (or 
sorceresses), the soothsayers (ap thrnop) and the medicine- 
sorcerers (kru). Of these the latter enjoy the highest 
reputation as healers and exorcists, while the former are 
less respected, dealing, as they do in charms and philtres 



for the sake of gain, or in evil incantations and spells to 
indulge their spite and hatred. The outcast kru, however, 
can be ministers of destruction as well as of healing. One 
of the means used to take the life of an enemy is the old 
device favoured by witches. They make a wax figure of 
the victim, prick it at the spot where they wish to harm 
him, and thus bring disease and death upon him. Another 
plan is to take two skulls from which the tops have been 
removed, place them against each other, and convey them 
secretly under the bed of a healthy man where they have 
very evil results. Sometimes by means of spells they 
transform wood-shavings or grains of rice into a large 
beetle, or into worms, which enter the body of their victim 
and cause his illness, and, perhaps his death. If the man 
thus attacked happens to possess the friendship of a 
more powerful sorcerer, however, the latter may afford 
him his protection, and thus undo the mischief,. The 
more harmless occupations of the wizards consist in making 
philtres and amulets to insure the admiration of women, 
the favour of the king, and success at play. 

Evil Spirits. — The evil spirits, to whom they ascribe 
the most malicious intent, are called pray. Of these the 
most fearsome variety is the " wicked dead" (khmoc pray), 
which includes the spirits of women who have died in 
childbed. From their hiding-place in the trees these 
spirits torment inoffensive passers-by with their hideous 
laughter, and shower down stones upon them. These 
practices are, of course, calculated either to kill or to drive 
the unfortunate recipients of their attentions insane. 
Among the trees there are also concealed mischievous 
demons who inflict terrible and incurable diseases upon 
mankind. 

Those who have suffered a violent death are also greatly 
to be feared. From the nethermost regions they return, 
wan and terrible, to demand food from human beings, 
who dare not deny it to them. Their name beisac signi- 
fies " goblin," and they have the power to inflict all manner 
of evil on those who refuse their request. So the good 
Cambodian, to avert such happenings, puts his offering of 
rice or other food in the brushwood to appease the goblins. 
The pray, it may be said, require to have their offerings 
laid on the winnowing fan that enters so largely into 
Cambodian superstition. 

Were-wolves, both male and female, strike terror into 
the hearts of the natives. By the use~ of certain magical 
rites and formulae, men can become endowed with super- 
natural powers, such as the ability to swallow dishes, and 
are thereupon changed to were-wolves. Women who 
have been rubbed with oil which a wizard has consecrated 
are said to lose their reason, and to flee away to the woods 
They retain their human shape for seven days. If during 
that time a man shall undergo the same process of being 
rubbed with consecrated oil, and shall follow the toman 
to the woods, and strike her on the head with a heavy bar — 
then, the Cambodians say, she shall recover her reason and 
may return home. If, on the other hand, no such drastic 
remedy is to be found, at the end of seven days the woman 
shall turn into a tigress. In order to cure men who have 
the powers of a were-wolf, one must strike them on the 
shoulder with a hook. 

The Cambodians believe that ghosts issue from dead 
bodies during the process of decomposition. When this 
ceases the ghosts are no longer seen, and the remains are 
changed into owls and other nocturnal birds. 

Most hideous of all the evil spirits in Cambodia, are the 
srei ap or ghouls, who, represented only by head and ali- 
mentary canal, prowl nightly in search of their gruesome 
orgies. They are known by their terrible and blood-shot 
eyes, and are much feared, since even their wish to harm 
can inflict injury. When anyone is denounced as a ghoul 



Cambodia 



94 



Carver 



she is treated with great severity, either by the authorities, 
who may sentence her to banishment or death, or by the 
villagers, who sometimes take the law into their own hands 
and punish the supposed offender. 

Astrology, etc. — The science of astrology is not without 
its votaries in Cambodia. Astrologers, or, as they are 
called, horas, are attached to the court, and their direct 
employment by the king gives them some standing in the 
country. At the beginning of each year they make a 
calendar, which contains, besides the usual astronomical 
information, weather and other predictions. They are 
consulted by the people on all sorts of subjects, and are 
believed to be able to avert the calamities they predict. 

It is not surprising that in such a country, where good 



wear a mark composed of red cloth on a part of their 
dress where it could be readily seen. (See Cambry, Voyage- 
dans le Finistere, t.3, p. 146). 
Carbuncle : The ancients supposed this stone to give out a. 
native light without reflection, and they ranked it fifth 
in order after diamonds, emeralds, opals, and pearls. It 
is among the gems ruled by the sun, and is both male and. 
female — the former distinguished by the brightness which 
appears as if burning within it, while the latter throws 
it out. It takes no colour from any other gem applied to 
it, but imparts its own. The virtue of the carbuncle is to 
drive away poisonous air, repress luxury, and preserve 
the health of the body. It also reconciles differences 
among friends. 



and evil powers are ascribed so lavishly, much attention Cardan, Jerome : A so-called magician, who lived about the- 



should be paid to omens, and much time spent in rites 
to avert misfortune. The wind, the fog, the trees, are 
objects of fear and awe, and must be approached with 
circumspection lest they send disease and misfortune, 
or withhold some good. For instance, trees whose roots 
grow under a house bring ill-luck to it. The bamboo and 
cotton-plant are also dangerous when planted near a house, 
for should they grow higher than the house, they would 
wish, out of a perverted sense of gratitude, to provide 
a funeral cushion and matting for the occupants. 

Animals receive their share of superstitious veneration. 
Tigers are regarded as malevolent creatures, whose whiskers 
are very poisonous. Elephants are looked upon as sacred, 
and particularly so white elephants. Monkeys they will 
on no account destroy. Should a butterfly enter the 
house, it is considered extremely unlucky, while a grass- 
hopper, on the contrary, indicates coming good-fortune. 
There are other superstitions relating to household 
objects, customs, etc., which do not differ greatly from 
those of other countries. 

LITERATURE. — E. Aymonier, Le- Cambodge, Paris, 
1900-02. A. Leclerc, Le Buddhisme Cambodge, Paris, 
1899 ; Cambodge, Coxites et Legendes, Paris, 1894. 

Camuz, Philippe : A Spanish writer of romances who 
lived in the sixteenth century. To him is attributed a life 
of Robert the Devil, La Vida de Roberto el Diablo, published 
at Seville in 1629. 

Candelabrum : (See Necromancy.) 

Candles Burning Blue : There is a superstition that candles 
and other lights burn blue at the apparition of spirits, 
probably because of the sulphurous atmosphere accompany- 
ing the spectres. 

Candles, Magical : (Sec Magic.) 

Capnomancy : Was the observation of smoke, which con- 
sisted in two principal methods. The more important 
was the smoke of the sacrifices, which augured well if it 
rose lightly from the altar, and ascended straight to the 
clouds ; but the contrary if it hung about. Another 
method was to throw a few jasmine or poppy seeds upon 
burning coals. There was yet a third practice by breathing 
the smoke of the sacrificial fire. 

Caqueux or Cacoux : Formerly a caste of rope-makers 
dwelling in Brittany, who in some of the cantons of that 



end of the fifteenth, or the beginning of the sixteenth, 
century. He was contemporary with Faustus and Para- 
celsus, to whom, as to the other necromancers of his age, 
he was entirely dissimilar. He has left in his Memoirs a. 
frank and detailed analysis of a curiously complicated 
and abnormal intellectuality, sensitive, intense, and not 
altogether free from the taint of insanity. He declares 
himself subj ect to strange fits of abstraction and exaltation, 
the intensity of which became at length so intolerable that 
he was forced to inflict on himself severe bodily pain as a 
means of banishing them. He would, he tells us, talk 
habitually of those things which were most likely to be- 
distasteful to the company ; he would argue on any side 
of a question, quite irrespective of whether he believed 
it right or wrong, and he had an extraordinary passion for 
gambling. He tells us of three peculiarities, in which we- 
may trace the workings of a diseased imagination, and 
in the third, at least, that abnormal delicacy of perception 
which characterised him. The first was the faculty of 
proj ecting his spirit outside his body, to the accompaniment 
of strange physical sensations. The second was the- 
ability to perceive sensibly anj'thing he desired to perceive. 
As a child, he explains, he saw these images involuntarily 
and without the power of selection, but when he reached 
manhood he could control them to suit his choice. The- 
third of his peculiar qualities was, that before every event- 
of moment in his life, he had a dream which warned him of 
it. Indeed, he himself has written a commentary of. 
considerable length on Synesius's treatise on dreams, in 
which he advances the theory that any virtuous person, 
can acquire the faculty of interpreting dreams, that, in 
fact, anyone can draw up for himself a code of dream- 
inteipretations by merely studying carefully his own 
dreams. We cannot put much faith in Cardan's wonderful, 
dreams, however. His is not the type of mind to which 
we would go for an accurate statement concerning mental 
phenomena, but such significant dreams as he may have 
had, were probably, as has already been suggested, the 
"result of his abnormal sub-conscious perceptiveness. In 
one instance at least, his prediction was not entirely suc- 
cessful. He foretold the date of his own death, and, at the 
age of seventy-five, was obliged to abstain from food in 
order to die at the time he had predicted. 



country were treated as pariahs, perhaps because the Carpenter : (See Spiritualism.) 

ropes they manufactured were to the people the symbols Carpocratians : A sect of Gnostics founded by Carpocrites 



of slavery and death by hanging. Be that as it may, 
they were interdicted from entering the churches, and 
were regarded as sorcerers. They did not hesitate to 
profit by this evil reputation, but dealt in talismans which 
were supposed to render their wearers invulnerable, and 
also acted as diviners. They were further credited with 
the ability to raise and sell winds and tempests like the 



of Alexandria. It taught that Christ derived the mysteries 
of his religion from the Temple of Isis in Egypt, where 
he had studied for six years, and that he taught them to 
his apostles, who transmitted them to Carpocrites. This 
body used theurgic incantations, and had grips, signs and 
words, symbols and degrees. It is believed to have en- 
dured for some centuries. (See Gnostics.) 



sorcerers of Finland It is said that they were originally Carrahdis : A class of native priests in New South Wales,. 

of Jewish origin, separated like lepers from other folk. Australia. 

Francois II, Duke of Brittany, enacted that they should Carver, Jonathan, Narrative of : (See Divination.) 



Cassaptu 



95 



Cellini 



Cassaptu, Babylonian Witch. (See Semites.) 

Castle of the Interior Man, The : The mystical name given 
to the seven stages of the soul's ascent towards the Divinity. 
These seven processes of psychic evolution are briefly as 
follows : (i) The state of prayer, being concentration on 
God ; (2) The state of mental prayer, in which one seeks 
to discover the mystic significance of all things ; (3) The 
obscure night, believed to be the most difficult, in which 
self must be utterly renounced ; (4) The prayer of quietism, 
complete surrender to the will of God ; (5) The state of 
union, in which the will of man and the will of God become 
identified ; (6) The state of ecstatic prayer, in which the 
soul is transported with joy, and love enters into it ; (7) 
The state of ravishment, which is the mystic marriage, 
the perfect union, and the entrance of God and Heaven 
into the interior man. 

Catabolignes : Demons who bore men away, killed them, 
and broke and crushed them having this power over them. 
We are told that a certain Campester wrote a book wherein 
it is related how these demons treated their agents, the 
magicians and sorcerors. 

Catalepsy : A condition involving , the sudden suspension 
of sensation and volition, and the partial suspension of 
the vital functions. The body assumes a rigid and statues- 
que appearance, sometimes mistaken for death, and the 
patient remains unconscious throughout the attack. On 
occasion, the cataleptic state may be marked by symptoms 
of intense mental excitement, and by apparently volitional 
speech and action. Sometimes the symptoms are hardly 
distinguishable from those of hysteria. The period 
covered by the attack may vary from a few minutes to 
several days, though the latter only in exceptional cases ; 
it may, howevert^recur on trifling provocation in the absence 
of resistence from the will-power of the patient. The 
affection is caused by a pathological condition of the 
nervous system, generally produced by severe or prolonged 
mental emotion, and it must not be confused with the 
hypnotic trance. The belief that it may occur in a per- 
fectly healthy person is, on the whole, fallacious. There is 
some reason to suppose that catalepsy, like ecstacy and 
mediumistic faculties, may at times prove contagious. 
Dr. Petetin, in his Electricite Animate (1808) makes mention 
of as many as eight cases met with in a restricted area, 
although catalepsy is in ordinary circumstances of rare 
occurrence. Petetin also mentions certain strange pheno- 
mena witnessed by him in connection with the state of 
spontaneous catalepsy (see Stomach, Seeing with), which 
would seem to show that persons in this condition are 
amenable to suggestion in a high degree. The true physical 
reasons for catalepsy are still practically unknown to science. 
But there seem to be good reasons for believing that it can 
be self -induced in certain cases. Many Eastern fakirs have 
been known to cast themselves into a cataleptic sleep lasting 
for months and cases have even been known where they per- 
mitted themselves to be buried, being exhumed when the 
grass had grown over their graves. (See Dendy, Philosophy 
of Mystery.) 

Cathari : (See Gnostics.) 

Catoptromancy, or Enoptromancy is a species of divination 
by the mirror, which Pausanius describes : " Before the 
Temple of Ceres at Patras, there was a fountain, separated 
from the temple by a wall, and there was an oracle, very 
truthful, not for all events, but for the sick only. The sick 
person let down a mirror, suspended by a thread, till its 
base touched the surface of the water, having first prayed 
to the goddess and offered incense. Then looking in the 
mirror, he saw the presage of death or recovery, according 
as the face appeared fresh and healthy, or of a ghastly 
aspect." Another method of using the mirror was to place 
it at the back of a boy's'or girl's head, whose eyes were 



bandaged. " In Thessaly, the response appeared in char- 
acters of blood on the face of the moon, probably repre- 
sented in the mirror. The Thessalian sorceresses derived, 
their art from the Persians, who always endeavoured to 
plant their religion and mystic rites in the countries they 
invaded. 

Cats, Elfin : These are to be found in the Scottish Highlands, 
and are said to be of a wild breed, as large as dogs, black 
in colour, with a white spot on the breast, and to have 
arched backs and erect bristles. By some, these cats are 
said to be witches in disguise. 

Cauldron Devils : An abyss at the summit of the Peak of 
Teneriffe. A stone cast into the gulf resounds as though 
a copper' vessel were being struck by a huge hammer, and 
on this account its name has been bestowed on it by the 
Spaniards. The natives of the Island are persuaded that 
the infernal regions are there, where dwell for ever the 
souls of the wicked. 

Causimomaney : Divination by fire. It is a happy presage 
when combustible objects cast into the fire do not burn. 

Cazotte, Jacques (1720-1792) : A French romance writer, 
and the reputed author of the famous Prophetic de Cazotte, 
concerning the Revolution. His sympathies were not with 
the revolutionary party. His letters were seized, and he 
and his daughter Elizabeth thrown into prison. During 
the September massacres, Elizabeth saved his life by 
flinging herself between him and the cut-throats who 
sought to kill him. He escaped, but was re-arrested, 
condemned, and beheaded. He was the author of the 
celebrated occult romance Le Diable Amour eux. 

Celestial Light : The sacred light of all the ages, which is 
" as the lightning which shineth from the west to the east." 
It is the halo which surrounds certain visions of a mystical 
character, but can only be seen by those who have lived 
ascetically, when respiration is feeble, and life has almost 
left the body. 

Cellini, Benvenuto : This celebrated Italian artist and crafts- 
man had several most interesting adventures with demons 
and professors of the black art. In his Life he writes as 
follows. 

" It happened, through a variety of odd accidents, that 
I made acquaintance with a Sicilian priest, who was a man 
of genius, and well versed in the Latin and Greek authors' . 
Happening one day to have some conversation with him, 
when the subject turned on the subject of necromancy, 
I, who had a great desire to know something of the matter, 
told him, that I had all my life felt a curiosity to be ac- 
quainted with the mysteries of this art. The priest made 
answer, ' That the man must be of a resolute and steady 
temper who enters upon that study.' I replied, ' That 
I had fortitude and resolution enough, if I could but find 
an opportunity.' The priest subjoined, ' If you think you 
have the heart to venture, I will give you all the satisfaction 
you can desire.' Thus we agreed to enter upon a plan of 
necromancy. The priest one evening prepared to satisfy 
me, and desired me to look out for a companion or two. 
I invited one Vincenzio Romoli, who was my intimate 
acquaintance : he brought with him a native of Pistoia, 
who cultivated the black art himself. We repaired to 
the Colloseo, and the priest, according to the custom of 
necromancers, began to draw circles upon the ground with 
the most impressive ceremonies imaginable : he likewise 
brought hither assafcetida, several precious perfumes and 
fire, with some compositions also which diffused noisome 
odours. As soon as he was in readiness, he made an open- 
ing to the circle, and having taken us by the hand, ordered 
the other necromancer, his partner, to throw the perfumes 
into the fire at the proper time, intrusting the care of the 
fire and the perfumes to the rest ; and then he began his 
incantations. This ceremony lasted above an hour and 



Cellini 



96 



Celts 



a half, when there appeared several legions of devils inso- 
much that the amphitheatre was quite filled with them. 
I was busy about the perfumes, wh^n the pncst, perceiving 
there was a considerable number of infernal spirits, turned 
to me and said, ' Benvenuto, ask them something.' I 
answered, ' Let them bring me into the company of my 
Sicilian mistress, Angelica.' That night we obtained no 
answer of any sort ; but I had received great satisfaction 
in having my curiosity so far indulged. The necromancer 
told me, it was requisite we should go a second time, assur- 
ing me, that I should be satisfied in whatever I asked ; 
but that I must bring with me a pure immaculate boy. 

" I took with me a youth who was in my service, of 
about twelve years of age, together with the same Vin- 
cenzio Romoli, who had been my companion the first time 
and one Agnolino Gaddi, an intimate acquaintance, whom 
I likewise prevailed on to assist at the ceremony. When 
we came to the place appointed, the priest having made 
his preparations as before, with the same and even more 
striking ceremonies, placed us within the circle, which he 
had likewise drawn with a more wonderful art, and in a 
more solemn manner, than at our former meeting. Thus 
having committed the care of the perfume and the fire to 
my friend Vincenzio, who was assisted by Agnolino Gaddi, 
he put into my hand a pintacula or magical chart, and bid 
me turn it towards the places that he should direct me ; 
and under the pintacula I held the boy. The necromancer 
having begun to make his tremendous invocations, called 
by their names a multitude of demons, who were the leaders 
of the several legions, and questioned them by the power 
of the eternal uncreated God, who lives for ever, in the 
Hebrew language, as likewise in Latin and Greek ; inso- 
much that the amphitheatre was almost in an instant 
filled with demons more numerous than at the former 
conjuration. Vincenzio Romoli was busied in making 
a fire, with the assistance of Agnolino, and burning a great 
quantity of precious perfumes. I. by the direction of the 
necromancer, again desired to be in the company of my 
Angelica. The former thereupon turning to me, said, 
' Know, they have declared, that in the space of a month 
you shall be in her company.' 

" He then requested me to stand resolutely by him, 
because the legions were now above a thousand more in 
number than he had designed ; and, besides these were 
the most dangerous ; so that, after they had answered 
my question, it behoved him to be civil to them, and dis- 
miss them quietly. At the same time the boy under the 
pintacula was in a terrible fright, saying, that there were 
in that place a million of fierce men, who threatened to 
destroy us ; and that, moreover, four armed giants of 
an enormous stature were endeavouring to break into our 
circle. During this time, whilst the necromancer, trem- 
bling with fear, endeavoured by mild and gentle methods 
to dismiss them in the best way he could, Vincenzio Romoli, 
who quivered like an aspen leaf, took care of the perfumes. 
Though I was as much terrified as any of them, I did my 
utmost to conceal the terror I felt ; so that I greatly con- 
tributed to inspire the rest with resolution ; but the truth 
is, I gave myself over for a dead man, seeing the horrid 
fright the necromancer was in. The boy placed his head 
between his knees, and said, ' In this posture I will die ; 
for we shall all surely perish.' I told him that all these 
demons were under us, and what he saw was smoke and 
shadow ; so I bid him hold up his head and take courage. 
No sooner did he look up, but he cried out, ' The whole 
amphitheatre is burning, and the fire is just falling upon 
us ;' so covering his eyes with his hands, he again exclaimed 
that destruction was inevitable, and he desired to see no 
more. The necromancer entreated me to have a good heart, 
and take care to to burn the proper perfumes ; upon which 



I turned to Romoli, and bid him burn all the most precious 
perfumes he had. At the same time I cast my eye upon 
Agnolino Gaddi, who was terrified to such a degree that 
he could scarce distinguish objects, and seemed to be half- 
dead. Seeing him in this condition, I said, ' Agnolino, 
upon these occasions a man should not yield to fear, but 
should stir about and give his assistance ; so come directly 
and put on some more of these perfumes.' Poor Agnolino, 
upon attempting to move, was so violently terrified that 
the effects of his fear overpowered all the perfumes we 
were burning. The boy, hearing a crepitation, ventured 
once more to raise his head, when, seeing me laugh, he 
began to take courage, and said, ' That the devils were 
flying away with a vengeance.' 

" In this condition we stayed till the bell rang for morn- 
ing prayer. The boy again told us, that there remained 
but few devils, and these were at a great distance. When 
the magician had performed the rest of his ceremonies, 
he stripped off his gown and took up a wallet full of books 
which he had brought with him. We all went out of the 
circle together, keeping as close to each other as we possibly 
could, especially the boy, who had placed himself in the 
middle, holding the necromancer by the coat, and me by 
the cloak. As we were going to our houses in the quarter 
of Banchi, the boy told us that two of the demons whom 
we had seen at the amphitheatre, went on before us leaping 
and skipping, sometimes running upon the roofs of the 
houses, and sometimes upon the ground. The priest de- 
clared, that though he had often entered magic circles, 
nothing so extraordinary had ever happened to him. As 
we went along, he would fain persuade me to assist with 
him at consecrating a book, from which, he said, we should 
derive immense riches : we should then-ask the demons 
to discover to us the various treasures with which the earth 
abounds, which would raise us to opulence and power ; 
but that those love-affairs were mere follies, from whence 
no good could be expected. I answered, ' That I would 
readily have accepted his proposal if I understood Latin : ' 
he redoubled his persuasions, assuring me, that the know- 
ledge of the Latin language was by no means material. 
He added, that he could have Latin scholars enough, if 
he had thought it worth while to look out for them ; but 
that he could never have met with a partner of resolution 
and intrepidity equal to mine, and that I should by all 
means follow his advice. Whilst we were engaged in this 
conversation, we arrived at our respective homes, and 
all that night dreamt of nothing but devils." 

Celonitis or Celontes : This wonderful stone is found in the 
tortoise, and its property is to resist fire. Its healing 
virtues are- two-fold, similar to those of the Asinius. 
Carried under the tongue on the day of the new moon, 
and for the fifteen days following, during the lunar ascen- 
sion, it inspires its fortunate possessor to foretell future 
events every day from sunrising to six o'clock ; and in 
the decrease during the intervening hours. 

Celts : Magic among the Celtic peoples in ancient times was 
so closely identified with Druidism that its origin may be 
said to have been Druidic. That Druidism was of Celtic 
origin, however, is a question upon which much discussion 
has been lavished, some authorities, among them Rhys, 
believing it to have been of non-Celtic and even non-Aryan 
origin. This is to say that the earliest non-Aryan or so- 
called " Iberian " or Megalithic people of Britain intro- 
duced the immigrant Celts to the Druidic religion. An 
argument in favour of this theory is that the continental 
Celts sent their neophyte Druid priests to Britain to undergo 
a special training at the hands of the Druids there, and 
there is little doubt that this island was regarded as the 
headquarters of the cult. The people of Cisalpine Gaul, 
for instance, had no Druidic priesthood. (See Rice Holmes' 



Celts 



97 



Ceremonial Magic 



CcBsar's Conquest, pp. 532-536). Caesar has told US' that 
in Gaul Druidic seminaries were very numerous , and that 
in them severe study and discipline were entailed upon 
the neophytes, the principal business of whom was to 
commit to memory countless verses enshrining Druidic 
knowledge and tradition. That this instruction was astro- 
logical and magical we have the fullest proof, and it is with 
these aspects of the Celtic religion alone that we have to 
deal in this place. 

The Druids were magi as they were hierophants in the 
same sense that the American-Indian medicine-man is 
both magus and priest. That is, they were medicine-men 
on a higher-scale, and possessed a larger share of trans- 
cendental knowledge than the shamans of more barbarous 
races. Thus they may be said to be a link between the 
shaman and the magus of mediaeval times. Many of their 
practices were purely shamanistic, whilst others were 
more closely connected with mediaeval magical rite. But 
they were not the only magicians among the Celts, for we 
find that magic power is frequently the possession of wo- 
men and the poetic craft. The art magic of Druidism 
had many points of comparison with most magical systems, 
and may be said to have approximated more to that black 
magic which desires power for the sake of power alone, 
than to any more transcendental type. Thus it included 
the power to render oneself invisible, to change the bodily 
shape, to produce an enchanted sleep, to induce lunacy, 
and the utterance of spells and charms which caused death. 
Power over the elements was also claimed, as in the case 
of Broichan, a Caledonian Druid who opposed Saint Co- 
lumbia, as we read in Adamnan's Life of that saint 
as follows : 

" Broichan, speaking one day to the holy man, says : 
' Tell me, Columba, at what time dost thou propose to 
sail forth ? " On the third day,' says the Saint, ' God 
willing and life remaining, we propose to begin our voyage.' 
' Thou wilt not be able to do so,' says Broichan in reply, 
' for I can make the wind contrary for thee, and bring 
dark clouds upon thee.' The Saint says : ' The omnipo- 
tence of God rules over all things, in Whose Name all our 
movements, He Himself governing them, are directed.' 
What more need be said ? On the same day as he had 
purposed in his heart the Saint came to the long lake of the 
river Ness, a great crowd following. But the Druids then 
began to rejoice when they saw a great darkness coming 
over, and a contrary wind with a tempest. Nor should 
it be wondered at that these things can be done by the art 
of demons, God permitting it, so that even winds and 
waters are roused to fury. 

" For it was thus that legions of devils once met the 
holy bishop Germanus in mid-ocean, what time he was 
sailing from the Gallican Gulf (the British Channel) to 
Britain in the cause of man's salvation, and stirred up 
dangerous storms and spread darkness over the sky and 
obscured daylight. All which storms, however, were 
stilled at the prayer of St. Germanus, and, quicker than 
said, ceased, and the darkness was swept away. 

'"' Our Columba, therefore, seeing the furious elements 
stirred up against him, calls upon Christ the Lord, and 
entering the boat while the sailors are hesitating, he with 
all the more confidence, orders the sail to be rigged against 
the wind. Which being done, the whole crowd looking 
on meanwhile, the boat is borne along against the contrary 
winds with amazing velocity. And after no great interval, 
the adverse winds veer round to the advantage of the 
voyage amid the astonishment of all. And thus, through- 
out that whole day, the blessed man's boat was driven 
along by gentle favouring breezes, and reached the desired 
haven. Let the reader, therefore, consider how great 
and saintly was that venerable man through whom Al- 



mighty God manifested His glorious Name by such miracu- 
lous powers as have just been described in the presence 
of a heathen people." 

The art of rain-making, bringing down fire from the sky, 
and causing mists, snow-storms and. floods was also claimed 
by the Druids. Many of the spells probably in use among 
the Druids survived until a comparatively late period, 
and are still in use in some remote Celtic localities — the 
names of Saints being substituted for those of Celtic deities, 
■ — as in Well-worship (q.v.) a possibly Druidic cultus, and 
certain ritual practices which are still carried out in the 
vicinity of megalithic structures. In pronouncing incan- 
tations, the usual method employed was to stand upon 
one leg, to point to the person or object on which the spell 
was to be laid with the fore-finger, at the same time closing 
an eye, as if to concentrate the force of the entire person- 
ality upon that which was to be placed under ban. A 
manuscript preserved in the Monastery of St. Gall and 
dating from the eighth or ninth century, has preserved 
magical formulae for the preservation of butter and the 
healing of certain diseases in the name of the Irish god 
Diancecht. These and others bear a close resemblance 
to Babylonian and Etruscan spells, and this goes to 
strengthen the hypothesis often put forward with more 
or less ability that Druidism had an eastern origin. AU 
magical rites were accompanied by spells. Druids often 
accompanied an army to assist by their magical art in 
confounding the enemy. 

There is little doubt that the conception of a Druidic 
priesthood has descended down to our own time in a more 
or less debased condition in British Celtic areas. Thus 
the existence of guardians and keepers of wells said to 
possess magical properties, and the fact that certain 
familiar magical spells and formulae are handed down from 
one gen ration to another, is a proof of the survival of 
Druidic tradition, however feeble. Females are generally 
the conservators of these mysteries, but that there were 
Druid priestesses is fairly certain. 

There are also indications that to some extent Scottish 
witchcraft was a survival of Celtic religio-magical practice. 
(See Witchcraft, Scottish in article Scotland.) 

Amulets were extensively worn by the Celts, the prin- 
cipal forms in use being phallic (against the evil ey e) , coral, 
the " serpent's egg " — some description of fossil. The 
person who passed a number of serpents together forming 
such an " egg " from their collected spume had to catch 
it in his cloak ere it fell to earth, and then make all speed 
over a running-stream where he was safe from the reptiles' 
vengeance. Totemic amulets were also common. (See 
Scotland and Ireland.) 

LITERATURE — H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, Les Druides 
et les dieux celtiques aformed'animaux, Paris, 1906 ; Gomme 
Ethnology in Folklore, London 1892 ; T. R. Holmes, Ctssar's 
Conquest of Gaul, London 1899, Ccesar's Conquest of 
Britain, 1907 ; S. Reinach, Cultes, mythes et religions Paris, 
1905 ; J. Rhys, Celtic Britain, London 1882 ; Celtic Heath- 
endom, London 1888; C. Squire, Mythology of the ancient 
Britons, London, 1905. 

Central America : (See Mexico and Central America.) 

Central Association of Spiritualists : (See British National 
Association of Spiritualists.) 

Cepionidus : A stone of many colours, said to reflect the 
likeness of the beholder. 

Ceraunius, or Cerraelus, is described as a pyramidal crystal- 
line stone, tinged with saffron, and is said to fall from the 
clouds. It preserves from drowning, from injury by light- 
ning, and gives pleasant dreams. 

Ceraunoscopy : Divination practised by the ancients by the 
examination of the phenomena of the air. 

Ceremonial Magic : Ceremonial magic is chiefly occupied 



Ceremonial Magic 



J8 



Chakras 



with the art of dealing with spirits. Its rites are supposedly 
religious, and the rituals which contain it partake largely 
of the nature of religious observances. It is not, as gen- 
erally supposed, a reversed Christianity or Judaism, nor 
does it partake of the profanation of religious ritual. It 
is in effect an attempt to derive power from God for the 
successful control of evil spirits. In the Grimoires and 
Keys of Black Magic, the operator is constantly reminded 
that he must meditate continually on the undertaking 
in hand, and centre every hope in the infinite goodness 
of the Great Adonai. The god invoked in Black Magic 
is not Satan as is so often supposed, but the Jehovah of 
the Jews, and the Trinity of the Christians. The founda- 
tion of practical magic is almost certainly the belief in 
the power of divine words to compel the obedience of all 
spirits to those who could pronounce them. Such words 
and names were supposed to invoke or dismiss the deni- 
zens of the spirit world, and these with suitable prayers 
were used in all magical ceremonies. Again it was thought 
that it was easier to control evil spirits than to enlist the 
sympathies of angels. 

He who would gain such power over demons is exhorted 
in the magical texts which exist to observe continence 
and abstinence, to disrobe as seldom and sleep as little 
as possible during the period of preparation, to meditate 
continually on his undertaking and centre all his hopes 
on the Great Adonai. The fast should be most austere, 
and human society must be avoided as much as possible. 
The concluding days of the fast should be additionally 
strict— sustenance being reduced to bread and water. 
Daily ablutions are necessary, and these must be made 
in water which has been previously exorcised according 
to the ritual : especially must this be observed immediately 
before the ceremony. Certain periods of the day and 
night are ruled by certain planets and these are to be 
found in the book known as the Key of Solomon the King 
(q.v). (See also Astrology.) The Book of Black Magic 
taught that the hours of Saturn, Mars and Venus are 
good for communion with spirits, — the hour of the first 
named planet for invoking souls in Hell ; and that. of the 
second those who have been slain in battle. In fact these 
hours and seasons are ruled by th.' laws of astrology. In 
the preparation of the instruments employed, trie cere- 
monies of purifying and consecrating, must be carefully 
observed. An aspergillum composed of mint, marjoram, 
and rosemary should be used for the first and should be 
contained in a pot of glazed earth. For fumigation a 
chafing dish should be used filled with freshly kindled 
coal and perfumed with aloe-wood or mace, benzoin or 
storax. 

The experiment of holding converse with spirits should 
be made in the day and hour of Mercury : that is the ist 
or 8th, or the 15th or 22nd (See Necromancy). - The Grand 
Grimoire says that when the night of action has arrived, 
the operator shall take a rod, a goat-skin, -a blood-stone, 
two crowns of vervain, and two candlesticks with candles ; 
also a new steel and two new flints, enough wood to make 
a fire, half a bottle of brandy, incense and camphor, and 
four nails from the coffin of a dead child. Either one or 
three persons must take part in the ceremony — on of whom 
only must address the spirit. The Kabbalistic circle is 
formed with strips of kid's skin fastened to the ground 
by the four nails. With the blood-stone a triangle is traced 
within the circle, beginning at the eastern point. The 
letters a e a j must be drawn in like manner, as also the 
Name of the Saviour between two crosses. The candles 
and vervain crowns are then set in the left and right sides 
of the triangle within the circle, and they with the brazier 
are set alight — the fire being fed with brandy and camphor. 
A prayer is then repeated. The operator must be careful 



to have no alloyed metal about him except a gold or silver 
coin wrapped in paper, which must be cast to the spirit 
when he appears outside the circle. The spirit is then 
conjured three times. Should the spirit fail to appear, 
the two ends of the magic rod must be plunged into the 
flames of the brazier. This ritual is known as the Rite 
of Lucifuge, and is believed to invoke the demon Lucifuge 
Rofocale. 

For further information concerning the ceremonial of 
magic, See Necromancy and the articles on the various 
rituals of magic, such as Arbatel, Key of Solomon, Grimo- 
rium Verum, etc. (See Magic.) 
Ceroscopy : Divination by wax. The process was as follows. 
Fine wax was melted in a brass vessel until it became a 
liquid of uniform consistence. It was then poured slowly 
into another vessel filled with cold water, in such a way 
that the wax congealed in tiny discs upon the surface of 
the water. The magician then interpreted the figures 
thus presented as he saw fit. 
Chagrin or Cagrino : An evil spirit believed in by the Con- 
tinental Gypsies. It has the form of a hedgehog, is yellow- 
in colour, and is a foot and a half in length and a span in 
breadth. " I am certain," says Wlislocki, " that this 
creature is none other than the equally demoniac being 
called Harginn, still believed in by the inhabitants of North- 
western India. Horses are the special prey of the Chagrin, 
who rides them into a state of exhaustion, as does the 
Guecubu (q.v.) of Chili. The next day they appear sick 
and weary, with tangled manes and bathed in sweat. When 
this is observed they are tethered to a stake which has 
been rubbed with garlic juice, then a red thread is laid on 
the ground in the form of a cross, or else some of the hair 
of the animal is mixed with salt, meal and the blood of a 
bat and cooked to bread, with which the hoof of the horse 
is smeared. The empty vessel which contained the mix- 
ture is put in the trunk of a high tree while these words 
are uttered : 

" Tarry, pipkin, in this tree, 
Till such time as full ye be." 
Chain, Forming a : In spiritualism, a term denoting the 
joining of the hands of the sitters round a table, whereby 
the magnetic current is strengthened and reinforced. The 
Baron de Guldenstubbe gives the following directions for 
forming a chain. " In order to form a chain, the twelve 
persons each place their right hand on the table, and their 
left hand on that of their neighbour, thus making a circle 
round the table. Observe that the medium or mediums 
if there be more than one, are entirely isolated from those 
who form the chain." 

Dr. Lapponi, in his Hypnotism and Spiritism (trans. 
London, 1906), gives an account of the usual procedure 
for the formation of a chain. " He (the medium) makes 
those present choose a table, which they may examine as 
much as they like, and ma)' place in whatever part of the 
room they choose. He then invites some of the assistants 
to place their hands on the table in the following manner : 
Ihe two thumbs of each person are to be touching each 
other, and each little finger is to be in communication with 
the little finger of the persons on either side. He himself 
completes the chain with h : .s two hands. The hands of 
all altogether rest on the edge of the table. (See Planetary 
Chains.) 
Chain-Period : (See Planetary Chains.) 

Chakras : These, are, according to theosophists, the sense 
organs of the etheral body (q.v.) and receive their name 
from their appearance which resembles vortices. Alto- 
gether there are ten chakras — visible only to clairvoyants — 
but of these it is advisable to use only seven. They are 
situated, not on the denser physical body, but opposite 
certain parts of it as follows : (1) the top of the head, (2) 



Chalcedony 



99 



Charnock 



between the eyebrows, (3) the throat, (4) the heart, (5) the 
spleen — (where vitality is indrawn from the sun), (6) the 
solar plexus, (7) the base of the spine. The remaining 
three chakras are situated in the lower part of the pelvis 
and normally are not used, but are brought into play only 
in Black Magic. It is by means of the chakras that the 
trained occultist can become acquainted with the astral 
world. (See Theosophy.) 

Chalcedony : A good specific against phantasy and the illu- 
sions of evil spirits. It also quickens the power of the 
body, and renders its possessor fortunate in law. To the 
litter effect it must be perforated and suspended by hairs 
from an ass. The black variety prevents hoarseness 
and clears the voice. 

Chams : A race of Indo-Chinese origin, numbering about 
130,000 souls, settled in Annam, Siam, Cochin-China, and 
Cambodia. They have some reputation among the sur- 
rounding population as sorcerers, this corruption probably 
arising from the mythic influence of a conquered race. 
Their magicians claim to be able to slay at a distance, or 
to bring ruin and disease by the aid of magical formulas. 
Among the Cambodian Chams, sorcerers are cordially de- 
tested by the common people, as they are believed to be 
the source of all the evil which befalls them, and the ma- 
jority of them usually end their days by secret assassina- 
tion. They are nearly always of the female sex, and enter 
the sisterhood by means of a secret initiation held in the 
depths of the forest at the hour of midnight. Indeed the 
actual method of initiation is known to us. The woman 
who desires to become a sorceress procures the nest of a 
termite, and sacrifices thereon a cock (See Cock), cutting 
it in two from the head to the tail, and dancing in front 
of it in a condition of complete nudity, until by force of 
her incantations the two halves of the bird approach one 
another and it becomes once more alive and gives vent 
to a crow. Sorceresses are said to be known by the ten- 
dency of their complexion to alter its hue, and by their 
swollen and bloodshot eyes. They possess numerous rites 
for the propitiation of evil spirits, in which, in common 
with the neighbouring and surrounding populations, they 
implicitly believe. Thus in building a house numerous 
propitiatory rites must be observed, accompanied by in- 
vocation of the protecting deities. They believe in lucky 
and unlucky days, and are careful not to undertake any- 
thing of importance unless favoured by propitious omens. 
They possess many peculiar superstitions. Thus they 
will not disturb grain which has been stored during the 
day time, as they say it is then asleep, and wait until night- 
fall before supplying themselves from it. They also have 
many magical agricultural formulae, such as the " instruc- 
tion " to, and '" passing " of, the standing rice-stems in 
the harvest field before they are cut and garnered, so that 
the}' may be worthy to be stored. The Brahmanic Chams 
believe that the souls of good men betake themselves to 
the sun, those of women to the moon, and those of the 
coolie class into clouds, but these are only places of tem- 
porary soj ourn, until such time as all finally come to reside 
within the centre of the earth. The belief in metempsy- 
chosis is also highly popular. See E. Aymonier, Les 
Tchames et leur Religions, Paris, 1891; Aymonier Chaton, 
Dictionnaire Cam-Francaise, Paris, 1906; Cahaton, Nou- 
velles recherches sur les chams, Paris, 1901. 

Changelings : The substitution of a little old mannikin of 
the elf race, for a young child. There are many tales repre- 
sentative of this belief in Scotland. The changeling grows 
up peevish and misshapen, always crying, and gives many 
proofs of its origin to those versed in such matters. There 
are many ways of getting rid of him, such as sticking_ a 
knife into him, making him sit on a gridiron with a fire 
below, dropping him into a river, etc., — which one would 



imagine would prove fairly successful The changeling 
sometimes gives himself away by unthinking reference 
to his age. 

Chaomandy : (See Ceraunosccpy.) 

Chaos : (See Philosopher's Stone.) 

Charcot, Prof. J. M. : (See Hypnotism ) 

Charlemagne ; or Charles the Great : The greatest of Frank- 
ish kings : was the elder son of Pepin the Short, and suc- 
ceeded his father in 768 A.D. He is included in this work 
chiefly because of his close connection with the supernatural 
so far as legend is concerned. Again and again in the pages 
of French romance, notably in these romances dealing 
with the adventures of William of Orange, do we find the 
Emperor visited by angels who are the direct messengers 
of the heavenly power. This of course is to symbolise 
his position as the head and front of Christendom in the 
world. He was its champion and upholder, surrounded as he 
was on all sidesby the forces of paganism, — the Moors on 
his southern borders, and the Prussians and Saxons on 
his flank. Charles was regarded by the Christians 
of Europe as the direct representative of heaven, whose 
mission it was to Christianise Europe and to defend the 
true faith in every way. No less do we find him and his 
court connected with the realm of faery. Notices of the 
encounters of the fairy folk by his paladins are not so nu- 
merous in the original French romances which deal with 
him and them ; but in the hands of Boiardo, Ariosto, and 
Pulci, they dwelt in an enchanted region where at any 
moment they might meet with all kinds of supernatural 
beings. But both in the older and later romances the 
powers of magic and enchantment are ever present. These 
are chiefly instanced in magical weapons such as the Sword 
Durandal of Roland which cannot be shivered ; the mag- 
ical ointments of giants like Ferragus, which rubbed on 
their bodies make them invulnerable ; the wearing of 
armour which exercises a similar guardianship on the body 
of its possessor, and so forth. But we find heroes like 
Ogier, the Dane, penetrating into fairy land itself, and 
wedding its queen. This was the fate of a great many 
medieval heroes, and Ogier finds in the enchanted realm 
King Arthur, and several other paladins. The analogous 
cases of Tom-a-Lincolne, Tannhauser and Thomas the 
Rhymer, will readily occur to the reader. The magical 
and the marvellous is everywhere in use in the romances 
which deal with Charlemagne. Indeed in this respect 
they entirely put in the shade the later romances proper, 
as distinguished from the Chansons de Geste. 

Charm (Carmen) : A magical formula, sung or recited to 
bring about a supposedly beneficial result, or to confer 
magical efficacy on an amulet. In popular usage the same 
word is employed to designate the incantation and the 
object which is charmed. For the material object (See 
Amulet :) for the recital (See Spells.) 

Charnock, Thomas : Alchemist. (1524 ? — 1581). Com- 
paratively little biographical matter concerning this Eng- 
lish alchemist is forthcoming, but it is recorded that he 
was born somewhere in the Isle of Thanet, Kent ; while 
as to the date, this is revealed inasmuch as one of his manu- 
scripts, dated 1574, is stated by the writer to have been 
penned in " the fifty yeare of my age." As a young man 
he travelled all over England in search of alchemistic know- 
ledge, but eventually he fixed his residence at Oxford, and 
here he chanced to make the acquaintance of a noted scien- 
tist. The latter, greatly impressed with the youth's 
cleverness, straightway appointed him his confidant and 
assistant in general; and, after working in this capacity 
for a number of years,. Charnock found himself the sole 
legatee of his patron's paraphernalia, and likewise of the 
various secrets written in his note-books. Armed thus, 
he proceeded to devote himself more eagerly than ever to 



Charnock 



100 



China 



the quest of gold-production ; but in 1555, just as he im- 
agined himself on the verge of triumph, his hopes were 
frustrated by a sudden explosion in his laboratory ; while 
in 1557, when he again thought that success was imminent, 
the press-gang arrived at his house and laid violent hands 
on him, being anxious for recruits wherewith to swell the 
English army then fighting the French. The alchemist 
was bitterly chagrined on "being kidnapped in this wise, 
and, lest his secrets should be discovered by prying eyes, 
he set himself to destroy all his precious impedimenta. 
" With my worke made such a furious faire 
That the gold flew forth in the aire," — 
so he writes concerning this iconoclasm, and, subsequent 
to this event, he proceeded to France as a soldier, and 
took part in the disastrous campaign which culminated 
in the English being worsted at Calais by the Due de Guise. 
How Charnock fared during the expedition is not known, 
and it is likely that he found small pleasure in the rough 
life ; but be that as it may, he returned to England safely, 
and in 1562 he was married to one Agnes Norton. There- 
after he settled at Stockland, in the county of Somerset, 
and here he continued to pursue scientific researches, ap- 
parently unmolested by further visitations from the military 
powers. Nor would it seem that the clergy molested him 
either, or looked askance on his alchemistic studies ; for 
on his death, which occurred in 1581, his mortal remains 
were duly interred at Otterhampton Church, Bridgwater. 
That facetious antiquary and historian, Anthony Wood, 
in his AthencB Oxoniensis, credits Charnock with a consid- 
erable amount of writing, and it is possible that several 
items enumerated are in reality from some other pen than 
the alchemist's. However, there are certain books which 
the latter undoubtedly wrote, notably Mnigma ad Alchi- 
miam, issued in 1572 ; while no less interesting than this 
is the Breviary of Natural Philosophy, which is couched 
in verse, was published originally in 1557, and was subse- 
quently reprinted in the Theatrum Chemicum of Elias 
Ashmole. 

Chase, Warren : {See Spiritualism.) 

Cbazel, Comte de : {See Rosicrueians.) 

Chela : {See Adept.) 

Chelidonius : A stone taken out of a swallow ; good against 
melancholy and periodical disorders. To cure fever it 
must be put in a yellow linen cloth, and tied about the 
neck. 

Chenevix, Richard : {See Spiritualism.) 

Cherubim : Certain mystic appearances of the angelic type, 
often represented as figures wholly or partly human, and 
with wings proceeding from the shoulders. We find the 
first mention of these beings in connection with the ex- 
pulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden ; and 
they are frequently spoken of in later biblical history. 
Sometimes the cherubim have two or more faces, or are 
of composite animal form. 

Chesed : Under this name the Jewish Kabalists signified 
the attribute of mercy. 

Chesme : A cat-shaped well — or fountain — spirit or nymph 
of the Turks. She inveigles youths to death much in the 
same manner as the Lorelei. 

Chevaliers de 1' Enfer : These are demons more powerful 
than those of no rank, but less powerful than titled demons 
— counts, marquises, and dukes. They may be evoked 
from dawn to sunrise, and from sunset to dark. 

Chilan Balam, Books of : {See Mexico and Central America.) 

Children in Poltergeist Cases : {See Poltergeist.) 

China : Although it can hardly be said that any system of 
magic worthy of the name ever originated in China, and 
though magical practice was uncommon, yet instances 
are not wanting of the employment of magical means in 
the Celestial Empire, and the belief in a supernatural world 



peopled by gods, demons and other beings is very strong 
in the popular Chinese mind. 

" Although the Chinese mind possessed under such a 
constitution but few elements in which magic could strike 
root and throw out its ramifications and influence, yet 
we find many traces giving evidence of the instinctive 
movement of the mind, as well as of magical influence ; 
though certainly not in the manner or abundance that we 
meet with it in India. The great variety of these appear- 
ances is, howover, striking, as in no other country are they 
so seldom met with. 

" As the King, as it were, microcosmically represents 
the human races in fortune or misfortune before the divinity 
so must his eye be constantly directed to those signs in 
which the will of the Most High is revealed ; ' He must 
observe dreams as much as the phenomena of nature, the 
eclipses and the po-.itions of the stars ; and, when all else 
is wanting, he must consult the oracle of the tortoise, or 
the Plant Tsche, and direct his actions accordingly.' He 
is therefore, as it were, the universal oracle of the people, 
as the popular mind is relieved from every flight of imag- 
ination by a highly remarkable mental compulsion." . . . 

"It is easy to understand from these circumstances 
wherefore we find so few of these phenomena of magic and 
the visionary and ecstatic state, in other parts of the East 
so frequent, and therefore they are scattered and uncertain. 
Accounts are, however, not wanting to show that the 
phenomena as well as theories of prophecy were known 
in more remote times. Under the Emperor Hoei Ti, about 
A.D. 304, a mystical sect arose in China calling themselves 
the teachers of th- emptiness and nothingness of all things. 
They also exhibited the art of binding the power of the 
senses, and producing a condition which they believed 
perfection." 

Demonism and Obsession. The Chinese are implicit 
believers in demons whom they imagine surround them 
on every hand. Says Peebles : " English officials, Ameri- 
can missionaries, mandarins and many of the Chinese 
literati (Confucians, Taoists and Buddhist believers alike) 
declare that spritism in some form, and under some name, 
is the almost universal belief of China. It is generally 
denominated ' ancestral worship.' " 

" There is no driving out of these Chinese," says Father 
Gonzalo, " the cursed belief that the spirits of their an- 
cestors are ever about them, availing themselves of every 
opportunity to give advice and counsel." 

" The medium consulted," remarks Dr. Doolittle, " takes 
in the hand a stick of lighted incense to dispel ad defiling 
influences, then prayers of some kind are repeated, the 
body becomes spasmodic, the medium's eyes are shut, 
and the form sways about, assuming the walk and peculiar 
attitude of the spirit when in the body. Then the com- 
munication from the divinity begins, which may be uf a 
faultfinding or a flattering character. . . . Sometimes 
these Chinese mediums profess to be possessed by some 
specified historical god of great healing power ., and in 
this condition they prescribe for the sick. It is believed 
that the ghoul or spirit invoked actually casts himself into 
the medium, and dictates the medicine." 

" Volumes might be written upon the gods, genii and 
familiar spirits supposed to be continually in communi- 
cation with this people," writes Dr. John L. Nevius, in 
his works, China and The Chinese. " The Chinese have 
a large number of books upon this subject, among the most 
noted of which is the ' Liau-chai-chei.' a large work of 
sixteen volumes. .' . . Tu Sein signifies a spirit in the 
body, and there are a class of familiar spirits supposed to 
dwell in the bodies of certain Chinese who became the 
mediums of communication with the unseen world. In- 
dividuals said to be possessed by these spirits are visited 



China 



101 



China 



by multitudes, particularly those who have lost recently 
relatives by death, and wish to converse with them. . . . 
Remarkable disclosures and revelations are believed to 
be made by the involuntary movements of a bamboo pencil, 
and through a similar method some claim to see in the dark. 
Persons considering themselves endowed with supsrior 
intelligence are firm believers in those and other modes 
of consulting spirits." 

The public teacher in Chen Sin Ling (W. J. Plumb says) : 
" In the district of Tu-ching, obsessions by evil spirits 
or demons are very common." He further writes that 
"there are very many cases also in Chang-lo." Again he 
says : 

" When a man is thus afflicted, the spirit (Kwei) takes 
possession of his body without regard to his being strong 
or weak in health. It is not easy to resist the demon's 
power. Though without bodily ailments, possessed per- 
sons appear as if ill. When under the entrancing spell 
of the demon, they seem different from their ordinary 
selves. 

" In most cases the spirit takes possession of a man's 
body contrary to his will, and he is helpless in the matter. 
The kwei has the power of driving out the man's spirit, as in 
sleep or dreams. When the subject awakes to conscious- 
ness, he has not the slightest knowledge of what has tran- 
spired. 

" The actions of possessed persons vary exceedingly. 
They leap about and toss their arms, and then the demon 
tells them what particular spirit he is, often taking a false 
name, or deceitfully calling himself a god, or one of the 
genii come down to the abodes of mortals. Or, perhaps, 
it professes to be the spirit of a deceased husband or wife. 
There are also kwei of the quiet sort, who talk and laugh 
like other people, only that the voice is changed. Some 
have a voice like a bird. Some speak Mandarin — the 
language of Northern China — and some the local dialect ; 
but though the speech proceeds from the mouth of the 
man, what is said does not appear to come from him. The 
outward appearance and manner is also changed. 

" In Fu-show there is a class of persons who collect in 
large numbers and make use of incense, pictures, candles 
and lamps to establish what are called ' incense tables.' 
Taoist priests are engaged to attend the ceremonies, and 
they also make use of ' mediums.' The Taoist writes a 
charm for the medium, who, taking the incense stick in 
his hand, stands like a graven image, thus signifying his 
willingness to have the demon come and take possession 
of him. Afterward, the charm is burned and the demon- 
spirit is worshipped and invoked, the priest, in the mean- 
while going on with his chanting. After a while the medium 
begins to tremble, and then speaks and announces what 
spirit has descended, and asks what is wanted of him. 
Then, whoever has requests to make, takes incense sticks, 
makes prostrations, and asks a response respecting some 
disease, or for protection from some calamity. In winter 
the same performances are carried on to a great extent 
by gambling companies. If some of the responses hit 
the mark, a large number of people are attracted. They 
establish a shrine and offer sacrifices, and appoint days, 
calling upon people from every quarter to come and consult 
the spirit respecting diseases. . . . 

" There is also a class of men who establish what they 
call a ' Hall of Revelations.' At the present time there 
are many engaged in this practice. They are, for the most 
part, literary men of great ability. The people in large 
numbers apply to them for responses. The mediums 
spoken of above are also numerous. All of the above 
practices are not spirits seeking to possess men ; but rather 
men seeking spirits to possess them, and allowing them- 
selves to be voluntarily used as their instruments. 



" As to the outward appearance of persons when pos- 
sessed, of course, they are the same persons as to outward 
form as at ordinary times ; but the colour of the counte- 
nance may change. The demon may cause the subject 
to assume a threatening air, and a fierce, violent manner, 
The muscles often stand out on the face, the eyes are closed, 
or they protrude with a frightful stare. These demons 
sometimes prophesy. 

" The words spoken certainly proceed from the mouths 
of the persons possessed ; but what is said does not appear 
to come from their minds or wills, but rather from some 
other personality, often accompanied by a change of voice. 
Of this there can be no doubt. When the subject returns 
to consciousness, he invariably declares himself ignorant 
of what he has said. 

" The Chinese make use of various methods to cast out 
demons. They are so troubled and vexed by inflictions 
affecting bodily health, or it may be throwing stones, 
moving furniture, or the moving about and destruction 
of family utensils, that they are driven to call in the service 
of some respected scholar or Taoist priest, to offer sacrifices, 
or chant sacred books, and pray for protection and ex- 
emption from suffering. Some make use of sacrifices and 
offerings of paper clothes and money in order to induce 
the demon to go back to the gloomy region of Yan-chow. . . 
As to whether these methods have any effect, I do not 
know. As a rule, when demons are not very troublesome, 
the families afflicted by them generally think it best to 
hide their affliction, or to keep these wicked spirits quiet 
by sacrifices, and burning incense to them." 

An article in the London Daily News gives lengthy ex- 
tracts from an address upon the Chinese by Mrs. Montague 
Beaucham, who had spent many years in China in edu- 
cational work. Speaking of their spiritism, she said, " The 
latest London craze in using the planchette has been one 
of the recognized means in China of conversing with evil 
spirits from time immemorial." She had lived in one of 
the particular provinces known as demon land, where the 
natives are bound up in the belief and worship of spirits. 
" There is a real power," she added, '■' in this necromancy. 
They do healings and tell fortunes." She personally knew 
of one instance that the spirits through the planchette had 
foretold a great flood. The boxer rising was prophesied 
by the planchette. These spirits disturbed family rela- 
tions, caused fits of frothing at the mouth, and made some 
of their victims insane. In closing she declared that 
" Chinese spiritism was from hell," the obsession baffling 
the power of both Christian missionaries and native priests. 

Dr. Nevius sent out a circular communication for the 
purpose of discovering the actual beliefs of the Chinese 
regarding demonism through which he obtained much 
valuable information. Wang Wu-Fang, an educated 
Chinese wrote : 

" Cases of demon possession abound among all classes. 
They are found among persons of robust health, as well 
as those who are weak and sickly. In many unquestion- 
able cases of obsession, the unwilling subjects have resisted, 
but have been obliged to submit themselves to the control 
of the demon. ... . . . 

"In the majority of cases of possession, the beginning 
of the malady is a fit of grief, anger or mourning. These 
conditions seem to open the door to the demons. The 
outward manifestations are apt to be fierce and violent. 
It may be that the subject alternately talks and laughs ; 
he walks awhile and then sits, or he rolls on the ground, 
or leaps about ; or exhibits contortions of the body and 
twistings of the neck. ... It was common among them 
to send for exorcists, who made use of written charms, 
or chanted verses, or punctured the body with needles 
These are among the Chinese methods of cure. 



China 



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China 



" Demons are of different kinds. There are those which 
clearly declare themselves ; and then those who work in 
secret. There are those which are cast out with difficulty, 
and others with ease. 

" In cases of possesion by familiar demons, what is said 
by the subject certainly does not proceed from his own 
will. When the demon has gone out and the subject re- 
covers consciousness, he has no recollection whatever of 
what he has said or done. This is true almost invariably. 

" The methods by which the Chinese cast out demons 
are enticing them to leave by burning charms and paper 
money, or by begging and exhorting them, or by frightening 
them with magic spells and incantations, or driving them 
away by pricking with needles, or pinching with the fingers, 
in which case they cry out and promise to go. 

" I was- formerly accustomed to drive out demons by 
means of needles. At that time cases of possession by 
evil spirits were very common in our villages, and my ■ 
services were in very frequent demand. ..." 

The Rev. Timothy Richard, missionary, also writing 
in response to Dr. Nevius' circular, says : 

" The Chinese orthodox definition Of spirit is, ' the soul 
of the departed ;' some of the best of whom are raised to 
the rank of gods. . . . There is no disease to which the 
Chinese are ordinarily subject that may not be caused by 
demons. In this case the mind is untouched. It is only 
the body that suffers ; and the Chinese endeavour to get 
rid of the demon by vows and offerings to the gods. The 
subject in this case is an involuntary one. .•. . 

" Persons possessed range between fifteen and fifty years 
of age, quite irrespective of sex. This infliction comes 
.on very suddenly, sometimes in the day, and sometimes 
in the night. The demoniac talks madly, smashes every- 
thing near him, acquires unusual strength, tears his clothes 
into rags, and rushes into the street, or to the mountains 
or kills himself unless prevented. After this violent pos- 
session, the demoniac calms down and submits to his fate, 
but under the most heart-rending protests. These mad 
spells which are experienced on the demon's entrance 
return at intervals, and increase in frequency, and gen- 
erally also in intensity, so that death at last ensues from 
their violence. 

" A Chefoo boy of fifteen was going on an errand. His 
path led through fields where men were working at their 
crops. When he came up to the men and had exchanged 
a word or two with them, he suddenly began to rave wildly ; 
his eyes rolled, then he made for a pond near by. Seeing 
this, the people ran up to him, stopped him from drowning 
himself and took him home to his parents. When he got 
home, he sprang up from the ground to such a height as 
manifested almost a superhuman strength. After a few 
days he calmed down and became unusually quiet and 
gentle ; but his own consciousness was lost. The demon 
spoke of its friends in Nan-Kin. After six months this 
demon departed. He has been in the service of several 
foreigners in Chefoo since. In this case no worship was 
offered to the demon. 

" Now we proceed to those, who involuntarily possessed, 
yield to and worship the demon. The demon says he will 
cease tormenting the demoniac if he will worship him, 
and he will reward him by increasing his riches. But if 
not, he will punish his victim, make heavier his torments 
and rob him of his property. People find that their food 
is cursed. They cannot prepare any, but filth and dirt 
comes down from the air to render it uneatable. Their 
wells are likewise cursed ; their wardrobes are set on fire, 
and their money very mysteriously disappears. Hence 
arose the custom of cutting off the head of a string of cash 
that it might not run away. . . . When all efforts to 
rid themselves of the demon fail, they yield to it, and say 



' Hold ! Cease thy tormenting and we will worship thee ! ' 
A picture is pasted upon the wall, sometimes of a woman, 
and sometimes of a man, and incense is burned, and pros- 
trations are made to it twice a month. Being thus rev- 
erenced, money now comes in mysteriously, instead of 
going out. Even mill-stones . are made to move at the 
demon's orders, and the family becomes rich at once. But 
it is said that no luck attends such families, and they will 
eventually be reduced to poverty. Officials believe these 
things. Palaces are known to have been built-by them 
for these demons, who, however, are obliged to be satis- 
fied with humbler shrines from the poor. . . . 

" Somewhat similar to the above class is another small 
one which has power to enter the lower regions. These 
are the opposite of necromancers, for instead of calling 
up the dead and learning of them about the future destiny 
of the individual in whose behalf they are engaged, they 
lie in a trance for two days, when their spirits are said to 
have gone to the Prince of Darkness, to inquire how long 
the sick person shall be left among the living. . . . 

" Let us now note the different methods adopted to 
cast out the evil .spirits from the demoniacs. Doctors 
are called to do it. They use needles to puncture the tips 
of the fingers, the nose, the neck. They also use a certain 
pill, and apply it in the following manner : the thumbs 
of the two hands are tied tightly together, and the two 
big toes are tied together in the same manner. Then one 
pill is put on the two big toes at the root of the nail, and 
the other at the root of the thumb nails. At the same 
instant the two pills are set on fire, and they are kept until 
the flesh is burned. In the application of the pills, or in 
the piercing of the needle, the invariable cry is : 'I am 
going ; I am going immediately. I will never dare to 
come back again. Oh, have mercy on me this once. I'll 
never return ! ' 

" When the doctors fail, they call on people who practise 
spiritism. They themselves cannot drive the demon away, 
but they call another demon to do it. Both the Confu- 
cianists and Taoists practise this method. . . . Some- 
times the spirits are very ungovernable. Tables are 
turned, chairs are rattled, and a general noise of smashing 
is heard, until the very mediums themselves tremble with 
fear. If the demon is of this dreadful character, they 
quickly write another charm with the name of the par- 
ticular spirit whose quiet disposition is known to them. 
Lu-tsu is a favourite one of this kind. After the burning 
of the charm and incense, and when prostrations are made, 
a little frame is procured, to which a Chinese pencil is at- 
tached. Two men on each side hold it on a tabic spread 
with sand or millet. Sometimes a prescription is written, 
the pencil moving of its own accord They buy the medi- 
cine prescribed and give it to the possessed. ... Should 
they find that burning incense and offering sacrifices fails 
to liberate the poor victim, they may call in conjurors, 
such as the Taoists, who sit on mats and are carried by 
invisible power from place to place. They ascend to a 
height of twenty or fifty feet, and are carried to a distance 
of four or five li (about half a mile). Of this class are those 
who, in Manchuria call down fire from the sky in those 
funerals where the corpse is burned. . . . 

" These exorcists may belong to any of the three re- 
ligions in China. The dragon procession, on the fifteenth 
of the first month, is said by some to commemorate a 
Buddhist priest's victory over evil spirits. . . . They 
paste up charms on windows and doors, and on the body 
of the demoniac, and conjure the demon never to return. 
The evil spirit answers : 'I'll never return You need 
not take the trouble of pasting all these charms upon the 
doors and windows.' 

" Exorcists are specially hate'd by the evil spirits. Some- 



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China 



times they feel themselves beaten fearfully ; but no hand 
is seen. Bricks and stones may fall on them from the sky 
or housetops. On the road they may without any warning 
be plastered over from head to foot with mud or filth ; 
or may be seized when approaching a river, and held under 
the water and drowned." 

In his Social Life among the Chinese, Dr. Doolittle says : 
" They have invented several ways by which they find 
out the pleasure of gods and spirits. One of the most 
common of their utensils is the Ka-pue, a piece of bamboo 
root, bean-shaped, and divided in the centre, to indicate 
the positive and the negative. The incense lighted, the 
Ka-pue properly manipulated before the symbol god, the 
pieces are tossed from the medium's hand, indicating the 
■will of the spirit by the way they fall." 

The following manifestation is mental rather than physical : 
" The professional takes in the hand a stick of lighted incense 
to expel all defiling influences ; prayers of some sort are 
repeated, the fingers interlaced, and the medium's eyes 
are shut, giving unmistakable evidence of being possessed 
by some supernatural or spiritual power. The body sways 
back and forward ; the incense falls, and the person begins 
to step about, assuming the walk and peculiar attitude 
of the spirit. This is considered as infallible proof that 
the divinity has entered the body of the medium. Some- 
times the god, using the mouth of the medium, gives the 
supplicant a sound scolding for invoking his aid to obtain 
unlawful or unworthy ends. 

" Divination," writes Sir John Burrows, "with many 
strange methods of summoning the dead to instruct the 
living and reveal the future, is of very ancient origin, as is 
proved by Chinese manuscripts antedating the revelations 
of the Jewish Scriptures." 

An ancient Chinese book called Poh-shi-ching-isung, 
consisting of six volumes on the " Source of True Divina- 
tion,'' contains the following preface : 

" The secret of augury consists in the study of the mys- 
teries and in communications with gods and demons. The 
interpretations of the transformations are deep and mys- 
terious. The theory of the science is most intricate, the 
practice of it most important. The sacred classic says : 
4 That which is true gives indications of the future.' To 
know the condition of the dead, and hold with them in- 
telligent intercourse, as did the ancients, produces a most 
salutary influence upon the parties. . . . But when from 
intoxication or feasting, or licentious pleasures, they pro- 
ceed to invoke the gods, what infatuation to suppose that 
their prayers will move them Often when no response 
is given, or the interpretation is not verified, they lay the 
blame at the door of the augur, forgetting that their failure 
is due to their want of sincerity. ... It is the great fault 
of augurs, too, that, from a desire of gain, they use the art 
of divination as a trap to ensnare the people." 

Peebles adds ; " Naturally undemonstrative and secre- 
tive, the higher classes of Chinese seek to conceal their full 
knowledge of spirit intercourse from foreigners, and from 
the inferior castes of their own countrymen, thinking them 
not sufficiently intelligent to rightly use it. The lower 
orders, superstitious and money-grasping, often prostitute 
their magic gifts to gain and fortune-telling. These clair- 
voyant fortune-tellers, surpassing wandering gypsies in 
' hitting ' the past, infest the temples, streets and road- 
sides, promising to find lost property, discover precious 
metals and reveal the hidden future." 

Ghosts. — The Chinese are strong in the belief that they 
are surrounded by the spirits of the dead. Indeed an- 
cestor-worship constitutes a powerful feature in the 
national faith, but as it deals with religion it does not come 
within the scope of this article. Suffice it to say that the 
Celestial has ever before him the likelihood and desirability 



of communion with the dead. On the death of a person 
they make a hole in the roof to permit the soul to effect 
its escape from the house. When a child is at the point 
of death, its mother will go into the garden and call its 
name, hoping thereby to bring back its wandering spirit. 
" With the Chinese the souls of suicides are specially 
obnoxious, and they consider that the very worst penalty 
that can befall a soul is the sight of its former surroundings. 
This, it is supposed that, in the case of the wicked man, 
' they only see their homes as if they were near them ; 
they see their last wishes disregarded, everything upside 
down, their substance squandered, strangers possess the 
old estate '; in their misery the dead man's family curse 
him, his children become corrupt, land is gone, the wife 
sees her husband tortured, the husband sees his wife 
stricken down with mortal disease ; even friends forget, 
but some, perhaps, for the sake of bygone times, may stroke 
the coffin and let fall a tear, departing with a cold smile.' " 
- "In China, the ghosts which are animated by a sense 
of duty are frequently seen : at one time they seek to serve 
virtue in distress, and at another they aim to restore wrong- 
fully held treasure. Indeed, as it has been observed, ' one 
of the most powerful as well as the most widely diffused of 
the people's ghost stories is that which treats of the perse- 
cuted child whose mother comes out of the grave to succour 
him.' " 

" The Chinese have a dread of the wandering spirits of 
persons who have come to an unfortunate end. At Canton, 
1817, the wife of an officer of Government had occasioned 
the death of two female domestic slaves, from some jealous 
suspicion it was supposed of her husband's conduct to- 
wards the girls ; and, in order to screen herself from the 
consequences, she suspended the bodies by the neck, with 
a view to its being construed into an act of suicide. But 
the conscience of the woman tormented her to such a degree 
that she became insane, and at times personated the vic- 
tims of her cruelty, or, as the Chinese supposed, the spirits 
of the murdered girls possessed her, and utilised her mouth 
to declare her own guilt. In her ravings she tore her clothes 
and beat her own person with all the fury of madness ; 
after which she would recover her senses for a time, when 
it was supposed the demons quitted her, but only to return 
with greater frenzy, which took place a short time previous 
to her death. According to Mr. Dennys, the most common 
form of Chinese ghost story is that wherein the ghost seeks 
to bring to justice the murderer who shuffled off its mortal 
coil." 

Poltergeists (q.v.) are not uncommon in China, and several 
cases of their occurrence have been recorded by the Jesuit 
missionaries of the eighteenth century in Cochin China. Mr 
Dennys in hit Folk Lore of China, mentions a case in which 
a Chinaman was forced to take refuge in a temple by the 
usual phenomena — throwing about of crockery, &c, after 
the decease of a monkey. 

Secret Societies. For an account of secret societies in 
China, See Thion-ti-Hwir and Triad Society. 

It has sometimes been claimed that the systems of Con- 
fucius and Lao-Tze are magical or kabalistic, but such 
claims have been advanced by persons who did not appre- 
ciate their proper status as philosophic systems. (See 
Y-Kin, Book of.) 

Symbolism. There are numerous mysteries of meaning 
in the strange symbols, characters, personages, birds, beasts, 
etc. which adorn all species of Chinese art objects. For 
example a rectangular Chinese vase is feminine, representing 
the creative or ultimate principle. A group of seemingly 
miscellaneous art objects, depicted perhaps upon a brush 
tray, are probably the po-ku, or ' hundred antiques,' em- 
blematic of culture and implying a delicate compliment 
to the recipient of the tray. Birds and animals occur with 



China 



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Clairaudience 



frequency on Chinese porcelains, and, if one will observe 
closely, it is a somewhat select menagerie, in which certain 
types are emphasised by repetition. For instance, the 
dragon is so familiar as to be no longer remarked, and yet 
his significance is perhaps not fully understood by all. 
There are, in fact, three kinds of dragons, the lung of the 
sky, the li of the sea, and the kiau of the marshes. The 
lung is the favourite kind, however, and may be known when 
met by his having ' the head of a camel, the horns of a deer, 
the eyes of a rabbit, ears of a cow, neck of a snake, belly 
of a frog, scales of a carp, claws of a hawk, and palm of a 
tiger.' His special office is to guard and support the man- 
sions of the gods, and he is naturally the peculiar symbol 
of the Emperor, or Son of Heaven. 

A less familiar beast is the chi-lin, which resembles in 
part a rhinoceros, but has head, feet, and legs like a deer, 
and a tufted tail. In spite of his unprepossessing appear- 
ance he is of a benevolent disposition, and his image on 
a vase or other ornament is an emblem of good government 
and length of days. A strange bird, having the head of a 
pheasant, .a long flexible neck and a plumed tail, may often 
be seen flying in the midst of scroll-like clouds, or walking 
in a grove of treepeonies. This is the fengbuang, the 
Chinese phcenix, emblem of immortality and appearing to 
mortals only as a presage of the auspicious reign of a vir- 
tuous Emperor. The tortoise (kuei), which bears upon 
its back the seagirt abode of the Eight Immortals, is a 
third supernatural creature associated with strength, lon- 
gevity, and (because of the markings on its back) with a 
mystic plan of numerals which is a key to the philosophy 
of the unseen. 

Colours have their significance, blue being the colour 
of the heavens, yellow of the earth and the Emperor, red 
of the sun, white of Jupiter or the Year Star, while each 
dynasty had its own particular hue, that of the Chou dy- 
nasty being described as ' blue of the sky after rain where 
it appears between the clouds.' 

One could go on indefinitely ' reading ' the meaning of 
the seemingly fantastic creations of the Chinese artist- 
devotee, but enough has been said to show that the strange 
beings, the conventional arrangements, the apparently 
haphazard conjunction of object! in bis decorative schemes 
are far from being matter of chance, but add to their decora- 
tive properties the intellectual charm of significance. 

Chirothesy, Diepenbroek's Treatise on : (See Healing by 
Touch.) 

Chips of Gallows : Chips from a gallows and places of exe- 
cution are said to make efficacious amulets against ague. 

Chiton : An evil spirit. (See Burma.) 

Chochurah : The name under which the Jewish Kabalists 
designate Wisdom. 

Chov-hani : The Gypsy name for a witch. 

Chrisoletus : Is stone, which if bound round with gold and 
carried in the left hand drives away night-hags and pre- 
serves from melancholy, illusions and witches. Its virtue 
is the greater if a hole be made in it, and the hairs of an 
ass passed through. 

Christian Circle, The : (See Spain.) 

Chrysolite : A stone preventive'of fever and madness, which 
also disposes to repentance. If set in gold, it is a preser- 
vative against nocturnal terrors. 

Chrysoprase : A stone good for weakness of sight, and for 
rendering its possessor joyful and liberal : its colour is 
green and gold. 

Churchyard : It is not difficult to understand how the church- 
yard has come to be regarded as the special haunt of ghosts. 
The popular imagination may well be excused for sup- 
posing that the spirits of the dead continue to hover over 
the spot where their bodies are laid. The ancient Greeks 
thought that the souls of the dead were especially powerful 



near their graves or sepulchres, because of some natural 
tie binding soul and body,- even after death. The more 
gross and earthly a soul was, the less willing was it to 
leave the vicinity of its body, and in consequence, spectres 
encountered in a churchyard were more to be feared than 
those met with elsewhere. The apparitions witnessed at 
the tombs of saints, however, were to be regarded rather 
as good angels than the souls of the saints themselves. 

Chymical Nuptials of Christian Rosenkreutz : (See Rosi- 
crucians.) 

Circe : (See Greece.) 

Circles, Spiritualistic : A group of persons who meet at 
intervals for the purpose of holding seances for spirit 
communication. It is essential that at least one among 
them be a medium ; occasionally there are several mediums 
in one circle. But indeed all the members of a circle must 
be chosen with care, if the seances are to be productive 
of phenomena. The Baron de Guldenstubbe, in his 
Practical Experimental Pneumatology, or the Reality of 
Spirits and the Marvellous Phenomenon of their Direct 
Writing, published early in the history of the movement, 
gives directions for the forming of a circle after the Ameri- 
can fashion. 

" Setting aside the moral conditions," he says, " which 
are equally requisite it is known that American Circles 
are based on the distinction of positive and electric or 
negative magnetic currents. 

" The circles consist of twelve persons, representing in 
equal proportions the positive and negative or sensitive 
elements. This distinction does not follow the sex of the 
members, though generally women are negative and 
sensitive, while men are positive and magnetic. The 
mental and physical constitution of each individual must 
be studied before forming the circles, for some delicate 
women have masculine qualities, while some strong 
men are, morally speaking, women. A table is placed in 
a clear and ventilated spot ; the medium is seated at 
one end and entirely isolated ; by his calm and contem- 
plative quietudt he serves as a conductor for the electricity 
and it may be noted that a good somnambulist is usually 
an excellent medium. The six electrical or negative 
dispositions, which are generally recognised by their 
emotional qualities and their sensibility, are placed at the 
right of the medium, the most sensitive of all being next 
to him. The same rule is followed with the positive 
personalities, who are at the left of the medium, with the 
most positive among them next to him. In order to 
form a chain, the twelve person- each place their right hand 
on the table, and their left hand on that of the neighbour, 
thus making a circle round the table. Observe that the 
medium or mediums, if there be more than one, are entirely 
isolated from jthose who form the chain." 

The formation of a circle is accomplished on similar lines 
at the present day. M. Camille Flammarion states that 
tht alternation of the sexes is generally provided to " rein- 
force the fluids." That the seance may be as productive 
when the circle is composed of a few investigators, following 
no rules, but their own, has been abundantly proved 
in recent years. The one indispensable feature is the 
medium. 

Clairaudience ( " Clear Hearing") : The ability to hear sounds- 
inaudible to the normal ear, such as " spirit " voices ; a 
faculty analogous to clairvoyance, (q.v.), but considerably 
less frequently met with. If clairaudience be ascribed 
to auditory, as clairvoyance to visual, hallucination, its 
comparative rareness is accounted for, since visual hallu- 
cination is the more common of the two. At the same 
time there are a goodly number of instances of the clair- 
audient faculty on record, some of them of a very pictures- 
que nature. (See Spirit Music). Perhaps the best known. 



Clairvoyance 



105 



Cock 



case is that of Joan of Arc, but she was not the Only martyr 
who heard the voices of saints and angels urging them to 
the performance of some special task. In spiritualistic 
circles the faculty is frequently claimed by mediums, but 
distinction must be made between the " inner voice," in 
which the latter are supposed to receive communications 
from the denizens of the other world, and an externalised 
voice comparable to an actual physical sound. Frequently 
some such physical sounds form the basis of an auditory 
hallucination, just as the points of light in a crystal are 
said to form points de repcre round which the hallucination 
of the visualiser may shape itself. 

Clairvoyance {i.e., " clear vision ") : A term denoting the 
supposed supernormal faculty of seeing persons and events 
which are distant in time or place, and of which no know- 
ledge can reach the seer through the normal sense-channels. 
Clairvoyance may be roughly divided into three classes — 
retrocognition and premonition, or the perception of past 
and future events respectively, and the perception of 
contemporary events happening at a distance, or outside 
the range of the normal vision. Clairvoyance may include 
psychometry, second sight, and crystal-gazing, all of which 
see. For the early history of clairvoyance, see Divination. 
In prophecy, we have a form of clairvoyance extending back 
into antiquity, and second-sight also is an ancient form. 
It is notable that spiritualism in Great Britain was directly 
heralded, about the third decade of the nineteenth century, 
by an outbreak of clairvoyance. Among the clairvoyants 
of that period may be mentioned Alexis Didier (q.v.), whose 
phenomena suggested that telepathy at least entered into 
his feats, which included the reading of letters enclosed in 
sealed packets, the playing of Scarte with bandaged eyes, 
and others of a like nature. Clairvoyance remains to the 
present day a prominent feature of the spiritualistic 
seance. Though there exists a quantity of evidence, 
collected by the members of the Society for Psychical 
Research and other scientific investigators, which would 
seem to support the theory of a supernormal vision, yet at 
the same time it must be acknowledged that many cases 
of clairvoyance lend themselves to a more mundane ex- 
planation. For instance, it, has been shown that it is 
almost, if not quite, impossible so to bandage the eyes 
of the medium that he cannot make some use of his normal 
vision. The possibility of hyperesthesia during trance 
must also be taken into account, nor must we overlook 
the hypothetical factor of telepathy, which may conceiv- 
ably play a part in clairvoyant performances. A private 
enquiry agency might also be suggested as a possible source 
of some of the knowledge displayed by the professional 
clairvoyant. The crystal is, as has been indicated, a 
favourite mode of exercising the clairvoyant faculty, 
presumably because the hypnotic state is favourable to the 
development of the supernormal vision, though it might 
also be suggested that the condition thus induced favoured 
the rising into the upper consciousness of knowledge 
sub-consciously gleaned. The term clairvoyance is also 
used to cover the power to see discarnate spirits, and is 
thus applied to mediumship generally. 

Clan Morna : In Irish romance one of the divisions of the 
Fianna, whose treasure bag containing magic weapons 
and precious jewels of the Danaan age was kept by Fia of 
that clan. 

Clavel : Author of Histoire Pittoresque de la Francmazonnerie. 
He hints in it that when Freemasonry in Austria was sup- 
pressed by Charles VI., the Order of Mopses was estab- 
lished in its place. 

Cledonism, or in full, Cledonismantia, is the good or evil 
presage of certain words uttered without premeditation 
when persons come together in any way. It also regulated 
the words to be used on particular occasions. Cicero says 



the Pythagoreans were very attentive to these presages ; 
and according to Pausanius, it was a favourite method of 
divination at Smyrna, where the oracles of Apollo were 
thus interpreted. 

Cleromancy was practised by throwing black and white 
beans, little bones or dice, and perhaps, stones ; anything, 
in short, suitable for lots. A method of practising clero- 
mancy in the streets of Egypt is mentioned under the head 
of Sortilege, and the same thing was common in Rome. 
The Thrisan lots, named before, meant indifferently the 
same thing as cleromancy ; it was nothing more than dicing, 
only that the objects used bore particular marks or charac- 
ters, and were consecrated to Mercury, who was regarded 
as the patron of this method of divination. For this rea- 
son an olive leaf, called " the lot of Mercury," was generally 
put in the urn in order to propitiate his favour. 

Clidomancy should be exercised when the sun or moon is in 
Virgo, the name should be written upon a key. the key 
should be tied to a Bible, and both should be hung upon 
the nail of the ring-finger of a virgin, who must thrice 
softly repeat certain words. According as the key and 
book turns or is stationary, the name is to be considered 
right or wrong. Some ancients added the seven Psalms 
with litanies and sacred prayers, and then more fearful 
effects were produced upon the guilty ; for not only the 
key and the book turned, but either the impression of the 
key was found upon him, or he lost an eye. Another 
method of practising with the Bible and key, is to place 
the street door key on the fiftieth-psalm, close the volume 
and fasten it very tightly with the garter of a female ; it 
is then suspended to a nail and will turn when the name 
of the thief is mentioned. By a third method, two persons 
suspend the Bible between them ; holding the ring of the 
key by their two forefingers. 

Clothes, Phantom : (See Phantom Dress.) 

Cloven Foot : There is an old belief, buttressed by countless 
tales of apparitions, that the Devil always appears with a 
cloven foot, as a sort of distinguishing mark. It has been 
suggested that the Evil One, having fallen lower than any 
man, is not permitted to take the perfect human form, 
but must have some sort of deformity, i.e., the cloven foot. 

Cock : The cock has always been connected with, magical 
practice in the various parts of the world throughout the 
ages, and is to be considered in more than one light in this 
connection. He is the herald of the dawn, and many 
examples might be cited of assemblies of demons and 
sorcerers where his shrill cry, announcing dayspring, has 
put the infernal Sabbath to rout. It is said that for the 
purpose of averting such a contingency, sorcerers were 
wont to smear the head and breast of the cock with olive 
oil, or else to place around his neck a collar of vine-branches. 
In many cases the future was divined through the instru- 
mentality of this bird. {See Alectryomancy). It was 
also believed that in the stomach of the cock was found a 
stone, called Lappilus Alectorius, from the Greek name of 
the bird, the virtue of which was to give strength and 
courage, and which is said to have inspired the gigantic 
might of Milo of Crotona. 

Originally a native of India, the cock arrived in Europe 
in early times, via Persia, where we find him alluded to in 
the Zoroastrian books as the beadle of Sraosa, the sun, and 
affrighter of demons. Among the Arabs, it is said that he 
crows when he becomes aware of the presence of jinns. 
The Jews received their conception of the cock as a scarer 
of evil spirits from the Persians, as did the Armenians, who 
say that he greets with his clarion call the guardian angels, 
who descend to earth with the day, and that he gives the 
key-note to the angelic choirs of heaven to commence their 
daily round of song. In India, too, and among the Pagan 
Slavs, he was supposed to scare away demons from dwelling 



Coek 



106 



Coleridge 



places, and was often the first living creature introduced 
into a newly-built house. The Jews, however, believe 
that it is possible for the cock to become the victim of 
demons, and they say that if he upsets a dish he should 
be killed. The, cock is often used directly in magical 
practice. Thus, in Scotland, he is buried under the patients' 
bed in cases of epilepsy. The Germans believed that if 
a sorcerer throws a black cock into the air, thunder and 
lightning will follow, and among the Chams of Cambodia, 
a woman who wishes to become a sorceress sacrifices a live 
cock on a termite's nest, cutting the bird in two from the 
head fx> the tail, and placing it on an altar, in front of which 
she dances and sings, until the two halves of the bird come 
together again, and it comes to life and crows. His name 
was often pronounced by the Greeks as a cure for the 
diseases of animals, and it was said by the Romans that 
locked doors could be opened with his tail feathers. The 
bird was often pictured on amulets in early times, and 
figured as the symbol of Abraxas, the principal deity of a 
Gnostic sect. 

The cock is often regarded as the guide of souls to the 
underworld, and in this respect was associated by the 
Greeks with Persephone and Hermes, and the Slavs of 
pagan times often sacrificed cocks to the dead, and to the 
household serpents in which they believed their ancestors 
to be reincarnated. Conversely, the cock was sometimes 
pictured as having an infernal connection, especially if 
his colour be black. Indeed he is often employed in black 
magic, perhaps the earliest instance of this being in the 
Atharia Veda. A black cock is offered up to propitiate 
the Devil in Hungary, and a black hen was used for the 
same purpose in Germany. The Greek syrens, the Shedim 
of the Talmud, and the Izpuzteque, whom the dead Aztec 
encounters on the road to Mictlan, the Place of the Dead, 
all have cock's feet. There is a widespread folk-belief 
that once in seven years the cock lays a little egg. In 
Germany it is necessary to throw this over the roof, or 
tempests will wreck the homestead, but should the egg 
be hatched, it will produce a cockatrice or basilisk. In 
Lithuania they put the cock's egg in a pot, and place it in 
the oven. From this egg is hatched a Kauks, a bird 
with a tail like that of a golden pheasant, which, if properly 
tended, will bring its owner great good luck. Gross 
mentions in a chronicle of Bale, in Switzerland, that in the 
month of August, 1474, a cock of that town was accused 
and convicted of laying an egg, and was condemned to 
death. He was publicly burned along with his egg, at a 
place called Kablenberg, in sight of a great multitude of 
people. 

The cock was also regarded as having a 'connection with 
light and with the sun, probably because of the redness 
of his comb, and the fiery sheen of his plumage, or perhaps 
because he heralds the day. It is the cock who daily 
wakens the heroes in the Scandinavian Asgard. (See 
Alectromaney.) 
Cock Lane Ghost : The supposed cause of a mysterious out- 
break of rappings, apparitions, and similar manifestations 
which broke out at a house in Cock Lane, Smithfield, 
London, in 1762. The disturbance was of the usual char- 
acter of poltergeist hauntings, but for some reason or other 
it attracted wide-spread attention in London. Crowds 
flocked to the haunted spot, and claimed to have witnessed 
the manifestations. The ghost purported to be the spirit 
of a former resident in the Cock Lane house, a Mrs. Kent, 
and stated that she had been murdered by her husband. 
The tenant of the house at the time of the disturbance was 
a man named Parsons, and it was more than surmised that 
he had invented the ghost for the purpose of blackmailing 
the deceased's woman's husband. The disturbance was 
finally traced to Parson's daughter, a girl of eleven, and 



Parsons himself was prosecuted and pilloried. (See 
Andrew Lang's Cock Lane and Common Sense, (1894). 

Coffin Nails : In Devonshire it is said that a ring made from 
three nails or screws that have been used to fasten a coffin, 
and dug up in a churchyard, will act as a charm against 
convulsions and fits of every kind. 

Coffin, Walter : (See Psychological Society). 

Coleman, Benjamin : (See British National Association of 
Spiritualists.) 

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor : English author and mystic (1772- 
1834). Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one of the greatest of 
English poets and critics, was born in the year 1772 at 
Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, his father being John Cole- 
ridge, a clergyman and schoolmaster, who enjoyed con- 
siderable reputation as a theological scholar, and was 
author of a Latin grammar. Samuel's childhood was 
mostly spent at the native village, and from the first his 
parents observed that his was no ordinary temperament, 
for he showed a marked aversion to games, he even eschewed 
the company of other children, and instead gave his time 
chiefly to promiscuous reading. "At six years of age," 
he writes in one of his letters to his friend, Thomas Poole, 
" I remember to have read Belisarius, Robinson Crusoe, 
and Philip Quarll, and then I found the Arabian Nights 
Entertainments," while in this same letter he tells how the 
boys around him despised him for his eccentricity, the 
result being that he soon became a confirmed dreamer, 
finding in the kingdom of his mind a welcome haven of 
refuge from the scorn thus levelled at him. 

By the time he was nine years old, Coleridge had shown 
a marked predilection for mysticism, in consequence where- 
of his father decided to make him a clergyman ; and in 
1782 the boy left home to go to Christ's Hospital, London. 
Here he found among his fellow pupils at least one who 
shared his literary tastes, Charles Lamb, and a warm 
friendship quickly sprang up between the two ; while 
a little later Coleridge conceived an affection for a young 
girl called Mary Evans, but the progress of the love affair 
was soon arrested, the poet leaving London in 1 790 to go to 
Cambridge. Beginning his university career as a sizar 
at Jesus College, he soon became known as a brilliant 
conversationalist, yet he made enemies by his extreme 
views on politics and religion, and in 1793, finding himself 
in various difficulties, he went back to London where he 
enlisted in the 15th Dragoons. Bought out soon after- 
wards by his relations, he returned to Cambridge, and in 
1794, he published his drama, The Fall of Robespierre, 
while in the following year he was married to Sarah Fricker, 
and in 1796 he issued a volume of Poems. He now began 
to preach occasionally in Unitarian chapels, while in 1797 
he met Wordsworth, with whom he speedily became 
intimate, and whom he joined in publishing Lyrical Ballads, 
this containing some of Coleridge's finest things, notably 
The Ancient Mariner. Nor was this the only masterpiece 
he wrote at this time, for scarcely was it finished, ere he 
composed two other poems of like worth, Christabel and 
Kubla Khan ; while in 1798 he was appointed Unitarian 
minister at Shrewsbury, and after holding this post for a 
little while, he went to travel in Germany, the requisite 
funds having been given him by Josiah and Thomas 
Wedgwood, both of whom were keen admirers of Cole- 
ridge's philosophical powers, and were of opinion that 
study on the continent would be of material service to him. 
Among Coleridge's first acts on returning from Germany 
was to publish his translation of Schiller's Wallenstein, 
while simultaneously he took a cottage at Keswick, intend- 
ing to live there quietly for many years. But peace and 
quiet are benefits usually sought in vain by poets, and 
Coleridge was no exception herein, for early in life he had 
begun to take occasional doses of laudanum, and now this 



Coleridge 



107 



Compacts 



practice developed into a habit which ruled his whole life. 
In 1804 he sought relief by going to Malta, while afterwards 
he visited Rome, and though, on returning to England, 
he was cheered by finding that a small annuity had been 
left him by the Wedgwoods, he was quite incapable of 
shaking off this deadly drug habit. As yet, however, it 
had not begun to vitiate his gifts altogether ; and, after 
staying for awhile with Wordsworth at Grasmere, he 
delivered a series of lectures on poetry at Bristol and sub- 
sequently in London. Especially in the Metropolis his 
genius was quickly recognised, and he was made a pensioner 
of the Society of Literature, this enabling him to take a 
small house at Highgate, and there he mainly spent his 
declining years, while it was in Highgate Cemetery that 
his remains were interred after his death in 1834. 

Everything from Coleridge's hand is penetrated by a 
wealth of thought. Apart from his purely metaphysical 
works, of which the most notable are Aids to Reflection 
and Confessions of an Enquiring Spirit, his Biographia 
Literaria and other fine contributions to critical literature 
are all of a mystical temper ; for Coleridge — more, perhaps, 
than any other critics, not even excepting Goethe and 
Walter Pater — is never content with handling the surface 
of things, but always reflects a striving to understand and 
lay bare the mysterious point where artistic creation begins. 
For him, literature is a form of life, one of the most myster- 
ious forms of life, and while he is supremely quick at 
noticing purely aesthetic merit, and equally quick at 
marking defect, it is really the philosophical element in 
his criticism which gives it its transcendant value and 
interest. 

Coleridge's metaphysical predilections are not more 
salient in his prose than in his verse. In a singularly 
beautiful poem. To the Evening Star, he tells that he gazes 
thereon, 

''Till I, myself, all spirit seem to grow." 
And in most of his poems, indeed, he is " all spirit," while 
often he hypnotises the reader into feeling something of 
the author's spirituality. Here and there, no doubt, he 
attempt..- to express in words things too deep and mysterious 
to be resolved into that sadly limited mode of utterance, 
the result being a baffling and even exasperating obscurity ; 
but waiving altogether Coleridge's metaphysical poems, 
may it not be said justly that he introduced the occult 
into verse with a mastery wholly unsurpassed in English 
literature ? May it not be said that The Ancient Mariner, 
and more especially Christabel, are the most beautiful of 
all poems in which the supernatural plays an important 
part ? 
Coley, Henry : {See Astrology.) 

College of Teutonic Philosophers, R. C. (See Michael Maer). 
Collegia : Roman craftsmen's society. (See Freemasonry). 
Colloquy of the Ancients : A collection of Ossianic legends, 
made into one about the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries. 
It relates how the Fian heroes, Keelta and Oisin, each with 
eight warriors, met to talk over the glorious past for the 
last time. Then Oisin returns to the Fairy Mound of his 
mother, and Keelta meets with St. Patrick and his monks 
at Drumdreg. Keelta tells the saint many tales, inter- 
spersed with lyrics, with which he is delighted, and he 
eventually baptises Keelta and his warriors and grants 
them absolution. 
Commentary on the Ancient War of the Knights : (See 

Alchemy.) 
Community of Sensation : The term applied by the early 
mesmerists to a phenomenon of the hypnotic trance, 
wherein the somnambule seemed to share the sensations of 
the operator. Thus an hypnotic subject, insensible to pain 
and utterly indifferent to any stimulus applied to his own 
organism, would immediately respond to such stimuli 



applied to the hypnotist. If the latter had his nose tweaked 
or his hair pulled, the entranced subject, though in a 
separate apartment, would rub the corresponding part 
of his own person, with every sign of pain and indignation. 
The most common sensations shared in this wise were those 
of tasting and smelling, but apparent community of sight 
and even hearing were not unknown. In the days of 
Reichenbach such experiences were largely attributed to 
fraud, but they have since been proved to be genuine trance 
phenomena, probably arising from unconscious suggestion 
and Ivypersesthesia, or, in the few cases where that hypo- 
thesis will not cover the ground, telepathic communication 
between operator and subject. Community of sensation 
is not, however, confined to the trance condition. Many 
instances of community of sensation arising spontaneously 
in the cases of persons in rapport with one another are to 
be found in the Journal and Proceedings of the Society 
for Psychical Research. 
Compacts with the Devil : An anonymous writer has handed 
down to us the agreement entered into between Louis 
Gaufridi and the devil : 

" I, Louis, a priest, renounce each and every one of the 
spiritual and corporal gifts which may accrue to me from 
God, from the Virgin, and from all the saints, and especially 
from my patron John the Baptist, and the apostles Peter 
and Paul and St. Francis. And to you, Lucifer, now before 
me, I give myself and all the good I may accomplish, 
except the returns from the sacrament in the cases where 
I may administer it ; all of which I sign and attest." 

On his side Lucifer made the following agreement 
with Louis Gaufridi : 

" I, Lucifer, bind myself to give you, Louis Gaufridi, 
priest, the faculty and power of bewitching by blowing 
with the mouth, all and any of the women and girls you 
may desire ; in proof of which I sign myself Lucifer." 

Bodin gives the following : " Magdalen of the Cross, 
native of Cordova in Spain and abbess of a convent, finding 
that she was suspected by the nuns and fearing that she 
would be burnt if charged, desired to anticipate them, 
and obtain the pardon of the pope by confessing* that 
from the age of twelve years, a bad spirit in the form of 
a black Moor had desired her chastity, and that she had 
given in, and this had gone on for thirty years or more, 
she usually sleeping with him. Through his means while 
in the church, she was raised up, and when the nuns took 
the Sacrament after the consecration, the host came even 
to her in the air, in the sight of the other nuns who re- 
garded it as sacred and the priest also, who used to complain 
at that time of a host." 

According to Don Calmet there is to be seen at Mo'.sheim 
in the chapel of St. Ignatius in the church of the Jesuit 
fathers a weil-known inscription giving the history of a 
young German nobleman named Michel Louis, of the 
family of Boubenhoren, who was sent when quite young 
to the court of the Duke of Lorraine to learn French and 
there lost all his money at cards. Reduced to despair 
he decided to give himself up to the devil if that spirit 
of evil could or would give him good money, for he was 
afraid that he wouid be able to supply him only with 
counterfeit. While thinking this over a young man 
his own age, wel>built and well-clothed, suddenly appeared 
before him and asking him the cause of his distress, put 
out his hand full of money and invited him to prove its 
worth, telling him to look him up again on the morrow. 
Michel returned to his companions who were still playing, 
won back all he had lost and all that of his companions. 
Then he called on his devil who asked in return three 
drops of blood which he collected in an acorn shell, and 
offering a pen to Michel told him to write .to his dictation. 
This consisted of unknown words, which were taken down 



Compacts 



108 



Compacts 



on two different notes, one of which the devil retained, 
and the other was put into the arm of Michel in the same 
places from which the blood had been taken. The devil 
then said : "I undertake to serve you for seven years, 
after which you belong to me without reserve." The 
young man agreed, though with some dread, and the devil 
did not fail to appear to him, day and night in various 
forms, inspiring him to things varied, unknown and curious 
and always with a tendency of evil. The fatal period of 
seven years was drawing to a end, and the young man was 
then about twenty years of age. He went home to his 
father, where the devil to whom he had given himself 
inspired him to poison his father and mother, burn the 
castle and kill himself. He tried to carry out all these 
crimes, but God prevented their success — the gun with 
which he would have killed himself missed fire twice, and 
the poison failed to act on his parents. Getting more and 
more uneasy he confided the unhappy condition he was 
in to some of his father's servants and begged them to get 
help. At the same time the devil seized him, twisting 
his body around and stopping very short of breaking his 
bones. His mother, who followed the teachings of Svenfeld 
and had enlisted her son in them, finding no help' in her 
cult against the demon who possessed or obsessed him, 
was forced to put him in the care of some monks. But 
he soon left them and escaped to Islade whence he was sent 
back to Molsheim by his brother, canon of Wissbourg, 
who put him again into the hands of the Fathers of the 
Society. It was then that the demon made the most 
violent efforts against him, appearing to him in the form 
of wild animals. One day among others the demon, in the 
form of a man, wild and covered with hair, threw on the 
ground a note or contract different from the true one 
which he had got from the young man, so as to try by this 
false show to get him out of the hands of those who were 
looking after him and to prevent his making a full con- 
fession. Finally the 20th October, 1603, was set aside 
for proof in the Chapel of St. Ignatius, and for the repro- 
duction of the true contract containing the deal made 
with the demon. The young man made profession of the 
orthodox catholic faith, renounced the demon and received 
the holy Eucharist Then with terrible cries he said that 
he saw two goats of immense size standing with their fore 
feet in the air and each holding between its hoofs one of 
the contracts or compacts. But when the exorcism was 
begun and the name of St. Ignace was invoked the 
two goats disappeared and there issued from the arm or 
left hand of the young man practically without pain and 
leaving no scar, the contract, which fell at the feet of 
the exorcist. There still remained the contract which 
had been retained by the demon. The exorcisms were 
begun again, St. Ignatius was invoked and a mass was 
promised in his honour, when a stork appeared, large, 
deformed and ill-shapen, and dropped from its beak the 
second contract, which was found on the altar." 

There is frequent mention among the ancients of certain 
demons who show themselves, especially towards midday, 
to those with whom they are on familiar terms. They 
visit such persons in the form of men or animals or allow 
themselves to be enclosed in a letter, account or phial or 
even in a ring, wide and hollow within. " Magicians are 
known," adds Leloyer, il who make use of them, and to 
my great regret I am forced to admit that the practice 
is only too common." 

Housdorf in his Theatre de-s exemples du 8e commandement," 
quoted by Goulart, says : "A doctor of medicine forgot 
himself so far as to form an alliance with the enemy of our 
salvation whom he called up and enclosed in a glass from 
which the seducer and familiar spirit answered him. The 
doctor was fortunate in the cure of ailments, and amassed 



great wealth in his practice, so much so that he left his 
children the sum of 78,000 francs. Shortly before his 
death, when his conscience began to prick him, he fell 
into such a frenzy that he never spoke but to invoke the 
devil or blaspheme the Holy Ghost and it was in this un- 
fortunate condition that he passed away." 

Goulart repeats, from Alexander of Alexandria, the 
story of a prisoner who had invoked the help of the devil 
and had visited the lower regions : 

" The overlord of a small town in the principality of 
Sulmona and Kingdom of Naples, proved very miserly and 
arrogant in his rule, so much so that his subjects were too 
poor to live beside his harsh treatment of them. One 
of them, honest, but poor and despised, gave a sound beating 
for some reason to a hunting dog of this overlord, and the 
death of the dog angered the latter so much that he had 
the poor man seized and shut up in a dungeon. After 
some days the warders, who kept the gates carefully locked 
went to open them as usual to give him a crust of bread, 
but he was not to be found in his cell. Having looked for 
him everywhere, again and again, and finding no trace 
of him nor his method of escape, they at last reported this 
wonderful affair to their master, who first ridiculed, and 
then threatened them, but realising at length the truth 
of it, he was no less astonished than they. Three days 
after this alarming incident, and with all the doors of the 
prison and dungeon closed as before, this same prisoner, 
unbeknown to anyone, was found shut up in his own 
dungeon. He was much distracted, and asked to be 
taken without delay before the overlord as he had a matter 
of much importance to communicate. When taken there 
he said that he had come back from the lower regions. 
His case was that, not being able to stand any longer the 
rigors of prison life, overcome with despair, fearing death 
and lacking any good advice, he had invoked the help of 
the devil that he might release him from his confinement. 
That soon after, the Evil One, in a terribly hideous form, 
had appeared in his dungeon where they made a bargain, 
after which he was dragged out, not without severe injury, 
and projected into subterranean passages, wonderfully 
hollowed out, like the bottom of the earth ; there he had 
seen the dungeons of the wicked, their tortures and their 
miseries, dark and terrible, "kings, princes and high lords 
were plunged into abysses of darkness where, with inde- 
scribable torture, they were seared with a raging fire. 
That he had seen popes, cardinals and other prelates, 
beautifully dressed, and other kinds of persons in varying 
garb, suffering other anguish in gulfs of great depth, 
where the torture was incessant. Proceeding, he said he 
had recognised some acquaintances and especially a former 
great friend of his who, recognising him in return, enquired 
as to his condition. The prisoner told him that their 
land was in the hands of a cruel master, whereupon the 
other charged him to command this cruel master, on 
returning, to renounce his tyrannical ways, otherwise his 
place would be one of the neighbouring seats, which was 
shown to the prisoner. And (continued this shade) in 
order that the said overlord may have faith in your report 
recall to him the secret counsel and talks we had together 
when engaged in a certain war, the chiefs in which he 
named, and then he gave in detail the secret, their agree- 
ment, the words and promises given on each side. The 
prisoner gave them all distinctly one by one in their order, 
and the lord was much astonished at the message, wondering 
how things committed to himself and not revealed by him 
to anybody, could be so easily and so boldly unfolded 
to him by a poor subject of his who told them as if he had 
read them in a book. Further, the prisoner enquired of 
his friend in the lower regions, whether it could be true 
that all the magnificently dressed persons that he saw 



Compacts 



109 



Conte Del Graal 



were conscious of their torments. The other answered 
that they were seared with an eternal fire, overwhelmed 
with torture and indescribable anguish, and that all this 
scarlet and golden raiment was nought but the colouring 
of the glowing fire. Wishing to test this he drew near to 
touch this scarlet effect and the other begged him to go, 
but the fierceness of the fire had scorched the whole of the 
palm of his hand, which he showed all roasted and cooked 
as in the embers of a great fire. The poor prisoner being 
released, to those who met him on his way home he ap- 
peared stupid. He neither saw nor heard anything, was 
always deep in thought, spoke little and replied very 
shortly to the questions put to him. His face, too, had 
become so hideous, his. appearance so will and ill-favoured 
that his wife and children had difficulty in recognising 
him again, and when they, did it was only to weep and cry 
at this change in him. He lived but a few days after his 
return and so great was his distraction that he had great 
difficulty in looking after his affairs." 

Crespet describes the mark with which Satan brands his 
own : 

" It may be assumed that it is no fallacy but very evident 
that Satan's mark on sorcerers is like leprosy, for the spot 
is insensitive to all punctures, and it is in the possession 
of such marks that one recognises them as true sorcerers 
for they feel the puncture no more than if they were leprous, 
nor does any blood appear, and never indeed, does any 
pain that may be inflicted cause them to move the part." 

" They receive, with this badge, the power of injuring 
and of pleasing, and, secretly or openly, their children are 
made to participate in the oath and connection which the 
fathers have taken with the devil. Even the mothers 
with this in view, dedicate and consecrate their children 
to the demons, not only as soon as born but even when 
conceived, and so it happens that, through the mini- 
strations of these demons, sorcerers have been seen with 
two pupils in each eye, while others had the picture of a 
horse in one eye and two pupils in the other, and such 
serve as marks and badges of contracts made with them, 
for these demons can engrave and render in effigy such or 
similar lines and features on the bodies of the very young 
embryo." 

"These marks," says Jacques Fontaine, "are not en- 
graved on the bodies of sorcerers by the demons for re- 
cognition purposes only, as the captains of companies 
of light-horse know those of their number by the colour 
of their coats, but to imitate the creator of all things, to 
show his power and the authority he has gained over those 
miserable beings who have allowed themselves to be caught 
by his cunning and trickery, and by the recognition of 
these marks of their master to keep them in his power. 
Further, to prevent them, as far as possible, from with- 
drawing from their promises and oaths of fidelity, because 
though breaking faith with him the marks still remain 
with them and serve, in an accusation, as a means of be- 
traying them, with even the smallest amount of evidence 
that may be brought forward." 

" Louis Gaufridy, a prisoner, who had just been con- 
demned to be burnt .... was marked in more than 
thirty places over the body and on the loins especially 
there was a mark of lust so large and deep, considering the 
site, that a needle could be inserted for the width of three 
fingers across it without any feeling being shown by the 
puncture." 

The same author shows that the marks on sorcerers are 
areas which have mortified from the touch of the devil's 
finger. 

" About 1591, Leonarde Chastenet, an old woman of 
eighty, was taken up as a sorceress while begging in Poitou. 
Brought before Mathurin Bonnevault, who deponed to 



having seen her at the meeting of witches, she confessed 
that she had been there with her husband, and that the 
devil, a very disgusting beast, was there in the form of a 
goat. She denied that she would have carried out any 
witchcraft, but nineteen witnesses testified to her having 
caused the death of five labourers and a number of animals. 
" Finding her crimes discovered and herself condemned 
she confessed that she had made a compact with the devil, 
given him some of her hair, and promised to do all the 
harm she could. She added that at night in prison the 
devil had appeared to her, in the form of a cat, to which 
she expressed the wish to die, whereupon this devil pre- 
sented her with two pieces of wax telling her to eat them 
and she would die, but she had been unwilling to do it. 
She had the pieces of wax with her, but on examination 
their composition could not be made out. She was then 
condemned and the pieces of wax burnt with her." 

Compass Brothers : — Between the years 1400 and 1790, 
there existed at Lubeck a guild of this name, which met 
twice a year. Their badge was a compass and sector 
suspended from a crowned letter " C," over which was a 
radiated triangular plate. In 1485 they adopted chains 
composed of these emblems united by eagles' tails. They 
appear to have been a magical or Kabbalistic society. 

Conan Mac Morna : — A figure in the Ossianic cycle of Irish 
legend, described as scoffing and deriding all that was 
high and noble. One day while hunting, he and others of 
the Fians, entered a magnificent palace which they found 
empty and began to feast. It soon became apparent, 
however, that the palace was enchanted, and the walls 
shrank to the size of a fox's hole. Conan seemed to be 
unaware of the danger and continued to eat ; but two of 
the Fians pulled him off his chair, to which soirfe of his 
skin stuck. To soothe the pain a black sheep-skin was 
placed on his back, on to which it grew, and he wore it 
till he died. 

Conary Mor : — A legendary High King of Ireland. It is 
said that his great-grandfather destroyed the Fairy Mound 
of Bri-Leith, and thus brought down ill-fate upon Conary 
Mor. When a child he left his three foster-brothers on 
the Plains of Liffey, and followed a flock of beautiful 
birds down to the shore. These were transformed into 
armed men, who told him that they belonged to his father 
and were his kin. His geise (or taboo) was made known to 
him. and later he was proclaimed King of Erin. His 
reign was good, happy and prosperous, until the Danaan 
folk lured him to the breaking of his geise. It is told how 
Conary, dying of thirst after battle, sent his warrior Mac 
Cecht to bring him water. Mac Cecht had much difficulty 
in obtaining this, and on his return found that Conary 
had been beheaded : the water, however, was raised to 
the mouth of the bodyless head — which, it is said, thanked 
Mac Cecht for his deed. 

Conferentes : — Gods of the ancients, spoken of by Arnobe, 
whom Leloyes identifies with incubi. 

Conjuretors : — Magicians who claim to have the power to 
evoke demons and tempests 

Conte Del Graal : — One of the " Quest " versions of the 
legend of the Holy Grail (q.v.) compiled by various authors. 
It tells how Perceval was reared to the life of a forester 
by his mother ; but forsaking her he becomes a member 
of the Court of King Arthur. Thence he goes forth as a 
knight- errant, and his numerous adventures are recited. 
During these, he meets with certain mysteries, but returns 
to the court. The adventures of Gauvain, another of the 
knights are fully detailed. Perceval, himself, sets forth 
again, and wanders about for five years in a very godless 
state of mind. One Good Friday he meets with a band 
of pilgrims, who remonstrate with him for riding armed 
on a holy day ; and he turns aside to confess to a hermit 



Control 



110 



Crollius 



who turns out to be his uncle. From him he learns that 
only the sinless cm find the Grail, and that he has sinned 
in abandoning his mother, and thus causing her death. 
In a continuation of the legend by a different author, 
Perceva' appears to continue his search, but apparently 
unsuccessfully ; and fina'ly, by yet another compiler 
we are told that Perceval after many adventures marries 
Blanchfleure. The nature and origin of the Grail are 
described in these continuations of the legend. 

Control : — A spiritualistic term, denoting the spirit who 
controls the physical organisation of a medium. — {See 
Spiritualism.) 

Convulsionaries of St. Eledard : During the first half of the 
eighteenth century there occurred in the cemetery of 
St. Medard, Paris, an extraordinary outbreak of convulsions 
and religious extasy, whose victims were the Jansenists, at 
that time suffering much persecution at the hands of the 
government and the church. The outbreak commenced 
with a few isolated cases of miraculous healing. One, 
Mile. Morsaron, a paralytic, having for her confessor an 
enthusiastic Jansenist, was recommended by him to seek 
the tomb of St. Francis de Paris, in the cemetery of St. 
Medard. When she had repaired thither a few time.s she 
recovered her health. The news spread abroad, and other 
cures followed. Violent convulsions became a feature 
of the crisis which preceded these cures. At length the 
healing by Deacon Paris of a more than usually obstinate 
case, by a crisis of more than ordinary severity, was the 
signal for a violent outburst of epidemic frenzy. People 
of both sexes and all ages repaired to the tomb of the holy 
deacon, where the most appalling scenes were witnessed. 
People from the provinces helped to swell the ranks, till 
there was not a vacant foot of ground in the neighbourhood 
of St. Medard. At length, on January 27th, 1732, the 
cemetery was closed by order of the king. On its closed 
gate a wit inscribed the lines : 

De par !e roi defense a Dieu 
De faire miracle en ce lieu. 

However the king's ordinance did not put an end to the 
epidemic, which spread from Paris to many other towns. 
Ten years after its commencement — in 1741 — it seemed to 
have died away, but in 1759 it burst out in Paris with 
renewed vigour, accompanied by scenes still more awful. 
In the following year it disappeared once more, though 
isolated examples persisted so late as 1787. 

Cook, Florence : An English medium, the first to present 
the phenomenon of materialisation in its complete form. 
In the production of the crowning physical manifestation, 
she was associated at the outset of her mediumistic career— 
at the beginning of the decade 1870-80 — with the medium 
Heme, but ere long dispensed with his assistance. So that 
she might not be under the necessity of taking fees for 
her services, a wealthy Manchester spiritualist, Mr. Charles 
Blackburn, paid her a sum of money annually. She was 
thus practically a private medium, and for the most part, 
her seances were held in her own home. Her principal 
control was the now famous spirit Katie King. Mr. — 
now Sir William — Crookes, who investigated the 
phenomena produced in Miss Cook's presence, declared 
his conviction that Katie and the medium were two separate 
entities, and was satisfied of the supernormal nature of 
the former. Not all the sitters, however, were equally 
convinced. Many persons traced a resemblance in form 
and feature between medium and control, and it has been 
suggested that the apparent differences were achieved by 
a change in the mode of hair-dressing, by tip-toeing, and 
other mechanical means. 

Coral (red) : It stops bleeding, preserves houses from thunder, 
and children from evil spirits, goblins, and sorceresses. 



It also strengthens digestion, and if taken in powder as 
soon as the child is born, preserves it from epilepsy. 

Corbenic : A magic castle of the Arthurian legend, in which 
it is said the Holy Grail was kept. It was guarded by two 
lions. Lancelot tries to enter it by his own strength, in- 
instead of leaning on his Creator, and as a result is struck 
dumb by a fiery wind. In this state he remains for fourteen 
days without food or drink. 

Cordovero : A famous Kaba'.ist of the sixteenth century. 

Cornwall : {See Sea Phantoms and Superstitions.) 

Corpse Candles : Mysterious lights supposed to presage 
death. They are also called fetch-lights and dead men's 
candles. 

Coscinomancy is practised with a sieve, and a pair of tongs 
or shears, which are supported upon the thumb nails of two 
persons, who look one upon the other, or the nails of the 
middle finger may be used. Potter, in his Greek A ntiquities, 
says : " It was generally used to discover thieves, or others 
suspected of any crime, in this manner : they tied a thread 
to the sieve by which it was upheld, or else placed a pair 
of shears, which they held up by two fingers, then prayed 
to the gods to direct and assist them ; after that they 
repeated the names of the persons under suspicion, and he, 
at whose name the sieve whirled round or moved, was 
thought guilty." In the Athenian Oracle it is called " the 
trick of the sieve and scissors, the coskiomancy of the 
ancients, as old as Theocritus," he having mentioned in 
his third idyll, a woman who was very skilful in it. Saunders, 
in his Chiromancy, and Agrippa, at the end of his works, 
gives certain mystic words to be pronounced before the 
sieve will turn. It was used to discover love secrets 
as well as unknown persons. According to Grose, a 
chanter in the Bible is to be read, and the appeal made to 
St. Peter or St. Paul. 

Costume, Phantom : {See Phantom Dress.) 

Counter Charms : Charms employed to counteract the 
effect of other charms. When magicians wish to dis- 
enchant animals they sprinkle salt in a porringer with some 
blood from one of the bewitched creatures, and repeat 
certain formulae for nine days. 

Counts of Hell : Demons of a superior order in the infernal 
hierarchy, who command numerous legions. They may 
be evoked at all hours of the day, provided the evocation 
takes place in a wild, unfrequented spot. 

Courier de 1'Europe : {See Cagliostro). 

Cox, Sergeant : {{See Psychological Society). 

Cramp- Rings, Hallowing : A ceremony which took place in 
England on Good Friday. It consisted of the repetition 
of certain psalms and prayers, during which the king 
rubbed the rings between his hands. It was said that 
rings thus consecrated on Good Friday b) 7 the kings of 
England, had the power of curing cramp ; and the rings, 
which were given away were much in request even by 
foreign ambassadors. 
Critomancy : Divination by means of observing viands and 
cakes. The paste of cakes which are offered in sacrifice, is 
closely examined, and from the flour which is spread upon 
them, omens are drawn. 
Crollius, Oswald : A disciple of the school of Paracelsus, 
and author of the Book of Signatures — the preface to which 
contains a good sketch of hermetic philosophy. The 
writer seeks to demonstrate that God and Nature have, 
so to speak, signed all their works, that every product of 
a given natural force is as the sum of that force, printed 
in indelible characters, so that he who is initiated in the 
occult writings can read as in an open book the sympathies 
and antipathies of things, the properties of substances, 
and all other secrets of creation. " The characters of 
different writings," says Eliphas Levi, " were borrowed 
primitively from these natural signatures existing in stars 



Crollius 



111 



Crystalomancjr~ 



and flowers, in mountains and the smallest pebble ; the 
figures of crystals, the marks on minerals, were impressions 
of the thought which the Creator had in their creation. 
.... But we lack any grammar of this mysterious 
language of worlds, and a mathematical vocabulary of 
this primitive and absolute speech. King Solomon alone 
is credited with having accomplished the dual labour, but 
the books of Solomon are lost. The enterprise of Crollius 
was not the reconstitution of these, but an attempt to 
discover the fundamental principles obtaining in the' 
universal language of the creative world. It was recog- 
nised in these principles that the original hieroglyphics, 
based on the prime elements of geometry, corresponded to 
the constitutive and essential laws of forms, determined by 
alternating or combined movements, which, in their turn, 
were determined by equilibratory attractions. Simples 
were distinguished from composites by their external 
figures ; and by the correspondence between figures and 
numbers it became possible to make a mathematical 
classification of all substances revealed by the lines of their 
services. At the root of these endeavours, which are 
reminiscences of Edenic science, there is a whole world of 
discoveries awaiting the sciences. Paracelsus had defined 
them, Crollius indicates them, another, who shall follow, 
will realise and provide the demonstration concerning them. 
What seemed the folly of yesterday will be the genius of 
to-morrow, and progress will hail the sublime seekers who 
first looked into this lost and recovered world, this Atlantis 
of human knowledge." 

Crosland, Mrs. Newton : An early spiritualistic medium. 
Under the name of Camilla Toulmin, she published, in 
1857, Light in the Valley, a record of her experiences. 
There is a trend of Swedenborgian mysticism in her writings. 
(See Spiritualism.) 

Cross-Correspondences : Correspondences found in the script 
of two or more automatic writers acting without collusion, 
and under such conditions that the possibility of com- 
munication by normal means is removed. Since the begin- 
■ ning of the present century efforts have been made by 
members of the Society for Psychical Research to prove, 
by the production of script containing cross-correspondence, 
the existence of discarnate intelligences, and their ability 
to operate through the physical organism of a medium. 
The first instances were of a spontaneous character, and 
occurred in the trance utterances of Mrs. Thompson and 
those of another medium, Miss Rawson. Thereafter the 
idea was conceived of deliberately cultivating them, and 
several ladies — Mrs. Verrall, Mrs. Holland, and others — 
■who had been successful in producing automatic script, 
sent it to the Society for Psychical Research, where the 
writings were found to show more numerous correspond- 
ences than mere coincidence would warrant. It was 
arranged that experiments should be made under stricter 
test conditions. Frequently the script of Mrs. Verrall 
was of an allusive and enigmatical character, so that she 
herself was unable to interpret it until the key had been 
. supplied by the writings of a second automatist. Some- 
times three automatists succeeded in producing writings 
having a decided connection wth each other. Two obscure 
writings have been rendered intelligible by means of a 
third, perhaps in itself equally obscure. In at least one 
case correspondences occurred in the script of no less than 
six automatists, under somewhat curious circumstances. 
Mr. Piddington, a well known member of the Society for 
Psychical Research, had written a "test" letter, which 
he proposed should be opened after his death. The con- 
tents, which dealt emphatically with the number seven, 
he told to no one. On hearing, however, of the remarkable 
cross-correspondences — all dealing with the number seven- 
he opened his letter, four years after it was written, and 



supplied the clue. In 1906, Mrs. Piper was brought to 
this country so that the correspondences might be studied 
to better advantage. The experiments were successful 
to a surprising degree, and seemed to place beyond a 
doubt the operation in all the writings of an intelligence 
other than the automatist's. Mr. Podmore, however, 
would refer the phenomena of cross-correspondences, at 
least in part, to the operation of a complex form of tele- 
pathy — a possible, but in view of the facts, not very 
probable, explanation. 

Crow : The cawing of a crow is an omen of evil. 

Crow's Head : (See Philosopher's Stone.) 

Crystal : Crystal prevails against unpleasant dreams, dis- 
solves enchantments, and is a medium for magical visions. 
Being bruised with honey, it fills the breasts with milk. 
Leonardus appears to have indulged a little spite against 
this beautiful mineral. " The principal use of crystal," 
he says, " is for making cups, rather than anything else 
that is good." 

Crystalomancy, or Crystal Gazing : A mode of divination 
practised from very, early times with the aid of a crystal 
globe, a pool of water, a mirror, or indeed any transparent 
object. Divinations by means of water, ink, and such 
substances are also known by the name of hydromancy 
(q. v.) . Crystal gazing may be a very simple or a very elaborate 
performance, according to the period in which it was 
practised, but in every case the object is to induce in the 
clairvoyant a form of hypnosis, so that he may see visions 
in the crystal. The •' crystal " most in favour among 
modern crystal gazers is a spherical or oval globe, about 
four inches in diameter, and preferably a genuine crystal ; 
but a's a crystal of this size and shape is necessarily ex- 
pensive, a sphere of glass is frequently substituted, and 
with very good results. It must, however, be a perfect 
sphere of oval, free from speck or flaw, highly polished, 
and contained in a stand of polished ebony, ivory, or box- 
wood. Among the Hindus, a cup of treacle or a pool 
of ink is made to serve the same purpose. Precious stones 
were much used by crystallomancers in the past, the favour- 
ite stone being the beryl in pale sea green or reddish tints. 
By the ancients crystallomancy was practised with a view 
to the invocation of spirits, and very elaborate preparations 
and ceremonials were considered necessary. He who 
would practise invocations in this wise must, in the first 
instance, be a man of pure life and religious disposition. 
For the few days immediately preceding the inspection of 
the crystal, he must make frequent ablutions, and subject 
himself to strict religious discipline, with prayer and fasting. 
The crystal, as well as the stand on which it rests, must be 
inscribed with sacred characters, as must also the floor 
of the room in which the invocation is to take place. A 
quiet, retired spot is suggested for the purpose, where the 
magician, may be free from all disturbance. Besides these 
matters of solitude and cleanliness, there is the question 
of the mental attitude to be considered, and this is no 
less important than the material preparations. A perfect 
faith is an essential condition of success. If the magician 
would be accompanied by one or two of his friends, they 
also must conform to the same rules and be guided by the 
same principles. The time of the invocation is chosen 
according to the position in the heavens of the various 
planets, all preparations having been made during the 
- increase of the moon. All the instruments and accessories 
used in the performance — the sword, rod and compasses, 
the fire and the perfume to be burned thereon, as well as 
the crystal itself — are consecrated or " charged " prior 
to the actual ceremony. 

During the process of invocation, the magician faces the 
east and summons from the crystal the spirit he desires. 
Magio circles have previously been inscribed on the floor. 



Crystalomancy 



112. 



Dactyls 



and it is desirable that the crystallomaticer remain within 
these for some little time after the spirit has been dismissed. 
It was essential that no part of the ceremonial be omitted, 
otherwise the invocation would be a failure. Paracelsus, 
however, and others declared that all such elaborate cere- 
monies were unnecessary, and that the tnagnes microcosmi, 
the magnetic principle in man, was in itself sufficient to 
achieve the desired object. At a later period, though the 
ceremonial was not abolished, it became decidedly less 
imposing. If the person on whose behalf the divination 
was to be performed was not himself gifted with the clairvo- 
yant faculty, he sought for a suitable medium, the best for 
the purpose being a young boy or girl, born in wedlock, 
and perfectly pure and innocent. Prayers and magical 
words were pronounced prior to the ceremony, and in- 
cense and perfumes were burned. Sometimes the child's 
forehead was anointed, and he himself provided with gar- 
ments suitable to the impressive nature of the ceremony. 
Some writers mention a formula of prayers, known as the 
Call, which preceded the inspection of the crystal. Finally, 
the latter having been charged, it was handed over to the 
medium. The first indication of the clairvoyant vision 
was the appearance of a mist or cloud in the crystal. This 
gradually cleared away, and the vision made its appearance. 
Modern Crystal gazing is carried on in much the same 
manner, though the preparations are simpler. The 
crystal is spherical and of the size of an orange ; when in 
use it may be held between the agent's finger and thumb, 
or, if the end be slightly flattened, placed on a table ; 
alternatively it maybe held in the palm of the hand against 
a background of black cloth. The operation may be 
more readily carried out in a subdued light. A medium or 
clairvoyant person acts as the seer and if the divination 
be made for anyone else it is advisable that he be allowed 
to hold the crystal in his hand for a few minutes before it 
is passed into the hands of the clairvoyant. The object 
of crystal gazing is, as has been said, the induction of an 
hypnotic state giving rise to visionary hallucinations, the 
reflection of light in the crystal forming points de repere for 
such hallucinations. The value of elaborate ceremonials 
and impressive rituals thus lies in their potency to affect 
the mind and imagination of the seer. So far, the mystery 
of crystal vision is no mystery at all. But the remarkable 
frequency with which, according to reliable witnesses, 
visions seen in the crystal have tallied with events hap- 
pening elsewhere at the same moment, or even with future 
events, is a fact for which science has not yet found an 
adequate explanation. It has been suggested that if 
telepathy operates with greater freedom during the hyp- 
notic state, so it may be also with the self-induced hypnosis 
of crystal gazing. And this, though it cannot be said to 
cover the entire ground, is perhaps, on the whole, the best 
explanation yet offered. There are many well-attested 
cases wherein the crystal has been successfully used for the 



purpose of. tracing criminals, or recovering lost or stolen 
property. The telepathic theory, however, will hardly 
apply to these instances wherein events have been wit- 
nessed in the crystal before their actual occurrence. Such 
mysteries as these must be left to the art of the psychical 
researcher to unravel. 

Crucifixion, Gnostic Conception of : As soon as Christ was born 
according to the Gnostic speculative view of Christianity, 
Christos, united himself with Sophia (Holy Wisdom), 
descended through the seven planetary regions, assuming 
in each an analogous form to the region, and concealing his 
true nature from its genii, whilst he attracted into himself 
the spark of Divine Light they severally retained in their 
angelic essence. Thus Christos, having passed through 
the seven Angelic Regions before the " Throne," entered 
into the man Jesus, at the moment of his baptism in the 
Jordan. From that time forth, being supernaturally 
gifted, Jesus began to work miracles. -Before that, he had 
been completely ignorant of his mission. When on the 
cross, Christos and Sophia left his body, and returned to 
their own sphere. Upon his death, the two took the man 
" Jesus," and abandoned his material body to the earth ; 
for the Gnostics held that the true Jesus did not (and 
could not) physically suffer on the cross, and die, and that 
Simon of Cyrene, who bore his cross, did in reality suffer 
in his room : "' And they compelled one, Simon a Cyrenian, 
who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of 
Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross " (St. Mark XV. 21). 
The Gnostics contended that a portion of the real history 
of the Crucifixion was never written. 

At the resurrection Christos and Sophia gave the man 
Jesus another body, made up of ether (Rosicrucian 
Aetherceum). Thence-forward he consisted of the two 
first Rosicrucian principles only-, soul and spirit ; which 
was the reason that the disciples did not recognise him 
after the resurrection. During his sojourn upon earth 
after he had risen, he received from Sophia, or Holy 
Wisdom, that perfect knowledge or illumination, that true 
" Gnosis," which he communicated to the small number 
of the Apostles who were capable of receiving the same. 

Ciupipiltin : Vampires in ancient Mexico. (See Mexico and 
Central America.) 

Cursed Bread : Used for purposes of divination, or ordeal 
by flour or bread. A piece of bread, about an ounce in 
weight, over which a spell had been cast, was administered 
to the suspected person. Should it cause sickness or 
choking the man was said to be guilty, but if he remained 
well he was regarded as innocent. Barley bread was often 
used for this form of divination, being more likely to cause 
choking. This method of trial was practised amongst the 
Anglo-Saxons. 

Curses : (See Spells.) 

Cyamal : The head-chief of the Egbo Assembly, a secret 
council of Old Calabar. 



D 



Dactylomancy: A term covering various forms of divination 
practised with the aid of rings. One method resembles 
the table-rapping of modern spiritualism. A round table 
is inscribed with the letters of the alphabet, and a ring 
suspended above it. The ring, it is said, will indicate 
certain letters, which go to make up the message required. 
It was used, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, to find 
Valen's successor, and the name Theodosius was correctly 
indicated. Solemn services of a religious character ac- 
companied this mode of divination. Another form of 
dactylomancy, of which there is no detailed account, was 
practised with rings of gold, silver, copper, iron or lead, 
which were placed on the finger-nails in certain conjunc- 



tions of the planets. A wedding ring is, however, most 
in favour for purposes of this sort. Another way is to 
suspend the ring within a glass tumbler, or just outside 
of it so, that the ring on being swung may easily touch 
the glass. As with table-rapping, a code may then be 
arranged, the glass being struck once for an affirmative, 
twice for a negative answer, and so on. Suspended above 
a sovereign, the ring will indicate the person from whose 
head hair has been taken, or, if requested, any other 
member of the company. 
Dactyls ; A class of sorcerers and scientific physicians who 
had their origin in Phrygia. Their number is given differ- 
ently by different authorities. Some say it equals the 



Dactyls 



113 



Danaans 



number of fingers on the hands — five male and five female. 
Pausanias says five, Perecydes fifty-two, twenty right and 
thirty-two left ; while Orpheus the Argonaut mentions 
a large number. The dactyls were magicians, exorcists, 
conjurors, soothsayers. Plutarch says that they made 
their appearance in Italy as sorcerers ; while their magical 
practices and mysteries threw the inhabitants of Samo- 
thrace into consternation. They were credited with the 
discovery of minerals and the notes of the musical scale ; 
also with the discovery and use of the Ephesian mines 
They introduced fire into Crete, musical instruments into 
Greece. They were good runners and dancers, skilled in 
science and learning, and from them came the first 'wise 
men. They are said by some to have been the magnetic 
powers and spirits, whose head was Hercules. 

Daeraonologie : by King James VI. and I. : It is customary 
nowadays to sneer at the writings of this royal author, ar.d 
as Horace Walpole remarks, his majesty really has more 
critics than readers ; while it should be borne in mind that 
in his own day the king's books were greatly admired, 
winning the encomiums of Bacon, Izaak Walton, and nu- 
merous equally eminent men of letters. In general, how- 
ever, it was Basilicon Doron which elicited their homage, 
and compared to this last the king's study of demonology 
is but a mediocre performance. Published in 1597, it is 
couched " in forme of ane dialogue," the speakers being 
Philomathes and Epistemon ; and the former, being very 
incredulous as regards all kinds of magic, asks Epistemon 
to enlighten him. Thereupon many famous acts of witch- 
craft are adduced, but, when Philomathes requests to be 
told precisely why the black art should be considered in- 
iquitous, his interlocutor fails conspicuously to give a satis- 
factory answer. He merely inveighs against the practice 
in question, and accordingly there is something distinctly 
trite in the subsequent pages, wherein Epistemon is 
represented as being converted to the other speaker's 
point of view, and declaring loudly that all sorcerers and 
the like " ought to be put to death according to the Law 
of God, the civill and imperiall Law, and municipall Law 
of all Christian Nations." 

Daiver-Logum : The dwelling place of the daivers (q.v.) a 
species of Hindoo genii. Besides the daivers, who number 
three hundred and thirty millions, there dwell in the Daiver- 
Logum those heroes and prophets who are not yet fit for 
the paradise of Shiva or of Vishnu. 

Daivers and Daivergoel : Hindoo genii inhabiting the Daiver- 
Logum, a world of their own. They are, it seems, related 
to the Persian divs, from which it is suggested that the 
word " devil " is derived. They possess material bodies 
as well as spiritual, and have many human attributes, both 
good and evil. Their king is called Daivuntren, or Indiren, 
his wife Inderannee, and his son Seedcra-hudderen. The 
latter records the actions of human beings, by which they 
must at last be judged. In Daivuntren's immense court 
of audience there is room not only for the daivers them- 
selves, but for a multitude of attendants, or companions. 
These are the kuinarer, the musicians of Daiver-Logum ; 
Dumbarim, Nardir, the drummers ; Kimprusher, winged 
beings of great beauty, who wait on the daivers ; Kunda- 
gaindoorer, similar beings, the messengers of Vishnu ; 
Paunner, the jugglers ; Viddiaser, the bards ; Tsettee, 
those beings who attend them in their aerial flights ; Kan- 
nanader, or Dordanks, the messengers who lead devotees 
of Shiva and Vishnu to paradise, and the wicked to hell. 
There is yet another class of daivergoel, or genii, which com- 
prises the eight keepers of the eight sides of the world, 
known by their general name of Aushtatiken-Pauligaur. 
These are Indiren, or Daivuntren, their king ; Augne- 
Bangauven, god of fire ; Eemen, king of death and hell ; 
Nerudee, the earth-element personified as a giant ; Vaivoo, 



god of the air and winds ; Varooner, god of the clouds and 
rain ; Gooberen, god of riches ; and Essaunien, Shiva 
himself, in one of his 1,008 incarnations. 
Dalan : A druid who figures in the medieval Irish legend 

of Conary Mor (q.v.). 
Dalton, Thomas : The history of this alchemist is veiled in 
obscurity, but he appears to have lived about the middle 
of the fifteenth century ; and, as he is mentioned in the 
Ordinall of A Ichimy by Thomas Norton, it is likely that he 
was a pupil or at least a friend of the latter. Dalton was 
a churchman, resident at an abbey in Gloucester ; and it 
is reported that, on one occasion, he was brought before 
the king, Edward IV., in whose presence he was charged 
with the surreptitious practice of magic, in those days a 
capital crime. His accuser was one Debois, to whom the 
unfortunate alchemist had at one time been chaplain, and 
this Debois affirmed upon oath that he had seen the ac- 
cused create a thousand pounds of pure gold within the 
space of a single day. Thereupon Dalton reminded his 
accuser that he had sworn never to reveal this or any kin- 
dred facts. Debois acknowledged his perfidy herein, yet 
added that he was acting for the good of the commonwealth. 
The alchemist then addressed the king himself, telling him 
that he had been given the powder of projection by a cer- 
tain Canon of Litchfield, and that since then he had been 
in so constant a state of trepidation that he had ultimately 
destroyed the precious article. Edward accordingly 
granted him his freedom, at the same time giving him 
money sufficient for his journey home ; but on his way 
there he was seized by a certain Thomas Herbert, who had 
heard of the accusation brought against the churchman, 
and was naturally inquisitive. Herbert carried his victim 
to the castle of Gloucester, and, incarcerating him in a cell 
there, tried every means to make him disclose the secret 
at issue. All was in vain, however, and at length Dalton 
was condemned to death by his persecutor, and brought 
■out to be beheaded in the courtyard of the castle. He 
placed his head on the block, and,- crying out to God to 
receive his soul, he called upon the executioner to strike 
speedily ; but now a strange scene was enacted, for hardly 
was the axe raised ere Herbert sprang forward to avert 
it, at the same time declaring that he dared not shed inno- 
cent blood. In short, the projected execution was no more 
than a dastardly ruse, the persecutor imagining that the 
alchemist would confess all when his life was at stake ; 
and, as the plan had failed, Dalton was allowed to go free. 
So he returned to his abbey in Gloucestershire, and there 
he lived quietly and unmolested for the rest of his days. 
Damear : A mystical city. {See Rosiciucians.) 
Damian, John : Alchemist, Abbot of Tungland. (See Scotland.) 
Danaans, The : The people of the goddess Dana, often men- 
tioned in Irish medieval romance. They were one of the 
three Nemedian families who survived the Fomorian vic- 
tory, and returned to Ireland at a later period. By some 
it was said that they came " out of heaven," and by others 
that they sprang from four cities, in which they learned 
science and craftsmanship, and from each of which they 
brought away a rhagical treasure. From Falias they 
brought the Stone of Destiny (Lia Fail) (q.v.) ; from Gorias 
an invincible sword ; from Finias a magical spear ; and 
from Murias the Cauldron of the Dagda. They were be- 
lieved to have been wafted to Ireland on a magic cloud, 
carrying their treasures with them. After a victorious 
battle they took possession of the whole of Ireland, except 
Connacht which was given to the vanquished. The 
Danaans were the representatives of power and beauty, 
of science and poetry, to the writer of the myth ; to the 
common people they were gods of earth. In their battles 
they were subject to death, but it was by magical powers 
that they conquered their mortal foes. 



D'Ancre 



114 



Dee, John 



D'Ancre, Marechale : (See France.) 

Dandis : (See India.) 

Daphnomaney : Divination by moans of the laurel. A 
branch is thrown in the fire, if it crackles in burning it is 
a happy sign, but if it burns without doing so, the prog- 
nostication is false. 

Dark, The : A druid of Irish medieval legend, who turned 
Saba into a fawn because she did not return his love. 

Darkness of the Sages : (See Philosopher's Stone.) 

D'Ars, Cure : ( See France.) 

Davenport Brothers (Ian and William) : Two American 
mediums who gave seances for physical phenomena in 
America and Britain during the decade 1860-70. They 
seem to have attained to a considerable measure of fame, 
and to have won a great many people to the belief that 
their performances were genuine spirit manifestations. 
On their coming to England in 1864 they were accompanied 
by a chaplain, the Rev. J. B. Ferguson, who helped to 
inspire confidence in their good faith. The usual plan of 
their seances was as follows : The Brothers Davenport took 
their seats vis-a-vis in a small walnut cabinet " made very 
like a wardrobe or clothes-press." Any two gentlemen 
from among the audience were requested to bind them 
firmly to their benches, so as to preclude any possibility 
of their freeing their hands. Musical instruments were 
then placed in the cabinet, apparently out of reach of the 
medium, and the lights were lowered. Soon the musical 
instruments began to play within the cabinet, dim " spirit 
hands " were seen in front of it. At the conclusion of the 
seance, however, the mediums were found tied as securely 
as ever. They met with a check, however, on their pro- 
vincial tour, for at Liverpool there were two men among 
the audience who possessed -the secret of a special knot. 
The " Tom Fool's knot," as it was called, baffled the spirits, 
and the mediums were mobbed. Later in a seance given 
before a committee of the Anthropological Society, they 
shirked nearly all the conditions, and succeeded in accom- 
plishing nothing which could not be done by a skilful con- 
jurer. Tolmagne, Anderson, and other conjurers emulated 
their feats, and Maskelyne and Cooke so successfully that 
mediums had no resource butfto class themas "fellow-adepts." 

Davey, S. T. : A member of the Society for Psychical Re- 
search who in 1886 gave imitations of the slate-writing 
performances of Eglinton and Slade, with a view to exposing 
their fraudulent methods. By simple conjuring he suc- 
ceeded in emulating all their feats. (See Slate-writing, 
Spiritualism.) 

Davies, Lady : Eleanor Tuchet, daughter of George, Lord 
Audley, married Sir John Davies, an eminent lawyer in 
the time of James the First, and author of a poem of con- 
siderable merit on the Immortality of the Soul. This lady 
was a person of many talents ; but what she seems most 
to have valued herself upon, was her gift of prophecy ; and 
she accordingly printed a book of Strange and Wonderful 
Predictions. She professed to receive her prophecies from 
a spirit, who communicated to her audibly things about 
to come to pass, though the voice could be heard by no 
other person. Sir John Davies was nominated lord chief 
justice of the king's bench in 1626. Before he was in- 
ducted into the office, lady Eleanor, sitting with him on 
Sunday at dinner, suddenly burst into a passion of tears. 
Sir John asked her what made her weep. To which she 
replied " These are your funeral tears." Sir John turned 
off the prediction with a merry answer. But in a very 
few days he was seized with an apoplexy, of which he pres- 
ently died. She also predicted the death of the duke of 
Buckingham in the same year. For this assumption of 
the gift of prophecy, she was cited before the high-com- 
mission-court and examined in 1634. 



Davis, Andrew Jackson : Known as the " Poughkeepsie Seer " 
from his residence in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., was a prophet, 
clairvoyant, and mystic philosopher, who commenced his 
mission to the world about 1844, some time before the 
Rochester Rappings had inaugurated the movement known 
as " modern spiritualism." In 1847 he published a volume 
of trance discourses, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine 
Revelations, and A Voice to Mankind. In the same year 
he issued the first number of the Univer cesium, a periodical 
devoted to clairvoyance and trance phenomena generally, 
which continued till 1849. Not until 1850, however, did 
Davis and his followers identify themselves with the spirit- 
ualists. In his Revelations the Poughkeepsie Seer pro- 
pounds his Harmonial Philosophy, afterwards to be elab- 
orated in many volumes. His mission, revealed to him 
by Galen and Swedenborg, was the prophesying of a new 
dispensation, preceded by a social revolution. He was 
associated, throughout his career, with many prominent 
spiritualists. 

Death-Coach : There is a widespread superstitious belief 
that death goes round in a coach picking up souls. The 
form of the belief varies, of course, with the locality. In 
some parts of England and Wales the death-coach passes 
silently at midnight, without sound of hoof or wheels. 
Both coach and horse are black, and a black hound runs 
in front. In some localities the horses and coachman are 
headless, which doubtless adds to the effectiveness of the 
apparition. The Breton peasant hears the approach at 

. midnight of a cart with a creaking axle. It is the Ankon 
death — ■ and when the cart stops before a dwelling some- 
one within must die. 

Death-watch : The ticking of the death-watch — a small in- 
sect found in decaying wood — is thought by the super- 
stitious to presage death. 

Decern Viri : (See Sibylline Books.) 

Deetera : A figure of Irish medieval romance. She was the 
daughter of Cathbad the Druid, and mother of Cuchu- 
lain (q.v.). She and fifty other maidens disappeared from 
the court of Conor mac Nessa. Three years later, while 
pursuing a flock of birds which were spoiling the crops, 
the king and courtiers came upon a magnificent palace 
inhabited by a youth of noble mien and a beautiful woman 
and fifty maidens. These wer? recognised as Deetera and 
her companions, and the youth as Lugh, the sun-god. 
Conor summoned Deetera to him, but she sent him instead 
her new-born son, Cuchulain. 

Dee, John : Born in London 1527, this remarkable mathe- 
matician and astrologer is supposed to have been descended 
from a noble old Walsh House, the Dees of Nant y Groes 
in Radnorshire ; while he himself affirmed that among 
his direct ancestors was Roderick the Great, Prince of 
Wales. Dee's father appears to have been a gentleman 
server at the court of Henry VIII., and, being consequently 
in tolerably affluent circumstances, he was able to give 
his son a good education. So at the age of fifteen John 
proceeded to Cambridge, and after two years there he took 
his degree as Bachelor of Arts ; while a little later on his 
becoming intensely interested in astronomy and the like, 
he decided to leave England and go and study abroad. 
In 1547, accordingly, he went to the Low Countries, where 
he consorted with numerous scholars, and whence he even- 
tually brought home the first astronomer's staff of brass, 
and also two gloves constructed by Gerard Mercetor ; but 
Dee was not destined to remain in his native land for long, 
and in 1548 he lived for some time at Louvain, and in 1550 
he spent several months in Paris, lecturing there on the 
principles of geometry. He was offered, indeed, a per- 
manent post at the Sorbonne ; but he declined this, and 
in 1 55 1 he returned to England, where, having been recom- 



Dee, John 



115 



Dee, John 



mended to Edward VI., he was granted the rectory of 
Upton-upon-Severn, Worcestershire. 

The astrologer was now in a delightful and enviable 
position, having a comfortable home and assured income, 
and being able to devote himself exclusively to the studies 
he loved. But hardly had he begun to enjoy these bene- 
fits ere an ugly cloud darkened his horizon, for, on the 
accession of Queen Mary in 1553, he was accused of try- 
ing to' take the new sovereign's life by thaumaturgic 
means, and was imprisoned at Hampton Court. He gained 
his liberty soon afterwards, but he felt very conscious that 
many people looked on him askance on account of his 
scientific predilections ; and, in a preface which he wrote 
for an English translation of Euclid, he complains bitterly 
of being regarded as "_a companion of the helhounds, a 
caller and a conjuror of wicked and damned spirits." How- 
ever, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth his fortunes 
began to improve again ; and after making another long 
tour abroad, going on this occasion so far afield as St. 
Helena, he took a house at Mortlake on the Thames, and 
while staying there he rapidly became famous for his inti- 
mate knowledge of astronomy. In 1572 on the advent 
of a new star, people flocked to hear Dee descant on the 
subject ; while five years later, on the appearance of a 
mysterious comet, the scholar was again vouchsafed ample 
opportunity of displaying his learning, Elizabeth herself 
being among those who came to ask him what this addition 
to the stellar bodies might portend. 

The most romantic circumstances in Dee's life, however, 
are those which deal with his experiments in crystallomancy. 
Living in comparative solitude — practising astrology for 
bread, but studying alchemy for pleasure — brooding over 
Talmudic mysteries and Rosicrucian theories — immersed 
in constant contemplation of wonders which he longed 
to penetrate — and dazzled by visions of the elixir of life 
and the Philosopher's Stone, Dee soon attained to such 
a condition of mystic exaltation that his visions became 
to him as realities, and he persuaded himself that he was 
the favoured of the Invisible. In his Diary he records 
that he first saw in his crystal-globe — that is, saw spirits — 
on the 25th of May, 158 1. In another year he had at- 
tained to a higher level, and one day, in November, 1582, 
while on his knees and fervently praying, he became aware 
of a sudden glory which filled the west window of his lab- 
oratory, and in whose midst shone the bright angel Uriel. 
It was impossible for Dee to speak. His tongue was frozen 
with awe. But Uriel smiled benignly upon him, gave 
him a convex piece of crystal, and told him that when he 
wished to communicate with the beings of another world 
he had but to examine it intently, and they would imme- 
diately appear and reveal the mysteries of the future. 
Then the angel vanished. 

Dee, however, found from experience that it was needful 
to concentrate all one's faculties upon the crystal before 
the spirits would obey him. In other words, it was neces- 
sary to stimulate the imagination to the highest pitch, 
until the soul became a willing agent in its self-deception. 
Bring the will to bear upon the imagination, and it 
is possible to realize a spirit in every shadowy corner — to 
hear the song of the spirits in the low crooning of the evening 
wind — to read in the starry heavens the omens and por- 
tents of the future. One may become with marvellous 
ease the deceiver of one-self, — the dupe of one's own de- 
lusions, — and brood upon a particular subject until one 
passes the mysterious border between sanity and madness 
— passes from imagination into mania. 

Dee could never remember what the spirits said in their 
frequent conversations with him. When the excitement 
was over, he forgot the fancies with which he had been 
beguiled. He resolved, therefore, to discover some fellow- 



worker, or neophyte, who should converse with the spirits 
while he himself, in another part of the room, sat and re- 
corded the interesting dialogue. He found the assistant 
he sought in one Edward Kelly,, who unhappily possessed 
just the requisite boldness and cunning for making a dupe 
of the amiable and credulous enthusiast. 

Edward Kelly was a native of Lancashire, born, accord- 
ing to Dee's own statement, in 1555. We know nothing 
of his early years, but after having been convicted at Lan- 
caster of coining — -for which offence he lost his ears — he 
removed to Worcester, and established himself as a druggist. 
Sensual, ambitious, and luxurious, he longed for wealth, 
and despairing of securing it by honest industry, began 
to grope after the Philosopher's Stone, and to employ what 
magical secrets he picked up in imposing upon the ignorant 
and profligate. Dee sought knowledge for the love of it ; 
Kelly as a means to gratify his earthly passions. He con- 
cealed the loss of his ears by a black skull-cap, and being 
gifted with a good figure and tolerably handsome counte- 
nance, looked the very incarnation of mysterious wisdom, 
Before his acquaintance with Dee began, he had obtained 
some repute as a necromancer and alchymist, who could 
make the dead utter the secrets of the future. One night 
he took a wealthy dupe with some of his servants, into 
the park of Walton le Dale, near Preston in Lancashire, 
and there alarmed him with the most terrific incantations. 
He then inquired of one of the servants whose corpse had 
been last buried in the neighbouring churchyard, and being 
told that a poor man had been interred there within a very 
few hours, exhumed the body, and pretended to draw from 
it oracular utterances. 

Dee appears to have had a skryer, or seer before his in- 
troduction to Kelly, who was named Barnabas Saul. He 
records in his Diary on the 9th of October, 1581, that the 
unfortunate medium was strangely troubled by a "' spiritual 
creature " about midnight. On the 2nd of December he 
willed his skryer to look into the " great crystalline globe " 
for the apparition of the holy angel Anael. Saul looked 
and saw. But his invention appears to have become ex- 
hausted by the following March, when he confessed that 
he neither saw nor heard any spiritual creature any more ; 
whereat the enthusiastic Dee grew strangely dissatisfied, 
and soon dismissed the unsatisfactory and unimaginative 
medium. Then came Edward Kelly (who appears to have 
been also called Talbot), and the conferences with the 
spirits rapidly increased in importance as well as curiosity. 

A clever rogue was Kelly. Gifted with a fertile fancy 
and prolific invention, he never gazed into the " great 
crystalline globe " without making some wondrous 
discoveries, and by his pretended enthusiasm gained the 
entire confidence of the credulous Dee. The mathema- 
tician, despite his learning and his profound intellect, 
became the easy tool of the plastic, subtle Skryer. The 
latter would sometimes pretend that he doubted the inno- 
cent character of the work upon which he was engaged ; 
would affect a holy horror of the unholy'; and profess 
that the spirits of the crystal were not always •' spirits of 
health," but — perish the thought !^— " goblins damn'd ;" 
demons whose task it was to compass their destruction. 
The conferences held between Kelly and the spirits were 
meanwhile, carefully recorded by Dr. Dee ; and whoever 
has stomach for the perusal of a great deal of absurdity 
and not a little blasphemy, may consult the folio published 
in 1659 by the learned Meric Casaubon, and entitled " A 
True and Faithful Relation of what passed between Dr. 
John Dee and some Spirits ; tending, had it succeeded, 
to. a General Alteration of most States and Kingdoms in 
the World." 

Two such shining lights could not hide themselves under 
a bushel, and their reputation extended from Mortlake 



Dee, John 



116 



Dee, John 



even to the Continent. Dee now declared himself possessed 
of the elixir vitae, which he had found he said, among 
the ruins of Glastonbury Abbey ; so that the curious were 
drawn to his house by a double attraction. Gold flowed 
into his coffers in an exhaustless stream, but his experiments 
in the transmutation of metals absorbed a great portion 
of his substance. 

At this time the court of England was visited by a Polish 
nobleman named Albert Laski, Count Palatine of Siradz, 
who was desirous to see the magnificence of the famous 
" Gloriana." Elizabeth received him with the flattering 
welcome she always accorded to distinguished strangers, 
and placed him in charge of the splendid Leicester. He 
visited all the England of the sixteenth century worth 
showing, and especially her two Universities, but was 
sorely disappointed at not finding the famous Dr. Dee at 
Oxford. " I would not have come hither," he said to the 
Earl, " had I wot that Dee was not here." Leicester un- 
dertook to introduce him to the learned philosopher on 
their return to London, and so soothed his discontent. 

A few days afterwards the Pole and Leicester were wait- 
ing in the ante-chamber at Whitehall for an audience of 
the. Queen, when Dr. Dee arrived. Leicester embraced 
the opportunity, and introduced him to Albert Laski. 
The interview between two genial spirits was interesting, 
and led to frequent visits from Laski to Dee's house at 
Mortlake. Kelly soon perceived what a Pactolus this 
Pole would prove, and as he was imbued with all the ex- 
travagant superstitions of the age relative to the elixir 
and the Philosopher's Stone, it was easy enough to play 
upon his imagination, and entangle him in the meshes of 
an inextricable deception. Dee, in want of money to 
prosecute his splendid chimeras, and influenced by Kelly's 
artful suggestions, lent himself in some measure to the 
fraud, and speedily the " great crystalling globe " began 
to reveal hints and predictions which inflamed the ardent 
fancy of the " noble Polonian." But Kelly imposed upon 
Dee as well as upon Laski. He appears to have formed 
some wild but magnificent projects for the reconstruction 
of Europe, to be effected through the agency of the Pole, 
and thenceforth the spirits could converse upon nothing 
but hazy politics. 

On a careful perusal of Dee's Diary, it is impossible to 
come to any other conclusion than that he was imposed 
upon by Kelly, and accepted his revelations as the actual 
utterances of the spirits ; and it seems probable that the 
clever, plastic, slippery Kelly not only knew something of 
the optical delusions then practised by the pretended necro- 
mancers, but possessed considerable ventriloquial powers, 
which largely assisted in his nefarious deceptions. . 

Kelly had undoubtedly conceived some extravagant 
notions of a vast European monarchy, in which Laski was 
to play the part of a Roi faineant and he himself of a Maire 
du Palais. To this point all the spiritual revelations now 
tended, and they were managed, it must be owned, with 
consummate skill. Laski was proved, by the agency of 
Madinie, to be descended from the Anglo-Norman family 
of the Lacies. Then an angel named Murifre, who was 
clothed like a husbandman, pointed out Laski as destined 
to effect the regeneration of the world. 

But it did not answer Kelly's purposes to bring matters 
too suddenly to a conclusion, and with the view of showing 
the extreme value of his services, he renewed his complaints 
upon the wickedness of dealing with spirits, and his fear 
of the perilous enterprises they might enjoin. He threat- 
ened, moreover, to abandon his task, a threat which com- 
pletely perturbed the equanimity of Dr. Dee. Where 
indeed, could he hope to meet with another skryer of such 
infinite ability ? Once when Kelly expressed his desire of 
riding from Mortlake to Islington on some pretended busi- 



ness, the doctor grew afraid that it was only an excuse to 
cover his absolute evasion. " Whereupon," says the doctor, 
" I asked him why he so hasted to ride thither, and I said 
if it were to ride to Mr. Harry Lee I would go thither, and 
to be acquainted with him, seeing now I had so good leisure, 
being eased of the book writing. Then he said that one 
told him the other day that the duke (Laski) did but flatter 
him, and told him other things both against the duke and 
me. I answered for the duke and myself, and also said 
that if the forty pounds annuity which Mr. Lee did offer 
him was the chief cause of his mind setting that way (con- 
trary to many of his former promises to me), that then I 
would assure him of fifty pounds yearly, and would do 
my best, by following of my suit, to bring it to pass as soon 
as I possibly could ; and thereupon did make him promise 
upon the Bible. 

" Then Edward Kelly again upon the same Bible did 
swear unto me constant friendship, and never to forsake 
me ; and moreover said that unless this had so fallen about 
he would have gone beyond the seas, taking ship at New- 
castle within eight days next. 

" And so we plight our faith each to the other, taking 
each other by the hand, upon these points of brotherly 
and friendly fidelity during life, which covenant I beseech 
God to turn to his honour, glory, and service, and the com- 
fort of our brethren (his children) here on earth." 

Kelly now returned to his crystal and his visions, and 
Laski was soon persuaded that he was destined by the 
spirits to achieve great victories over the Saracens, and 
win enduring glory. But for this purpose it was needful 
he should return to Poland, and to Poland the poor dupe 
went, taking with him the learned Dr. Dee, the invaluable 
Edward Kelly, and their wives and families. The spirits 
continued to respond to their inquiries even while at sea, 
and so they landed at the Brill on the 30th of July 1583, 
and traversed Holland and Friesland to the opulent free 
town of Lubeck. There they lived sumptuously for a few 
weeks, and with recruited strength set out for Poland. 
On Christmas Day they arrived at Stettin, where they 
remained till the middle of January 1584. They gained 
Lasco, the Pole's principal estate, early in February. Im- 
mediately the grand work commenced for the transmu- 
tation of iron into gold, boundless wealth being obviously 
needful for so grand an enterprise as the regeneration of 
Europe. Laski liberally supplied them with means, but 
the alchymists always failed on the very threshold of suc- 
cess. Day by day the prince's trees melted away in the 
deceptive crucible ; he mortgaged his estates, he sold 
them, but the hungry furnace continued to cry for " More ! 
more ! " It soon became apparent to the philosopher's 
that Laski's fortune was nearly exhausted. Madinie, 
Uriel, and their comrades made the same discovery at the 
same time, and, moreover, began to doubt whether Laski, 
after all, was the great regenerator intended to revolu- 
tionize Europe. The whole party lived at Cracow from 
March 1584 until the end of July, and made daily appeals 
to the spirits in reference to the Polish prince. They grew 
more and more discouraging in their replies, and as Laski 
began slowly to awake to the conviction that he had been 
a monstrous dupe, in order to rid himself of the burthen, 
he proposed to furnish them with sufficient funds for a 
journey to Prague, and letters of introduction to the Em- 
peror Rudolph. At this very moment the spirits discov- 
ered that it was necessary Dee should bear a divine message 
to the Emperor, and Laski's proposal was gladly accepted. 

At Prague the two philosophers were well received by 
the Emperor. They found him very willing to believe 
in the existence of the famous stone, very courteous to 
Dee as a man of European celebrity, but very suspicious 
of the astute and plausible Kelly. They remained some 



Dee, John 



117 



Dee, John 



months at Prague, living upon the funds which Laski had 
supplied, and cherishing hopes of being attached to the 
imperial service. At last the Papal Nuncio complained 
to the countenance afforded to heretical magicians, and 
the Emperor ordered them to quit his dominions within 
four-and-twenty hours. They precipitately complied, 
and by so doing escaped a prison or the stake, to which 
the Nuncio had received orders from Rome to consign 
them (May 1586). 

They now proceeded to Erfurdt, and from thence to 
Cassel, but meeting with a cold reception, made their way 
once more to Cracow. Here they earned a scanty living 
by telling fortunes and casting nativities ; enduring the 
pangs of penury with an almost heroic composure, for they, 
the pretended possessors of the Philosopher's Stone, durst 
not reveal their indigence to the world, if they would not 
expose themselves to universal ridicule. After a while, 
they found a new dupe in Stephen, king of Poland, to whom 
Kelly's spirits predicted that the Emperor Rudolph would 
shortly be assassinated, and that the Germans would elect 
him to the Imperial throne. But he in his turn grew weary 
of the ceaseless demands for pecuniary supplies. Then 
arose a new disciple in the person of Count Rosenberg, a 
nobleman of large estates at Trebona, in Bohemia. At 
his castle they remained for upwards of two years, eagerly 
pursuing their alchemical studies, but never approaching 
any nearer to the desired result. 

Dee's enthusiasm and credulity had degraded him into 
the tool and slave of Kelly ; but the latter was, neverthe- 
less very wroth at the superior respect which Dee, as really 
a man of surprising scholarship and considerable ability, 
enjoyed. Frequent quarrels broke out between them, 
aggravated by the criminal passion which Kelly had con- 
ceived for the doctor's young and handsome wife, and 
which he had determined to gratify. He matured at 
length an artful plan to obtain the fulfilment of his wishes. 
Knowing Dee's entire dependence upon hi'm as a skryer, 
he suddenly announced his intention of resigning that 
honoured and honourable office, and only consented to 
remain on the doctor's urgent entreaties. That day (April 
18, 1587) they consulted the spirits. Kelly professed to 
be shocked at the revelation they made, and refused to 
repeat it. Dee's curiosity was aroused, and he insisted 
upon hearing it, but was exceedingly discomposed when 
he found that the spirits enjoined the two philosophers 
to have their wives in common. Kelly expressed his own 
abhorrence of the doctrine, and when the spirits repeated 
it, with a mixture of socialistic extravagance to the effect 
that sin was only relative, and could not be sinful if ordered 
by God, protested they must be spirits of evil, not of good, — 
once more resigned his post as skryer, — and left the Castle. 
Dee now attempted to convert his son Arthur into a 
medium, but the lad had neither the invention, the faith, 
nor the deceptive powers for such an office, and the phil- 
osopher, deprived of those conferences with the other world 
which he had so long enjoyed, began to lament the absence 
of his old confederate. At this juncture Kelly suddenly 
returned. Again he consulted the crystal, and again was 
ordered to practise the socialistic rule of all things in com- 
mon. Dee was too delighted at his return to oppose any 
longer the will of the spirits. The two wives resisted the 
arrangement for some time, but finally yielded to what 
was represented to be the will of Heaven, and Dee notes 
in his Diary that " on Sunday the 3rd of May, anno 1587 
(by the new account), I, John Dee, Edward Kelly, and 
our two wives covenanted with God, and subscribed the 
same for indissoluble and inviolable unities, charity, and 
friendship keeping, between us four, and all things between 
us to be common, as God by sundry means willed us to 
do." 



The alchymists now resumed their pursuits with eager- 
ness ; but discord soon crept into this happy family of 
four. The wives, never very well content with the social- 
istic theory, quarrelled violently ; the husbands began 
to be pinched for want of means ; and Dee turned his eyes 
towards England as a pleasanter asylum than the castle 
of Trebona was likely to prove for his old age. He obtained 
permission from Queen Elizabeth to return, and separated 
finally from Kelly. The latter, who had been knighted 
at Prague, took with him an elixir found at Glastonbury 
Abbey, and ventured to proceed to the Bohemian capital. 
He was immediately arrested by order of the Emperor, 
and flung into prison. Obtaining his release after some 
months ' imprisonment, he wandered over Germany, tell- 
ing fortunes, and angling for dupes with the customary 
magical baits, but never getting a whit nearer that enjoy- 
ment of boundless resources which the possession of the 
Philosopher's Stone should have ensured him. Arrested 
a second time as a heretic and a sorcerer, and apprehending 
perpetual imprisonment, he endeavoured to escape, but 
fell from the dungeon-wall, and broke two of his ribs and 
both of his legs. He expired of the injuries he had received 
in February 1593. 

Dr. Dee set out from Trebona with a splendid train, the 
expenses of his journey apparently being defrayed by the 
generous Bohemian noble. Three waggons carried his 
baggage ; three coaches conveyed himself, his family, 
and servants. A guard of twenty-four soldiers escorted 
him ; each carriage was drawn by four horses. In Eng- 
land he was well received by the Queen, as far as courteous 
phrases went, and settling himself at Mortlake, he re- 
sumed his chemical studies, and his pursuit of the Phil- 
osopher's Stone. But nothing prospered with the un- 
fortunate enthusiast. He employed two shryers — at first 
a rogue, named Bartholomew, and afterwards a charlatan 
named Heckman — but neither could discover anything 
satisfactory in the " great crystalline globe." He grew 
poorer and poorer ; he sank into absolute indigence ; he 
wearied the Queen with ceaseless importunities ; and at 
length obtained a small appointment as Chancellor of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, which in 1595 he exchanged for the war- 
denship of Manchester College. He performed the duties 
of this position until age and a failing intellect compelled 
him to resign it about 1602 or 1603. 

He then retired to his old house at Mortlake, where he 
practised as a common fortune-teller, gaining little in 
return but the unenviable reputation of a wizard, " a con- 
juror, a caller, or invocator of devils." On the 5th of June 
1604, he presented a petition to James the First, imploring 
his protection against such injurious calumnies, and de- 
claring that none of all the great number of " the very 
strange and frivolous fables or histories reported and told 
of him (as to have been of his doing) were true." 

Dee is an exceptionally interesting figure, and he must 
have been a man of rare intellectual activity. He made 
calculations to facilitate the adoption in England of the 
Gregorian calendar ; and he virtually anticipated the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission, addressing to the 
crown a petition wherein he wrote on the desirability of 
carefully preserving the old, unpublished records of Eng- 
land's past, many of which documents were at this period 
domiciled in the archives of monasteries. Moreover he 
was a voluminous writer on science, and, though lack of 
space makes it impossible to give a full list of his works 
here, it certainly behoves to mention the following : Monas 
Hieroglyphica 1564, De Trigono 1565, Testamentum Jo- 
hannis Dee Philosophi Summi ad Johannem Guryun Trans- 
missum 1568, An Account of the Manner in which a certayn 
Copper-smith in the Land of Moores, and a certayn Moore 
transmuted Copper to Gold, 1 576. 



Deitton 



118 



Demonology 



Deitton : An astrological book of Indian origin in use in 
Burma, the same as the Dittharana (q. v.) (See Burma.) 

De la Motte, Madame : (See Cagliostro.) 

Deleuze, Billot : [See France.) 

Deleuze, Jean Philippe Francois : French naturalist and 
adept in animal magnetism. He was born at Sisteron, in 
1753, and died in 1835. It is by his advocacy of animal 
magnetism that he is principally remembered, and his 
works on this subject include : Histoire Critique du Mag- 
netisme, (1813-1819) ; Insruction Pratique sur le Mag- 
netisms Animate, (1819 and 1836) ; Defense du Magnetisme, 
(1819) ; Memoire sur la Faculte de Prevision, (1836). He 
believed in rapport between patient and magnetiser, in- 
diagnosis of disease by clairyovants, and other super- 
normal phenomena. (See Hypnotism.) 

Delirium : (See Visions.) 

De Lisle : (circa. 1710). French Alchemist. A considerable 
amount of matter concerning this French alchemist is 
contained in Langlet de Fresnoy's invaluable book, His- 
toire de la Philosophie Hermelique, while Figuier writes at 
some length on the subject ; but neither of these writers 
furnishes ds Lisle's Christian name, and neither gives the 
exact date of his birth. The place where the event oc- 
curred is likewise unknown, although it is commonly held 
that the alchemist was a Provencal ; while his position 
in the social hierarchy is likewise a matter of conjecture, 
the tradition that he sprang from humble peasant stock 
being practically vitiated by the particule in his name. 
True that this is usually spelt Delisle, but one may be 
fairly certain that that is a mere perversion, and that 
originally the two syllables were written separately. 

De Lisle is known to have been active during the first 
decade of the eighteenth century, so it may be assumed 
that he was born towards the close of le grand siecle ; while 
it would seem that, at an early age, he entered the service 
of a scientist whose name is unrecorded, but who is sup- 
posed to have been a pupil of Lascaris. This nameless 
scientist, it appears, got into trouble of some sort, the 
likelihood being that he was persecuted on account of his 
hermetic predilections ; and accordingly he left Provence 
and set out for Switzerland, taking with him his young 
henchman, de Lisle. En route the latter murdered his 
patron and employer, thereafter appropriating all his al- 
chemistic property, notably some . precious transmuting 
powder ; and then, about the year 1708, he returned to 
his native France, where he soon attracted attention by 
changing masses of lead and iron into silver and gold. 
Noble and influential people now began to court his society 
and his scientific services, and betimes he found himself 
safely and comfortably housed in the castle of La Palud, 
where he received many visitors from day to day, demon- 
strating his skill before them. Anon, however, he grew 
weary of this life ; and, having contracted a liaison with 
a Madame Alnys, he commenced wandering with her from 
place to place, a son being eventually born to the pair. At 
this time Madame Alnys' husband was still living, but that 
did not prevent de Lisle from continuing to elicit patronage 
and favour from the rich and great, and in 1710, at the 
Chateau de St. Auban, he performed a curious experiment 
in the prer.ence of one St. Maurice, then president of the 
royal mint. Going into the grounds of the chateau one 
evening, de Lisle showed St. Maurice a basket sunk in the 
ground, and bade him bring it into the salle- d-manger 
where it was duly opened, its contents transpiring to be 
merely some earth of a blackish hue. No very precious 
material ! thought St. Maurice, accustomed to handling 
ingots and nuggets ; but de Lisle, after distilling a yellow 
liquid from the earth, projected this on hot quicksilver, 
and speedily produced in fusion three ounces of gold, while 
subsequently he succeeded in concocting a tolerable quan- 



tity of silver. Some of the gold was afterwards sent to 
Paris, where it was put through a refining process, and 
three medals were struck from it, one of which, bearing 
the inscription Aurum Arte Factum, was deposited in 
the cabinet of his most Christian majesty. Thereupon 
de Lisle was invited to come to Paris himself, and visit the 
court ; but he declined the offer, giving as his reason that 
the southern climate he chiefly lived in was necessary to 
the success of his experiments, the preparations he worked 
with being purely vegetable. The probability is that, 
having been signally triumphant in duping his clientile 
so far, he felt the advisability of refraining from endeavours 

. which might prove futile, and vitiate his reputation. 

We hear nothing of de Lisle later than 1760, so presum- 
ably he died about that time ; but his son by Madame 
Alnys seems to have inherited some part of his father's 
predilections, together with a fair quota of his skill. Wan- 
dering for many years through Italy and Germany, he 
affected transmutations successfully before various petty 
nobles ; while at Vienna he succeeded in bringing himself 
under the notice of the Due de Richelieu, who was acting 
then as French ambassador to the Viennese court, and 
Richelieu afterwards assured the Abbe Langlet that he 
not only saw the operation of gold-making performed, but 
did it himself by carrying out instructions given him by 
Alnys. The latter gradually acquired great wealth, but, 
falling under suspicion, he was imprisoned for a space at 
Marseilles, whence he ultimately escaped to Brussels. 
Here he continued, not altogether unsuccessfully, to en- 
gage in alchemy ; while here too he became acquainted 
with Percell, the brother of Langlet du Fresnoy, to whom 
he is supposed to have confided some valuable scientific 
secrets. Eventually, however, the mysterious death of 
one Grefier, known to have been working in Alnys' lab- 
oratory, made the Brussels authorities suspicious about 
the latter's character, so he left the town stealthily, never 
to be heard of again. 

Demonius ; A stone so called from the supposed demoniacal 
rainbow that appears in it. 

Demonoeracy : The government of demons ; the immediate 
influence of evil spirits ; the religion of certain peoples of 
America, Africa, and Asia, who worship devils. 

Demonography : The history and description of demons 
and all that concerns them. Authors who write upon this 
subject — such as Wierus, Delancre, Leloyer — are some- 
times called demonographers. 

Demonology : That branch of magic which deals with male- 
volent spirits. In religious science it has come to indicate 
knowledge regarding supernatural beings who are not 
deities. But, it is in regard to its magical significance 
only that it falls to be dealt with here. The Greek term 
Daimon, originally indicated " genius " or "* spirit," but 
in England it has come to mean a being actively male- 
volent. Ancient Demonology will be found dealt with in 
the articles Egypt, Semites, Genius and Devil-Worship, 
and savage demonology under the heads of the various 
countries and races where it had its origin. According to 
Michael Psellus, demons are divided into six great bodies. 
First, the demons of fire. Second, those of the air. Third, 
those of the earth. The fourth inhabit the waters and 
rivers, and cause tempests and floods ; the fifth axe sub- 
terranean, who prepare earthquakes and excite volcanic 
eruptions. The sixth, are shadows, something of the 
nature of ghosts. St. Augustine comprehends all demons 
under the last category. This classification of Psellus is 
not unlike that system of the middle ages, which divided 
all spirits into those belonging to the four elements, fire, 
air, earth, and water, or salamanders, sylphs, undines, 
and gnomes. 
The medieval idea of demons was, of course, in a direct 



Demonology 



119 



Demonology 



line from the ancient Christian and Gnostic supposition. 
The Gnostics, of early Christian times, in imitation of a 
classification of the different orders of spirits by Plato, 
had attempted a similar arrangement with respect to an 
hierarchy of angels, the gradation of which stood as fol- 
lows : — -The first and highest order was named seraphim, the 
second cherubim, the third was the order of thrones, the 
fourth of dominions, the fifth of virtues, the sixth of powers, 
the seventh of principalities, the eighth of archangels, 
the ninth, and lowest, of angels. This classification was, 
in a pointed manner, censured by the apostles, yet still, 
strange to say, it almost outlived the pneumatologists 
of the middle ages. These schoolmen, in reference to the 
account that Lucifer rebelled against heaven, and that 
Michael, the archangel, warred against him, long agitated 
the momentous question: "What orders of angels fell 
on this occasion ? " At length, it became the prevailing 
opinion that Lucifer was of the order of Seraphim. It 
was also proved after infinite research, that Agares, Belial, 
and Barbatos, each of them deposed angels of great rank, 
had been of the order of virtues ; that Bileth, Focalor, 
and Phoenix, had been of the order of thrones ; that 
Goap had been of the order of powers, and that Purson 
had been both of the order of virtues and of thrones ; and 
Murmur, of thrones and of angels. The pretensions of 
many other noble devils were likewise canvassed, and, in 
equally satisfactory manner, determined. Afterwards, it 
became an object of enquiry to learn : " How many fallen 
angels had been engaged in the contest ? " This was a 
question of vital importance, which gave rise to the most 
laborious research, and to a variety of discordant opinions. 
It was next agitated : " Where the battle was fought — 
in the inferior heaven, in the highest region of the a.ir, in 
the firmament, or in Paradise ? " " How long it lasted ? — 
whether during one second, or moment of time (puncium 
temporis), two, three, or four seconds ? " These are queries 
of very difficult solution, but the notion which ultimately 
prevailed was, that the engagement was concluded in 
exactly three seconds from the date of its commencement ; 
and that while Lucifer, with a number of his followers, 
fell into hell, the rest were left in the air to tempt man. A 
still newer question rose out of all these investigations : 
" Whether more angels fell with Lucifer, or remain in 
heaven with Michael ? " Learned clerks, however, were 
inclined to think that the rebel chief had been beaten by a 
superior force, and that, consequently, devils of darkness 
were fewer in number than angels of light. 

These discussions which, during the number of successive 
centuries interested the whole of Christendom, too fre- 
quently exercised the talents of the most erudite persons 
in Europe. The last object of demonologists was to 
collect, in some degree of order, Lucifer's routed forces, 
and to reorganise them under a decided form of subordina- 
tion or government. Hence, extensive districts were 
given to certain chiefs who fought under this general. 
There was Zimimar, " the lordly monarch of the north," 
as Shakespeare styles him, who had his distinct province 
of devils ; there was Gorson, the King of the South ; 
Amaymon, the King of the East ; and Goap, the Prince 
of the West. These sovereigns had many noble spirits 
subordinate to them, whose various ranks were settled 
with all the preciseness of heraldic distinction ; there were 
Devil Dukes, Devil Marquises, Devil Counts, Devil Earls, 
Devil Knights, Devil Presidents, and Devil Prelates. The 
armed force under Lucifer seems to have comprised nearly 
twenty-four hundred legions, of which each demon of rank 
commanded a certain number. Thus, Beleth, whom Scott 
has described as " a great king and terrible, riding on a 
pale horse, before whom go trumpets and all melodious 
music," commanded eighty-five legions ; Agares, the first 



duke under the power of the East, commanded thirty-one 
legions ; Leraie, a great marquis, thirty legions ; Morax, 
a great earl and a president, thirty-six legions ; Furcas, a 
knight, twenty legions ; and, after the same manner, the 
forces of the other devil chieftains were enumerated. 

Such were the notions once entertained regarding the 
history, nature, and ranks of devils. Our next object will 
be to show that, with respect to their strange and hideous 
forms the apparitions connected with the popular belief 
on this subject, were derived from the descriptive writings 
of such demonologists, as either maintained that demons 
possessed a decided corporeal form, and were mortal, or 
that, like Milton's spirits, they could assume any sex, and 
take any shape they chose. 

When, in the middle ages, conjuration was regularly 
practised in Europe, devils of rank were supposed to appear 
under decided forms, by which they were as well recognised 
as the head of any ancient family would be by his crest 
" and armorial bearings. Along with their names and 
characters were registered such shapes as they were 
accustomed to adopt. A devil would appear, either like 
an angel seated in a fiery chariot, or riding on an infernal 
dragon, and carrying in his right hand a viper ; or assum- 
ing a lion's head, a goose's feet, and a hare's tail ; or putting 
on a raven's head, and mounted on a strong wolf. Other 
forms made use of by demons were those of a fierce warrior, 
or of an old man riding upon a crocodile with a hawk in 
his hand. A human figure would arise having the wings 
of a griffin ; or sporting three heads, two of them being 
like those of a toad and of a cat ; or defended with huge 
teeth and horns, and armed with a sword ; or displaying 
a 'dog's teeth and a large raven's head ; or mounted upon 
a pale horse, and exhibiting a serpent's tail ; or gloriously 
crowned, and riding upon a dromedary ; or presenting the 
face of a lion ; or bestriding a bear, and grasping a viper. 
There are also such shapes as those of an archer, or of a 
Zenophilus. A demoniacal king would ride upon a pale 
horse ; or would assume a leopard's face and griffin's 
wings ; or put on the three heads of a bull, of a man, and 
a ram, with a serpent's tail, and the feet of a goose ; and, 
in this attire, bestride a dragon, and bear in his hand a 
lance and a flag ; or, instead of being thus employed, goad 
the flanks of a furious bear, and carry in his fist a hawk. 
Other forms were those of a goodly knight ; or of one who 
bore lance, ensigns, and even a sceptre ; or of a soldier, 
either riding on a black horse, and surrounded by a flame 
of fire, or wearing on his head a duke's crown, and mounted 
on a crocodile or assuming a lion's face, and, with fiery eyes, 
spurring on a gigantic charger ; or, with the same frightful 
aspect, appearing in all the pomp of family distinction, on 
a pale horse ; or clad from head to foot in crimson raiment, 
wearing on his bold front a crown, and sallying along on a 
red steed. Some infernal duke would appear in his proper 
character, quietly seated on a griffin ; another spirit of a 
similar rank would display the three heads of a serpent, 
a man, and a cat ; he would also bestride a viper, and 
carry in his hand a firebrand. Another of the same type 
would appear like a duchess, encircled with a fiery zone, 
and mounted on a camel ; a fourth, would wear the aspect 
of a boy, and amuse himself on the back of a two-headed 
dragon. A few spirits, however, would be content, with 
the simple garbs of a horse, a leopard, a lion, an unicorn, a 
night raven, a stork, a peacock, or a dromedary, the latter 
animal speaking fluently the Egyptian language. Others 
would assume the more complex forms of a lion or of a 
dog, with a griffin's wings attached to each of their shoulders, 
or of a bull equally well gifted ; or of the same animal, 
distinguished by the singular feature of a man's face ; 
or of a crow clothed with human flesh ; or of a hart with 
a fiery tail. To certain other noble devils were assigned 



Demonology 



120 



Deoca 



such shapes as those of a dragon with three heads, one of 
these being human ; of a wolf with a serpent's tail, breath- 
ing forth flames of fire ; of a she-wolf exhibiting the same 
caudal appendage together with griffin's wings, and 
ejecting from her mouth hideous matter. A lion would 
appear, either with the head of a branded thief, or astride 
upon a black horse, and playing with a viper, or adorned 
with the tail of a snake, and grasping in his paws two 
hissing serpents. 

These were the varied shapes assumed by devils of rank. 
" It would, therefore," says Hibbert, " betray too much 
of the aristocratical spirit to omit noticing the forms which 
the lower orders of such beings displayed. In an ancient 
Latin poem, describing the lamentable vision of a devoted 
hermit, and supposed to have been written by St. Bernard 
in the year 1238, those spirits, who had no more important 
business upon earth than to carry away condemned souls, 
were described as blacker than pitch ; as having teeth 
like lions, nails on their fingers like those of a wild-boar, 
on their fore-head horns, through the extremities of which 
poison was emitted, having wide ears flowing with cor- 
ruption, and discharging serpents from their nostrils. 
The devout writer of these verses has even accompanied 
them from drawings, in which the addition of the cloven 
feet is not omitted. But this appendage, as Sir Thomas 
.Brown has learnedly proved, is a mistake, which has arisen 
from the devil frequently appearing to the Jews in the 
shape of a rough and hairy goat, this animal being the 
emblem of sin-offering." 

It is worthy of further remark, that the form of the 
demons described by St. Bernard differs little from that 
which is no less carefully pourtrayed by Reginald Scot, 
three hundred and fifty years later, and, perhaps, by the 
demonologists of the present day. " In our childhood," 
says he, " our mother's maids have so terrified us with an 
ouglie divell having horns on his head, fier in his mouth, 
and a tail on his breech, eies like a bason, fangs like a dog, 
clawes like a beare, a skin like a niger, and a voice like a 
roaring lion — whereby we start and are afraid when we 
hear one cry bough." 

Wit the view of illustrating other accounts of appari- 
tions, we must advert to the doctrines of demonology which 
were once taught. Although the leading tenets of this 
occult science may be traced to the Jews and early Christ- 
ians, yet they were matured by our early communication 
with the Moors of Spain, who were the chief philosophers of 
the dark ages, and between whom and the natives of France 
and Italy much communication subsisted. Toledo, 
Seville, and Salamanca, became the great schools of magic. 
At the latter city, prelections on the black art were, from 
a consistent regard to the solemnity of the subject, 
delivered within the walls of a vast and gloomy cavern. 
The schoolmen taught that all knowledge and power might 
be obtained from the assistance of the fallen angels. They 
were skilled in the abstract sciences, in the knowledge of 
precious stones, in alchemy, in the various languages of 
mankind and of the lower animals, in the belles lettres, in 
moral philosophy, pneumatology, divinity, magic, history, 
and prophecy. They could control the winds, the waters, 
and the influence of the stars ; they could raise earth- 
quakes, induce diseases, or cure them, accomplish all vaster 
mechanical undertakings, and release souls out of purgatory. 
They could influence the passions of the mind, procure the 
reconcilation of friends or foes, engender mutual discords, 
induce mania and melancholy, or direct the force and 
objects of the sexual affections. According to Wierus, 
demons are divided into a great many classes, and into 
regular kingdoms and principalities, nobles and com- 
moners. Satan is by no means the great sovereign of this 
monarchy, but his place is taken by Beelzebub. Satan is 



alluded to by Wierus as a dethroned monarch, and Chief 
of the Opposition ; Moloch, Chief of the Army ; and Pluto, 
Prince of Fire ; and Leonard, Grand Master of the Sphere. 
The masters of these infernal courts are, Adramelech, 
Grand Chancellor ; Astaroth, Grand Treasurer ; and 
Nergal, Chief of the Secret Police ; and Baal, Chief of the 
Satanic Army. According to this authority, each state 
in Europe has also its infernal ambassadors. Belphegor 
is thus accredited to France, Mammon to England, Belial 
to Turkey, Rimmon to Russia, Thamuz to Spain, Hutjin 
to Italy, and Martinet to Switzerland. Berbiguier, writing 
in 1 82 1, has given a sketch of the Infernal Court. He says : 
" This court has representatives on earth. These manda- 
tories are innumerable. I give nomenclature and degree- 
of power of each : Moreau, magician and sorcerer of Paris, 
represents Beelzebub ; Pinel, a doctor of Salpetriere, 
represents Satan ; Bouge, represents Pluto ; Nicholas, a 
doctor of Avigum, represents Moloch ; and so on. " Al- 
together," says Wierus, " there are in the infernal regions 
6666 legions, each composed of the same number of devils." 

Demonology and Witchcraft by Sir Walter Scott : This work 
occupies a curious and pathetic place in Sir Walter Scott's 
vast literary output. Four years subsequent to his finan- 
cial debacle, in 1826, the' author sustained a mild apoplec- 
tic shock, and it was shortly after this that John Murray, 
who was then issuing a series known as The Family 
Library," asked Sir Walter to contribute thereto a volume 
on demonology. Consent was given readily, but, as an 
entry in Scott's journal makes manifest, he did not care 
greatly for the work, and really engaged in it just because 
he was still in the throes of writing off his debts, and had 
to accept every commission which was offered him. In 
short, the book was begun from a purely commercial 
motive, and was composed when the writer's mental 
faculties were perforce sluggish, the natural result being 
that it is infinitely inferior to his other writings. But 
despite its inferiority herein, Sir Walter's volume has its 
interest for students of occultism. The writer is lame 
enough in what might be called the speculative parts of his 
book — those pages, for instance, in which he tries labor- 
iously to account for the prevalence in the middle-ages of 
belief in witchcraft and the like — but his wonderful and 
well-stored memory stood him in good stead when writing 
those passages concerned purely with facts, and thus there 
is considerable value in his account of demonology in France 
and in Sweden, and in all that he says about Joan of Arc. 
Moreover, his intimate knowledge of early Scottish litera- 
ture gives a singular importance to all those of his chapters 
which are concerned with his native land, while it is interest- 
ing to find that here and there, he offers something of a, 
sidelight on his own immortal novels, as for example, when 
he treats of those spectres which he had dealt with prev- 
iously in Woodstock. 

Demonomaney : Divination by means of demons. This 

- divination takes place by the oracles they make, or by the 
answers they give to those who evoke them. 

Demonomania : The mania of those who believe all that 
is told concerning demons and sorcerers, such as Bodin, 
Delancre, Leloyer, and others. Bodin's work is entitled 
Demonomania of the Sorcerers, but in this case it signifies 
devilry. 

De Morgan, Mrs. : The author of a mystico-spiritual work 
entitled From Matter to Spirit, published in 1863. Mrs. 
de Morgan, whose interest in spiritualism was awakened 
at the seances of Mrs. Hayden, was the wife of Professor 
de Morgan, who himself offered emphatic testimony to 
the genuineness of Mrs. Hayden's mediumship. 

Deoca, or The Woman of the South: A Princess of 
Munster, who is mentioned in Irish medieval legend. It 
is said that she was betrothed to Lairgnan, and asked of 



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A mediaeval death bed 




Condemned souls carried to their place of punishment 





The Demon of the Treasure 




The witch and the demon 



The Trumpeter of Evil 



MEDI/EVAL CONCEPTIONS OF DEMONS 



[face p. 120 



Dermot 



121 



Devas 



him as a marriage gift the children of Lir, who had been 
magically changed by their stepmother into four wonderful 
singing swans. The hermit who looked after them refused 
to give them to Lairgnan, who then seized them. When 
brought into the presence of Deoca they were transformed 
into their human form — withered, white-haired, miserable 
beings. The hermit baptised them before they died, 
and sorrowed for them so much that he himself was laid 
in their grave. 

Dermot of the Love-spot : The typical lover of Irish legend, 
and the hero of the myth of Dermot and Grania. It was 
in this wise that he got the love-spot. One night he and 
three companions entered a hut for a night's shelter, in 
which dwelt an old man, a young girl (Youth), a wether 
(the World) and a cat (Death). During the night the 
girl put the love-spot on Dermot's forehead, and hence- 
forth, it is said, no woman could see him without loving 
him. He came to be loved by Grania, the betrothed of 
Finn, who forced him to run away with her. They were 
pursued all over Ireland, but after sixteen years of out- 
lawry, Dermot was allowed to return to his patrimony. He 
was killed by the Boar of Ben, Bulben, (q.v.) an enchanted 
animal, who had been his step-brother. His body was 
borne away on a gilded bier by the People of Dana, and 
•was given a soul by Angus Og, the Irish God of Love, that 
he might return each day and talk with him. Dermot 
was of the type of solar hero ; and the bier on which his 
body was borne away is, of course, the sunset. 

Dervishes : A sect of Mohammedan priests. In some cases 
they exercise a semi-esoteric doctrine. Their various 
" paths " or systems are of great antiquity, and probably 
are derived from the ancient rites of Persia and Egypt, 
bearing also a strong resemblance to Magism. Taking 
the Bektash as typical of all, we find that in the fifteenth 
century Bektash of Bokhara received his mantle from 
Ahmed Yesevee, who claimed descent from the father- 
in-law of Mohammed. He established a " path," con- 
sisting nominally of seven degrees, only four of which, 
however, are essential. These aim at the establishment 
of an affinity between the aspirant and the Sheik, from 
whom he is led through the spirit of the founder, and that of 
the Prophet to Allah. The initiatory ceremony provides 
a severe test. The aspirant is tried for a year with 
false secrets, and his time of probation having expired, 
a lamb is slain, from the carcass of which a cord is made 
for his neck and a girdle of initiation for his loins. Two 
armed attendants then lead him into a square chamber, 
where he is presented to the Sheik as " a slave who desires 
to know truth." He is then placed before a stone altar, 
on which are twelve escallops. The Sheik, who is at- 
tended by eleven others, grips the hand of the aspirant 
in a peculiar way, and administers the oath of the Order, 
in which the neophyte promises to be poor, chaste and 
obedient. He is then informed that the penalty of be- 
traying the Order is death. He then says : " Mohammed 
is my guide, Ali is my director," and is asked by the Sheik, 
" Do you accept me as 3'our guide ? " The reply being 
made in the affirmative, the Sheik says : " Then I accept 
you as my son." He is then invested with a girdle on 
which are three knots, and receives an alabaster stone 
as a token. The sign of recognition is the same as that 
in the first degree of masonry. Amongst their important 
symbols are the double triangles and two triangles joined 
at the apex. One of their maxims is that " the man must 
die that the saint must be born." As a jewel they make 
use of a small marble cube with red spots, to typify the 
blood of the martyred Ali. These dervish sects are by 
no means popular with the orthodox Mussulmans, as they 
devote themselves entirely to the well-being of their order 
rather than to Mohammedanism. 



A notable exercise indulged in by several Dervish sects, 
is that of gyration in circles for extended periods of time, 
or prolonged dancing. The object of this is obscure, some 
authorities contending that it is engaged in to bring about 
a condition of ecstasy, whilst others see in it a planetary 
or astronomic significance. 

D'Eslon: (See Hypnotism.) 

Desmond, Gerald, sixteenth earl of Desmond, who was killed 
in 1583, had some repute as a magician, and was known 
as the " Great Earl." Many curious stories are current 
concerning him. He dwelt in his castle on a small island 
in Lough Gur, and there, in time, he brought his young 
bride, to whom he was so passionately attached that he 
could deny her nothing. Seeking him one day in the 
chamber where he worked his magic spells, she demanded 
to know the secret of the Black Cat. In vain he told her 
of the terrible things she must witness ; she would not be 
dissuaded. So he warned her solemnly that if she uttered 
a word the castle would sink to the bottom of Lough Gur, 
and set to work. Terrible indeed were the sights she 
beheld, but she stood firm and uttered neither word nor 
cry, until her husband lay down on the floor and stretched 
till he reached almost from end to end of the room. Then 
she uttered a wild shriek, and the castle sank instantly to 
the bottom of Lough Gur, where it still remains. Once 
in every seven years Desmond, mounted on a white horse, 
rises from the water and rides round the Lough. His 
horse is shod with silver shoes, and when these wear out 
the spell will be broken, Desmond will return, and his vast 
estates shall once more be restored to him. 

D'Espagnet, Jean : A Hermetic philosopher who left two 
treatises Enchiridion Phy sices Restitutce and Arcanum 
Philosophies Hermitaccs which have also been claimed 
as the works of one calling himself the " Chevalier Im- 
perial." " The Secret of Hermetic Philosophy " em- 
braces the practical side of the Magnum Opus and the 
" Enchiridion " treats of the physical possibility of trans- 
mutation. D'Espagnet also wrote the preface to the 
Tableau de V Inconstance des Demons by Pierre Delancre. 
The "Arcanum" is better known as the " Canons of Es- 
pagnet " and has been claimed as a treatise on mystical 
Alchenty. The Author states, however, that " the science 
of producing Nature's grand Secret is a perfect knowledge 
of nature universally and of Art, concerning the realm of 
Metals ; the practice whereof is conversant in finding the 
principles of Metals by analysis." 

The authorities cited by Espagnet are those who like 
Trevisan are known to have devoted their lives to practical 
Alchemy. Nevertheless, it may be granted that while 
much of the matter treats of a physical object it may be 
extended to the psychic side of Hermetic Art. 

"Deuce Take You " : A vulgar saying which had its origin 
in antiquity. The deuce is practically synonymous with 
the devil, the word being derived from Dusins, the ancient 
name given by the Gauls to a sort of demon or devil. 

Devas : In Theosophy, constitute one of the ranks or orders 
of spirits who compose the hierarchy which rules the uni- 
verse under the Deity. Their numbers are vast and their 
functions are not all known to mankind, though generally 
these functions may be said to be connected with the evo- 
lution of systems and of life. Of Devas there are three 
kinds — Bodiless Devas, Form Devas and Passion Devas. 
Bodiless Devas belong to the higher mental world, their 
bodies are composed of mental Elemental Essence, and 
they belong to the first Elemental kingdom. Form Devas- 
belong to the lower mental world, and while their bodies 
are composed also of mental Elemental Essence, they 
belong to the second Elemental kingdom. Passion Devas 
belong to the astral world and their bodies are composed. 



Devil 



122 



Devil 



of astral Elemental Essence. Devas are creatures super- 
latively great and superlatively glorious, of vast knowledge 
and power, calm yet irresistible, and in appearance alto- 
gether magnificent. 
Devil : A name derived from the Greek Diabolos, "slanderer." 
The name for the supreme spirit of evil, the enemy of God 
and man. In primitive religious systems there is no con- 
ception of evil, and the gods are neither good nor bad, as 
we conceive these terms, but may possess " good " and 
"bad" attributes at one and. the same time. Thus we 
have very few traces of beings which are absolutely evil 
in the older religions, and it may be broadly stated that 
the conception of Satan as we have it to-day is almost 
purely Hebrew and Christian. In Egypt and Babylon, 
figures like Apepi and Tiawath, although clearly in the line 
of evolution of a Satanic personality, are by no means 
rulers of the infernal regions. Again the Hades of the 
Greeks is merely a ruler of the shades of the dead, and 
not an enemy of Olympus or mankind. It is strange that 
in Mexico, Mictlantecutli, lord of hell, is a much more 
directly Satanic figure than any European or Asiatic ruler 
of the realms of the dead. But in some mythologies, there 
are frequent allusions to monsters who may quite easily 
have coloured our conception of Satan. Such is the 
Hindu serpent Ahi, and the Hebrew Leviathan, the prin- 
ciple of Chaos. In the Teutonic mythology we have the 
menacing shape of Loki, originally a god of fire, but after- 
wards the personification of evil. The conception of 
Satan, too, appears to have some deeply-rooted connection 
■with the ancient serpent-worship, which seems to have 
penetrated most oriental countries. Thus we find the 
Tempter in the Old Testament in the guise of a serpent. 
The serpent or dragon is being generally regarded as the 
personification of night who swallows the sun and enve- 
lopes the world in darkness. 

The Hebrew conception of Satan it is thought, arose 
in the post-exilic period, and exhibits traces of Babylonian 
or Assyrian influence. It is not likely that before the 
captivity any specific doctrine respecting evil spirits was 
held by the Hebrews. Writing on this subject, Mr. F. T. 
Hall in his book The Pedigree of the Devil says :-. — 

" The term ' Satan ' and ' Satans ' which occur in the 
Old Testament, are certainly not applicable to the modern 
conception of Satan as a spirit of evil ; although it is not 
difficult to detect in the Old Hebrew mind a fruitful soil, 
in which the idea, afterwards evolved, would readily take 
root. The original idea of a ' Satan ' is that of an " adver- 
sary,' or agent of ' opposition.' The angel which is said 
to have withstood Balaam is in the same breath spoken 
of as ' The angel of the Lord,' and a ' Satan.' When the 
Philistines under Achish their king were about to commence 
hostilities against the Israelities under Saul and David 
and his men were about to march with the Philistines ; 
the latter objected, lest, in the day of battle, David should 
become a ' Satan ' to them, by deserting to the enemy. 
When David, in later life, was returning to Jerusalem, after 
Absalom's rebellion and death ; and his lately disaffected 
subjects were, in turn, making their submission ; amongst 
them came the truculent Shimei : Abishai, David's nephew, 
one of the fierce sons of Zeruiah, advised that Shimei 
should be put to death : this grated upon David's feelings, 
at a time when he was filled with exuberant joy at his own 
restoration ; and he rebuked Abishai as a ' Satan.' Again 
Satan is said to have provoked David to number Israel, 
and at the same time, that ' the Lord moved David to 
number Israel ; ' a course strenuously opposed by Joab, 
another of the sons of Zeruiah. Solomon in his message 
to Hiram, king of Tyre, congratulated himself on having 
no ' Satans ' and that .this peaceful immunity from dis- 
cord enabled him to build the Temple, which had been 



forbidden to his warlike father, David. This immunity 
was not, however, lasting ; for Hadad, the Edomite, and 
Regon, of Zobah, became ' Satans ' to Solomon, after his 
profuse luxury had opened the way for curruption and 
disaffection. In all these cases, the idea is simply identical 
with the plain meaning of the word : a Satan is an opponent, 
an adversary. In the elaborate curse embodied in the 
109th Psalm, the writer speaks of his enemies as his ' Satans' 
and prays that the object of his anathema may have ' Satan ' 
standing at his right hand. The Psalmist himself, in the 
sequel, fairly assumes the office of his enemy's ' Satan,' 
by enumerating his crimes and failings, and exposing 
them in their worst light. In the 71st Psalm, enemies 
(v. 10) are identified with ' Satans ' or adversaries (v. 13). 

" The only other places in the Old Testament where the 
word occurs, are in the Book of Job, and the prophecy 
of Zechariah. In the Book of Job, Satan appears with 
a distinct personality, and is associated with the sons of 
God, and in attendance with them before the throne of 
Jehovah. He is the cynical critic of Job's actions, and 
in that character he accuses him of insincerity and instabi- 
lity ; and receives permission from Jehovah to test the 
justice of this accusation, by afflicting Job in everything 
he holds dear. We have here the spy, the informer, the 
public prosecutor, the executioner ; all embodied in Satan, 
the adversary : these attributes are not amiable ones, 
but the writer does not suggest the absolute antagonism 
between Jehovah and Satan, which is a fundamental dogma 
of modern Christianity. 

" In the prophecy of Zechariah, Satan again, with an 
apparent personality, is represented as standing at the 
right hand of Joshua, the high-priest, to resist him : he 
seems to be claiming strict justice against one open to 
accusation ; for Joshua is clothed in filthy garments — the 
type of sin and pollution. Jehovah relents, and mercy 
triumphs o ver j ustice : the filthy garments are taken away, 
and fair raiment substituted. Even here, the character 
of Satan, although hard, is not devoid of virtue, for it 
evinces a sense of justice." 

The Babylonians, among whom the Hebrews dwelt during 
the Captivity, believed in the existence of vast multitudes 
of spirits,, both good and bad, but there is nothing to show 
that the Hebrews took over from them any extensive 
pantheon, either good or evil. Indeed the Hebrew and 
Babylonian religions possessed many things in common, 
and there was no necessity that the captive Jews should 
borrow an animism which they probably already possessed. 
At the same time it is likely that they adopted the idea 
of an evil agency from their captors, and as the genius 
of their religion was averse to polytheism, the probabilities 
are that they welded the numerous evil forces of Baby- 
lonian into one central figure. Again, .it must have occurred 
to them that if the world contained ~an evil principle, it 
could not possibly emanate from God, whom they regarded 
as all-good, and it was probably with the intention of 
separating all evil from God that the personality of Satan 
(having regard to the amount of evil in the universe) was 
invested with such importance. 

In later Judaism we find the conception of Satan strongly 
coloured by Persian dualism, and it has been supposed 
that Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit is the same as Aeshara 
Daewa of the Ancient Persians. Both " Satan " and 
" Satans " were mentioned in the Book of Enoch, and in 
Ecclesiasticus he was identified with the serpent of Genesis, 
and in the " ' Book of the Secrets of Enoch ' ' his revolt against 
God and expulsion from Heaven are described. In the 
Jewish Targinn, Samael, highest of the angels, merges 
with Satan into a single personality. 

The Satan of the New Testament is merely a reproduc- 
tion of these later Jewish forms. In Matthew he is 



Devil 



123 



Devil Worship 



alluded to as the " Prince of Demons," and in Ephesians is 
spoken of as ruling over a world of evil beings who dwell 
in the lower heavens. Thus he is prince of the powers 
of the air. In Revelation the war in Heaven between 
God and Satan is described, and his imprisonment is 
foreshadowed after the overthrow of the Beast and the 
Kings of the earth, when he will be chained in the bottom- 
less pit for one thousand years. After another period of 
freedom he is finally cast into the lake of brimstone for ever. 
According to the orthodox Christian belief of the present 
day, Satan has been endowed with great powers for the 
purpose of tempting man to prove his fortitude. In the 
middle ages, the belief in Satan and Satanic agencies was 
overwhelming, and was inherited by Protestantism from 
Roman Catholicism. This is not the place to enter into a 
discussion as to the likelihood of the existence of an evil 
being, but the great consensus of theological opinion is in 
favour of such a theory. 
Devil Worship : (i). The worship of Satan or Lucifer. 
(2). The worship by semi-civilised or barbarous people; 
of deities having a demoniac form. 

The Worship of Satan or diabolism is spasmodic and oc- 
casionally epidemic. It dates from the early days of dualism 
(q.v.) and perhaps originated in the Persian dual system 
when the opposing deities Ormuzd and Ahriman symbo- 
lised the good and bad principles respectively. Instances 
of pure Satanism are comparatively rare, and it must not be 
confounded with the Sabbatic orgies of witchcraft which 
partake more of the nature- of (2), or with the 
evocation of the Evil One, for the purpose of making a 
pact with him. Modern groups practising Satanism are 
small and obscure, and, unorganised as they are, details 
concerning them are conspicuous by their absence. 

Plentiful details, however, are forthcoming concerning 
the cultus of Lucifer, but much discrimination is required 
in dealing with these, the bulk of the literature on the 
subject being manifestly imaginative and wilfully mis- 
leading. The members of the church of Lucifer are of 
two groups, those who regard the deity they adore as the 
evil principle, thus approximating to the standpoint of the 
Satanists, and those who look upon him as the true god in 
opposition to Adonai or Jehovah, whom they regard as an 
evil deity who has with fiendish ingenuity miscreated the 
world of man to the detriment of humanity. 

Modern, diabolic literature is written from the point of 
view of the Roman Catholic Church, and much may be 
said for the theory that it was composed to subserve the 
necessities of that institution. But this cannot be wholly 
true, as it is a substantial fact that hosts are frequently 
abstracted from Catholic churches for the purpose of Satanic 
rite which requires the destruction of the consecrated wafer 
as a ritual act. In 1894 a hundred consecrated hosts were 
stolen from Notre Dame by an old woman under circum- 
stances that clearly proved that the vessels which contained 
them were not the objects of the theft, and an extra- 
ordinary number of such larcencies occurred in all parts 
of France about the end of last century, no less than 
thirteen churches in the diocese of Orleans being thus 
despoiled. In the diocese of Lyons measures were taken 
to transform the tabernacles into strong-boxes, and in 
eleven of the dioceses similar acts were recorded. In Italy, 
Rome, Liguria and Solerus suffered, and even in the Island 
of Mauritius an outrage of peculiar atrocity occurred in 
1895. It has been asserted by many writers such as 
Archbishop Meurin and Dr. Bataille that Freemasonry 
is merely a mask for Satanism, that is, that in recent years 
an organisation of which the ordinary mason is ignorant 
has grown up which has diabolism for its special object. 
This it is asserted is recruited from the higher branches 
of masonry and initiates women. Needless to say, the 



change is indignantly denied by masons, but it must be 
remembered that the persons who bring it are Catholics, 
who have a direct interest in humiliating the fraternity. 
Bataille and Margiotta have it that the order of the Palla- 
dium or Sovereign Council of Wisdom, was constituted in 
France in 1737, and this, they infer, is one and the same 
as the legendary Palladium of the Templars, better known 
by the name of Baphomet (q.v.) In 1801 one Isaac Long, a 
Jew, carried the "original image" of Baphomet to Charleston 
in the United States, and it is alleged that the lodge he 
founded then became the chief in the Ancient and Accepted 
Scotch Rite. He was succeeded in due course by Albert 
Pike, who, it is alleged, extended the Scotch Rite, and 
shared the Anti-Catholic Masonic chieftainship with the 
Italian patriot Mazzini. This new directory was estab- 
lished, it is asserted, as the new Reformed Palladium Rite 
or the Reformed Palladium. Assisted by Gallatin Mackey, 
one Longfellow, Holbrook and a Swiss, Phileas Walder by 
name, Pike erected the new rite into an occult fraternity 
with world-wide powers, and practised the occult arts so 
well that we are asked to believe that the head lodge 
at Charleston was in constant communication with Lucifer ! 
Dr. Bataille in a wholly ludicrous work Le Diable au XIX 
Steele, states among other things that in 1881 his hero 
" Dr. Hacks " in whom his own personality is but thinly 
disguised, visited Charleston in March 1881, where he 
met Albert Pike, Gallatin Mackey and other Satanists. 
Mackey showed him his Arcula Myslica in appearance like 
a liqueur stand, but in reality a diabolical telephone, 
worked like the Urim and Thummim. Miss Diana 
Vaughan, once a Palladist, Grand Mistress of the Temple, 
and Grand Inspectress of the Palladium, was converted to 
Roman Catholicism, and in Memoirs oj an ex-Palladist, 
(1895) she has given an exhaustive account of her dealings 
with the Satanists of Charleston. She claims to be des- 
cended from the alchemist Thomas Vaughan, and re- 
counts her adventures with Lucifer. These are so wholly 
absurd that we must request freedom from the necessity 
of recounting them. There is little doubt that Miss 
Vaughan was either the victim of hallucination or else the 
instrument of the Roman Catholic Church in its attempts 
to brand Masonry as a vehicle of Satanism. The publi- 
cations of Margiotta and Gabriel Pages are equally 
puerile, and we may conclude that, if Satanism and the wor- 
ship of Lucifer exists, that the rites of their churches are 
carried on in such a secret manner, that few, even mystics 
of experience, can be aware of them. 

When applied to the ceremonies of barbarous races, 
devil-worship is a misnomer, as the " devils " adored by 
them are deities in their eyes, and only partake of the 
diabolic nature in the view of missionaries and others. 
But inasmuch as the gods possess a demoniac form they 
may be classed as diabolic. Among these may be 
enumerated many South American and African tribes. 
The Uapes of Brazil- worship Jurupari, a fiend-\ike 
deity, to whom they consecrate their young men. His cult 
is invested with the utmost secrecy. The myth of his 
birth states that he was born of a virgin who conceived after 
drinking a draught of chahiri, or native beer. She pos- 
sessed no sexual parts, and could not give birth to the 
god until bitten by a fish whilst bathing. When arrived 
at man's estate Jurupari invited the men of the tribe to a 
drinking-bout, but the women refused to provide the 
liquor, and thus gained his illwill. He devoured the 
children of the tribe because they had eaten of the uacu 
tree which was sacred to him. The men, enraged at the 
loss of their offspring, fell upon him, and cast him into a 
fire, from the ashes of which grew the paxiuba tree, which 
the Uapes say is the bones of Jurupari. Whilst it was 
night the men cut down the tree and fashioned it into 



Devil Worship 



124 



Diadochus 



sacred instruments which must never be seen by the women, 
on account of the dislike Jurupari conceived for them. 
Should a woman chance to see the sacred symbols per- 
taining to the worship of Jurupari, she is at once poisoned. 
On hearing the " Jurupari music " of the priests on the 
occasion of one of his festivals the women of the tribe 
wildly rush into concealment, nor dare to emerge from it 
until all chance of danger is past. In all probability this 
custom proceeds from the ancient usage common to most 
American tribes that the rites of initiation of the men of 
the tribe must not be witnessed by the women thereof, 
probably on account of some more or less obscure totemic 
reason or sex-jealousy analagous to the exclusion of women 
from the rites of freemasonry, to which, strange to say, 
the worship of Jurupari bears a strong resemblance. 

This is a good example of the " devil worship " of savage 
races. The Chinese also placate devils [see China) as do the 
people of Burma and Cambodia (q.v.) but in no sense can 
their oblations to evil spirits be classed as " worship," any 
more than the gods of classic times may be regarded as 
devils, simply because they were so labelled by early 
Christianity. (See Gnostics, Obeah, Ju-ju, Devil, Demono- 
logy, etc.) 

LITERATURE : — Huysman, La Bas ; Bataille, Le Viable 
an XIX siecle ; Rosen, Satan et Cie ; Meurin, La syna- 
gogue du Satan ; Papus, Le Diable et L'Occullisme ; Waite, 
Devil-Worship in France ; Julie Bois, Peiites Religions 
de Paris: Satanisme et laMagie; Spence, article " Brazil" 
in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 

Devil's Bridge : A bridge thrown across the Afon Mynach, 
near Aberystwyth. The story goes that an old woman 
who had lost her cow saw it on the opposite side of the 
chasm to that on which she stood, but knew not how 
to reach it. At that juncture the Evil One appeared to her 
in the shape of a monk, and promised to throw a bridge 
across, if she would give him the first living thing that 
would pass over it. The old lady agreed, the bridge was 
completed, and the crafty fiend begged that she would 
try it. But the old woman had observed his cloven hoof, 
and knee bent backwards, so she took a crust from her 
pocket and flung it across the ravine, bidding her little 
dog go fetch it. The Evil One was outwitted, as he generally 
is in such tales. 

Devil's Chain : There is a tradition in Switzerland that St. 
Bernard has the devil chained in some mountains in the 
neighbourhood of the Abbey of Clairvanx. From this 
comes the custom, observed by the farmers of the country, 
of striking three blows with the hammer on the anvil every 
Monday morning before setting to work. By this means 
the devil's chain is strengthened, so that he may not escape. 

Devil's Girdle, The : Witches in mediaeval times were often 
accused of wearing the Devil's Girdle, probably as a mark 
of allegiance to the Evil One. Magical girdles were com- 
monly worn, and a modern writer suggests that the magnetic 
belts advertised at the present day had their origin in this 
practice. 

Devil's Pillar : There are preserved at Prague three stones 
of a pillar which the devil brought from Rome to crush a 
priest, with whom he had made a compact, and to kill 
him while he said mass. But St. Peter, says the legend, 
threw the devil and his pillar into the sea three times in 
succession, which diversion gave the priest time for 
repentance. The devil was so chagrined that he broke 
the pillar and saved himself. 

Devil's Sonata : {See Visions.) 

Devils, Atraid of Bells : It was an old superstition th, t evil 
spirits were afraid of bells and fled from the sound of them. 

Devon, Witchcraft in : The belief in witchcraft is not yet 
dead in Devonshire, as was shown in a curious case heard 
in Crediton County Court not many years ago, when a 



young woman alleged that she was given a potion in a 
grocer's shop, and that as a result, either of the draught 
or of the incantation delivered while she was in the shop, 
she was getting thinner every day. Only those who have 
lived long in Devon can realise the widespread belief that 
still exists in remote corners of the county of the power of 
" the evil eye," and of the credence given to all kinds of 
weird superstitions. " Witches " are believed to be able 
to exercise a malign influence even after death unless they 
are buried with their toes downwards. Not very long 
ago, a woman suspected of being a witch, was buried in 
this way within twenty miles of Tiverton. In no part of 
the country is witchcraft more believed in than in the Culm 
Valley. There is a local saying that there are enough 
witches in the valley to roll a hogshead of cider up the 
Beacon Hill, at Culmstock, and old people living in the 
locality are not ashamed to say that they believe in witch- 
craft. The witches are of two kinds — " black " and 
" white." The former profess to have the power to con- 
demn those on whom they are asked to cast a spell, to all 
kinds of misfortunes ; the latter impose on credulous 
clients by making them believe that they can remove 
evil spells and bring good fortune — for a consideration, of 
course. For obvious reasons visits to " witches " are 
generally kept dark, but every now and again particulars 
leak out. In the Culmstock district, not so very long ago, 
a young girl went with her mother to a witch, in order to 
get a spell cast over an errant swain, who" was suspected of 
bestowing his affections on another young lady. The 
witch professed to be able to bring the young man back 
to his first love, or to condemn him to all kinds of torture, 
but her price was prohibitive, and so the young man was 
left to marry whom he would. Farmers are the witches' 
most profitable clients, and it is a noteworthy fact that they 
generally contrive to visit the " wise woman " when they 
are away from home, " at market." A few years ago, 
farmers used to go to Exeter for many miles round to 
consult a witch whenever they had any misfortune, and it 
is commonly reported that they can get the same sort of 
advice in the city at the present day. At many farmhouses 
Bibles are kept in the dairies to prevent witches from 
retarding the butter-making operations. " I'm 'witched," 
or " I must have been 'witched," are expressions heard in 
Devon every day in the week. Generally speaking, it is 
animals that are supposed to sustain the most harm from 
being " overlooked." The loss of cattle that have died 
has been put down to the power of evil spirits, and accord- 
ing to many superstitious people, witches have a peculiar 
power over pigs. A man who believed his pigs had been 
bewitched was told, not so long ago, to take the heart of 
a pig, stick it full of pins and needles, and roast it at the 
fire. He did this believing this would check the mortality 
among his swine. 
Diadochus : According to Marbodaeus, this gem resembles 
the beryl in its properties, and was most valuable in divina- 
tion. It serves for the invocation of spirits, and oracular 
responses could be discovered in it. Albertus Magnus 
writes it Diacodos, and it is possibly to this stone that 
Braithwaite alludes in his English Gentleman : " For as 
the precious stone Diacletes, though it have many rare 
and excellent sovereignties in it, yet loseth them all if put 
in a dead man's mouth." Marbodaeus mentions this in 
his verses as a property of the diadochus. The words of 
Leonardus are too curious to omit : "It disturbs devils 
beyond all other stones, for, if it be thrown in water, with 
the words of its charm sung, it shows various images of 
devils, and gives answer to those that question it. Being 
held in the mouth, a man may call any devil out of hell, 
and receive satisfaction to such questions as he may ask." 
He names it Diacodas or Diacodus. 




The Devil attempting to seize a magician who had 
formed a pact with him, is prevented by a Lay Brother. 
Facsimile of a miniature in the Chroniques de Saint- 
Denis (13th cent. MS., Bibl. Nat., Paris) 




The Prince of Darkness. After a miniature of the Holy 
Grail (15th cent. MS., Bibl. Nat., Paris) 



The Angel, holding the keys of Hell, enchains the Devil, in the shape of a dragon, 

in the Pit. Miniature from a Commentary on the Apocalypse (12th cent. MS., in 

the library of M. Ambrose Firmin-Didot) 



MEDI/EVAL CONCEPTIONS OF THE DEVIL 



[face p. 124 



Diagrams 



125 



Divination 



Diagrams, Magical : (See Magic.) 

Diakka: A term used by Andrew Jackson Davis to signify 
wicked, ignorant, or undeveloped spirits. It is believed 
that at death no sudden or violent change takes place in 
the character and disposition of an individual. Those 
who are mischievous, unprincipled, sensual, during their 
lives remain so, for a time at least, after they die. Hudson 
Tuttle says, " As the spirit enters the spirit world just as 
it leaves this, there must be an innumerable host of low, 
undeveloped, uneducated, or in other words, evil spirits." 
There is, indeed, a special sphere or plane for these diakka, 
where they are put on probation. It is they who are re- 
sponsible for the fraud and trickery often witnessed at 
seances ; they not only deceive the sitters, but the medium 
as well. The way to avoid their influence is to live a pure, 
refined, and religious life, for these evil spirits are naturally 
attracted to those whose minds most resemble their own. 

Diamond : This gem possesses the most marvellous virtues. 
It gives victory to him who carries it bound on his left arm 
whatever the number of his enemies. Panics, pestilences, 
enchantments — all fly before it ; hence, it is good for sleep- 
walkers and for the insane. It deprives the lodestone of 
its virtue, and one variety, the Arabian diamond, is said 
to attract iron more powerfully than the magnet itself. 
The ancients believed that neither fire nor blows would 
overcome its hardness, unless macerated with fresh goat's 
blood ; and Cyprian, Austin, Isidore, and others of the 
fathers, adopting this notion, have used it to illustrate 
the method by which the blood of the Cross softens the 
heart of man. If bound to a magnet, the diamond, ac- 
cording to the belief of the ancients, will deprive it of its 
virtue. 

Diancecht : A Danaan magician of Irish medieval legend. 
He it was who restored to Nuada of the Silver Hand (q.v.) 
his lost limb and thus his throne. 

Diaphane : The Kabalistic term for the imagination. 

Dickenson, Edmund : Dr. Edmund Dickenson, physician 
to King Charles the Second, a professed seeker of the her- 
metic knowledge, produced a book entitled, De Quinta 
Essentia Philosophorum ; which was printed at Oxford 
in 1686, and a second time in 1705. A third edition 
of it was printed in Germany in 1721. In correspon- 
dence with a French adept, the latter explains the reasons 
why the Brothers of the Rosy Cross concealed themselves. 
As to the universal medicine, Elixir Vitae, or potable form 
of the preternatural menstruum, he positively asserts that 
it is in the hands of the " Illuminated," but that, by the 
time they discover it, they have ceased to desire its uses, 
being far above them : and as to life for centuries, being 
wishful for other things, they decline availing themselves 
of it. He adds that the adepts are obliged to conceal 
themselves for the sake of safety, because they would be 
abandoned in the consolations of the intercourse of this 
world (if they were not, indeed, exposed to worse risks), 
supposing that their gifts were proven to the conviction 
of the bystanders as more than human, when they would 
become simply abhorrent. Thus, there are excellent 
reasons for the its conduct ; they proceed with the utmost 
caution, and instead of making a display of their powers, 
as vain-glory is the least distinguishing characteristic of 
these great men, they studiously evade the idea that they 
have any extraordinary or separate knowledge. They 
live simply as mere spectators in the world, and they desire 
to make no disciples, converts nor confidants. They sub- 
mit to the obligations of life, and to relationships — en- 
joying the fellowship of none, admiring none, following 
none, but themselves. They obey all codes, are excellent 
citizens, and only preserve silence in regard to their own 
private beliefs, giving the world the benefit of their ac- 
quirements up to a certain point ; seeking only sympathy 



at some angles of their multiform character, but shutting 
out curiosity where they do not desire its inquisitive eyes. 

Didot Perceval : So-called because the only MS. of this legend 
discovered belonged to A. F. Didot, the famous collector. 
This version of the Grail Legend lays great stress on the 
illness of the Fisher King. It tells how the Table Round 
was constructed, and relates the adventures of Sir Perceval, 
which are much the same as those told in the Conte del 
Graal and include the Good Friday incident. It is said 
that he, with his brother-in-law, Brons, were instructed 
in the mystic expressions which Christ whispered to Joseph 
of Arimathea when on the cross. 

Diepenbroeks, Treatise on : (See Healing by Touch.) 

Dilston : (See Haunted Houses.) 

Dionysiac Mysteries : (See Mysteries.) 

Direct Writing : A term used in spiritualism for spirit writing 
which is produced directly, and not by the hand of a medium, 
or through a mechanical contrivance such as a psycho- 
graph or planchette.. The best known form of direct 
writing is that made popular by the mediums Slade and Eg- 
linton — slate-writing (q.v.) But the spirits are not depen- 
dent solely on prepared materials, but can produce direct 
writing anywhere, and under any circumstances. Thus 
during a poltergeist disturbance at Stratford, Conn., in 
1850-51, direct writing was found on turnips which sprang 
apparently from nowhere. An unfinished letter left for 
a few moments would be found completed in a different 
hand, though during the interval it might have been in- 
accessible to any normal agency. Direct writing may also 
be produced at spiritualistic seances, either by means of 
slate-writing, or by putting scraps of paper and pencil 
into a sealed drawer or a closed box. A sound as of writing 
will shortly be heard, and on the paper being withdrawn 
it will be found to contain some sort of message from the 
spirit world. Experiments on these lines were carried 
out by a noted spiritualist, Baron de Guldenstubbe, in 
1856. Paper and pencil he locked in a small box, the key 
of which he carried about with him. At the end of thirteen 
days he found some writing on the paper ; and on that 
same day the experiment was repeatedly performed, each 
time with success. Another method he adopted was to 
visit galleries, churches, and other public places, and to 
leave writing materials on the pedestals of statues, on 
tombs, and so on. In this way he obtained writing in 
English, French, German, Latin, Greek, and other languages 
purporting to come from Plato, Cicero, St. Paul, Juvenal, 
Spencer, and Mary Stuart. The Baron was accompanied 
on these expeditions by the Comte d'Ourches and others 
of his friends, while on one occasion a medium is mentioned 
as being present. It is probable, indeed, that a medium 
was essential to these spirit performances ; for, though 
the medium's physical organism is not used as an agent, 
the writings generally take place in the vicinity of one 
gifted with supernormal faculties. Not only is legible 
hand-writing produced in this way ; sometimes mysterious 
hieroglyphs are inscribed, which can only be deciphered 
by those who possess mediumistic powers. 

Dithorba : Brother of Red Hugh and Kimbay of Irish me- 
dieval legend. He was killed by his niece Macha, and 
his five sons expelled from Ulster. They resolved to wrest 
the sovereignty of Ireland from Macha, but she discovers 
them in the forest, overpowers them by her mesmeric 
influence, and carries them to her palace on her back. 
They build the f